The Impact Of Public Policy Implementation In Enugu State: A Case Study Of Enugu State Agricultural Development Programme (Enadep) 1995-2005
This study was on the impact of public policy implementation in Enugu State Agricultural Development Programme (ENADEP) 2001-2012. The study inquires into critical issues of policy implementation failures, such as corruption