The Impact Of Recruitment Method On Nigerian Civil Service

Project and Seminar Material for Human Resource Management (HRM)

The Impact Of Recruitment Method On Nigerian Civil Service


Abstract


This research work assesses the impact of recruitment method on Nigerian civil service commission as a case study. The study contends that the efficiency and effectiveness of any work place whether private or public largely depend on the calibre of the workforce. The availability of a competent and effective labour force does not just happen by chance but through an articulate recruitment and selection exercise. However, recruitment and selection procedures in the Nigerian civil service have been severely politicized by both politicians and top bureaucrats. In other words, recruitment and selection procedures are subverted and replaced with informal processes which make employment of competent people difficult. The data used in this study was collected from both primary and secondary sources. The primary method or sources of data collection included the use of a research instrument, (the questionnaire) and interview. Some research questions were asked as guide to the respondents in order to elicit first hand information on the subject matter. The questionnaire contained twenty five structured questions designed in both open and close ended style. In addition, the questionnaire was validated and administered accordingly. Secondary sources of data collection on the other hand, included textbooks, journal, government documents and internet materials. The study adopted the use of simple percentage, tables and descriptive content approach for data analysis. The data analysis revealed that; the recruitment and selection procedures in civil service in Nigeria are not strictly followed during employment of staff; politicization and other informal processes dominate the established recruitment and selection procedures during employment of staff; merit principle do not always count to secure employment in civil service rather the use federal character, quota system, indigeneship, son of soil syndrome, etc. are mostly considered; there is an established relationship between inefficiency of the Nigerian civil service and weak recruitment and selection processes. Based on the above findings, the study recommended that more strict measures should be introduced to ensure meritocracy in staff recruitment and selection in the civil service in Nigeria.


Table of Contents


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.1.1 Historical background of the Akwa Ibom State Civil Service Commission
  • 1.1.2 Powers, functions and responsibilities of the commission
  • 1.1.3 Delegation of Powers
  • 1.1.4 Department of the Civil Service Commission
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Research questions
  • 1.4 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Significance of the Study
  • 1.5 Scope of the study
  • 1.6 Limitation of the study
  • 1.7 Definition of key concepts

Chapter Two

Review of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2.1 Concept of Recruitment and Selection
  • 2.2.2 Types of Recruitment
  • 2.2.3 Definition of Selection
  • 2.2.4 Selection Process
  • 2.2.5 Recruitment and Selection Policy
  • 2.2.6 Recruitment and Selection Policy Statement
  • 2.2.7 Challenges of Recruitment and Selection
  • 2.2.8 Concept of Productivity
  • 2.3 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.4 Review of Empirical Literature
  • 2.5 The Research Gap
  • 2.6 Summary of Literature review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research design
  • 3.2 Sources of Data
  • 3.3 Population of the study
  • 3.4 Sample size determination
  • 3.5 Instrumentation
  • 3.6 Reliability
  • 3.7 Validity
  • 3.8 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.9 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.10 Ethical consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation, Analysis and Findings

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Findings and Observations
  • 4.3 Implication of Findings and Observation

Chapter Five:

Summary, Recommendations and Conclusion

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The concept of personnel management is a common term to mean management of staff in an organisation. The conceptual approach refers to the administration of staff matters in an organisations. The operational approach deals with what personnel officers naturally do. The major functions of personnel management deal with the general administration perform by personnel officers such as staffing, training programs, salary, administration, motivation of workers, integration of the worker force and separation matters.

Personnel management is also responsible for handling staff matters such as recruitment, selection and placement of employees in their various places of work in organisation, compensation, fringe benefit, integration of workers or brings together the interest of the worker with that of the organisation objectives, so that worker don’t pursue their personal goals, motivation or understanding the needs of the workers which brings better integration and separation of workers through retirement, termination, dismissal of appointment and death.

It is much easier to describe what personnel officer do than it is to define difference between an effective and an ineffective one. The personnel officers often conduct his operating function without yardstick of excellence and merely rate himself/herself against certain checklists of activities which are carried on my many personnel officers have been excessively concerned in recent years with activity and some what less about input. The system of management by (MBO) proposes that the first step in managing would be a clear definition of output expected. This would then followed by taking count of limited resource available to achieve the objective and then the conduct and control of activities. Because of the importance to personnel management in an organisation especially the teachers have choose this topic with a case study of Akwa ibom State Civil Service Commission and also that their various instruments of data collection will be explored and these includes, the questionnaire, interview and documentary method.

Historical Background Of The Akwa Ibom State Civil Service Commission

The present Akwa ibom State Civil Service Commission came into being since the creation of Akwa ibom State in 1976 after the abolition of North Central State by the Murtala Regime.

The Civil Service Commission has a constitutional right of existence as provided for in section 197 of the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria of 1999, and the appointment of the chairman and members, except in the case of ex-officio members or where other provisions are made in this constitution, the chairman of this constitution, be appointed by the Governor of the State, and the appointment shall be subjected to confirmation by resolution of the House of Assembly of the State.

The membership of the civil service commission are appointed from suitable qualified citizens, whose wealth of management, and proven integrity are not in doubt, particularly from the retired senior public servants.

They (members) shall hold office for a tenure of 5 years and shall not be dissolved until found wanting by 2/3 of the members of the State House of Assembly or until the tenure expires.

Powers, Functions And Responsibilities Of The Commission

The Akwa ibom State Civil Service Commission is vested with among others, the powers of appointment of all persons into the State Civil Service, confirmation of appointment, discipline, promotion, retirement, withdrawal of service, advancement, transfer of service, acceptance or otherwise of resignation of appointment as established by the provision of the Federal Republic of Nigeria constitution 1999. In exercising these powers, the commission is guided by the provision of the scheme of service, civil service rules, civil service regulations, establishment circulars and any other rules and regulations that might be enforced from time to time.

Delegation Of Powers

In pursuance of these duties, the civil service commission delegates the power of control and discipline, regarding and upgrading, confirmation of appointment of officers either on temporary, permanent or acting basis on GL 01 to 06 permanent Secretary and heads of departments. The exercise of these powers is subject to the approval of civil service commission. The delegation could be withdrawn if the commission observes that the powers have been abused.

Department of the Civil Service Commission

The commission has three (3) departments, these are, administrative and finance department, planning research and statistic department and recruitment and training department.

The commission is consisting of a chairman, commissioner, in which they have commissioner I, II, III and commissioner IV. The commission also have the permanent secretary and all the department have directors and some others schedule officers in the commission. We have executive officers, accountants etc, civil service commission is a purely advisory body and it has no authority to enforce its recommendation which considering the work of the commission, it is important to appreciate the distinction between the commission and the staff of the commission which consist of a number of public servants who prepare papers for the consideration of the commission and subsequently take executive action on those matters. The staff the commission prepares briefs on the numerous subjects, which are referred to the commission. These are submitted to the commission by the Secretary. The commission then considers the briefs at one of its meetings and makes its recommendations to the governor. His decisions on the recommendation are conveyed to the commission and the Secretary arranges executive action on these.

The commission is requested to advice on the confirmation of the appointment of all officers in the executive and technical grades and in the professional and administrative grades who are on the permanent establishment. In the case of officers in the clerical and manipulative grades, it advice is sought only if confirmation is not recommended

Discipline: The advice of the commission is sought in the case of all except minor discipline matters. These case range from loss of stores and money to absence without leave and conviction for a variety of offences.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

It is the responsibility of the personnel department to recruit, select and place staff in the various sections in line with the general personnel policy of the organization.

It is apparent that recruitment officers in Akwa ibom State Civil Service were not able to recruit employees due to embargo placed on employment into government organisation with that circular, they do not seem to determine and locate its personnel requirement and are not given first hand to effectively recruit, select and place employee from identifiable sources for efficient performance in order to attain the set objectives.

The research desire is to find the methods and processes that recruitment, selection and placement could be personnel policy.

This study is addressing the following problem question

  1. Does civil service commission occasionally have vacancies to be filled?
  2. What are the methods of filling these vacancies?
  3. What are the sources of personnel for filling these vacancies?
  4. Does civil service commission fill the vacancies available quotably within the local government in the state?
  5. Does civil service recruit, select and place employees to fill these vacancies?
  6. Has it clearly defined recruitment policy?
  7. Does it conduct the preliminary interview?
  8. Does it shortlist applicants for interview?
  9. Does sit conduct employment interview?
  10. Is recruitment, selection, and placement in civil service mostly by internal advertisement?
  11. Does the staff responsible for recruitment, selection and placement have enough knowledge of selection process?
  12. Is there enough trained personnel in the CSC engaged in the recruitment, selection and placement process?
  13. Does proper recruitment, selection and placement enhance productivity?

1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Study

The research work is aimed at examining critically the procedure or policies that might exist during the course of exercising the recruitment, selection and placement exercise in Akwa ibom State Civil Service Commission and also to enable know the system they are operating on:

  1. To identify the problems concerning recruitment, selection and placement in Akwa ibom State.
  2. To explain recruitment, selection and placement according to finding from civil service commission, Akwa ibom.
  3. To distinguish between recruitment, selection and placement.
  4. To discover whether civil service commission Akwa ibom is making use of quota system or fair representation among their local government in state civil service.

1.4 The Significance of the Study

The major significance of this research is that it will serve as an addition to advance the research on recruitment, selection and placement in various states, civil service, parastatals etc. It will also serve as a foundation for further research by students and other researchers.


1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study is limited to Akwa ibom State Civil Service Commission and especially the personnel management and its responsibility in recruitment, selection and placement of employees and to see its effectiveness and efficiencies.

It is the scope of the research to find out how recruitment, selection and placement standard are, and between 1997 to 1999.

Limitation of the Study

The research while collecting the data for this research work, the researcher encountered so many problems some of them are:

  1. The management of Akwa ibom State Civil Service was not willing to give us data on some of their activities and especially of their annual reports.
  2. The researcher also faced a problem compiling the data on the historical background of the case study (Akwa ibom State Civil Service).
  3. The researcher has to use his case study office at Akwa ibom because some of the information needed could not be found.

1.6 Statement of Hypothesis

To achieve the purpose of this study, the researcher have to formulate or put forward the following hypothesis or assumption, which would be tested by investigation, so as to either accept or reject the hypothesis.

Ho: The method of recruitment, selection and placement by the civil service commission Akwa ibom has adequately satisfied the personnel policy of the ministries and department in the state.

HI: That recruitment, selection and placement by the civil service commission Akwa ibom has not improved the personnel objectives of the Ministries, board and parastatals in the state.


1.7 Definition of Key Concepts

Compensation:

Entitlement given to workers at the end of the month as salary or on the retirement of worker as pension and gratuity

Integration:

Coordination of workers from various departments to achieve the organisation goals.

Motivation:

An incentive given to workers as a resort of inducement to be more effective in their worker

Personnel Department:

It is the department that is charged with the responsibility of recruitment, selection and placement, promotion, training, termination, dismissal, transfer etc.

Placement:

When a new applicant is recruited in an organization, he/she will be placed or assigned to a position suitable to his/her qualification or placed in a vacant place.

Recruitment:

When employed in service of suitable candidate or person to fill a vacant position in an organisation i.e taking a new member.

Selection:

A series of steps which an organisation establishes for each job applicant to successfully complete before a final hiring decision can be made.

Separation:

This is where a staff is no longer to live together with his organisation either as a result of retirement, dismissal, termination of appointment, withdrawal/resignation etc.


Chapter Five


Summary, Recommendations and Conclusion

5.1 Summary

This study has attempted the assessed the effects of recruitment and selection procedures on the efficiency of the civil service in Nigeria Akwa Ibom State as a case study. The study critically reviewed the importance of effective recruitment and selection procedures in ensuring efficiency of civil service especially in a developing country like Nigeria. In addition, the covered the dominant issues and problems affecting effective application of merit principles in the staff recruitment and selection in Nigeria civil service.

The study however maintains that the need to review the recruitment and selection processes in the civil service in Nigeria has intensified following the decline in productivity and incompetency in the public sector which has made service delivery ineffective. Therefore, the major objective of carrying out this research is to examine the effects of recruitment and selection procedures on the efficiency of civil service in Nigeria. Other specific objectives of this study are; to examine the nature of recruitment and selection policies in Akwa Ibom state civil service commission; to assess the recruitment and selection procedures available in Akwa Ibom state civil service commission; to determine the extent at which the recruitment and selection policies are implemented in Akwa Ibom state civil service commission; find out the problems associated with staff recruitment and selection in Akwa Ibom state civil service commission; and to suggest measures in improving the recruitment and selection of personnel in Akwa Ibom state civil service commission.

The study delved into the views, opinions and ideas of scholars to present a holistic investigation on the subject matter. In the methodology, the study utilized both primary and secondary sources of data collection.

The use of simple percentage and chi-square were used to analyze the data collected. However, the critical examination of the problem under review made the following findings:-

  1. The recruitment and selection procedures in civil service in Nigeria are not strictly followed during employment of staff.
  2. Politicization and other informal processes dominate the established recruitment and selection procedures during employment of staff.
  3. Merit principle do not always count to secure employment in civil service rather the use federal character, quota system, indigeneship, son of soil syndrome, etc. are mostly considered.
  4. There is an established relationship between inefficiency of the Nigerian civil service and weak recruitment and selection processes.

5.2 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study and taking cognizance of the importance of the subject matter under review, this report is inclined to make the following recommendations:-

  1. Politicization of recruitment and selection of staff in Nigerian civil service constitutes an administrative ill which needs to be overhaul from the system. To achieve this, there is need to engage on massive campaign against all forms of ill-administrative behaviour that tend to create room for politicization of recruitment and selection of staff in our public bureaucracies.
  2. There should be strict administrative ethics in checkmating the employment processes in the Akwa Ibom state civil service commission as well as in all other public bureaucracies in Nigeria. This process will help to reduce high incidence of politicization of recruitment and selection of staff in Nigerian bureaucracies by enforcing due process.
  3. Effort should be made to restore meritocracy as the basis of recruitment and selection in the Organization System in Nigeria. The principle of meritocracy would help to eliminate the employment of mediocrity.
  4. Workshops and seminars should be organized regularly in order to unveil the negative implications of politicization of recruitment and selection of staff in the administrative capacity and efficiency of organization system in Nigeria. In addition, the participants should be mainly the principal officers in the organization system since the issue of politicization of staff recruitment and selection is more peculiar within the executive and high administrative officers.

5.3 Conclusion

In the discussion so far, we have been able to establish evidence that politicization of recruitment and selection of staff in Akwa Ibom state civil service commission affects the administrative efficiency and effectiveness of the organization. This is because the success or failure, and the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of any organization depends largely on the caliber of manpower or its human resources that manage and pilot the affairs of such an organization. However, considering our findings and observations on this report, politicization of recruitment and selection of staff has noxious effects on the organization administrations because it injects people of low qualification and lack of experience to man the affairs of organizations. In other words, the end result is that the raison d’etre for establishing organizations in Nigeria has remained unachievable in terms of rapid rural development. Therefore, there is very need to fight politicization of recruitment and selection of staff in the organization system and generally in all public bureaucracies in Nigeria.


The Impact Of Recruitment Method On Nigerian Civil Service


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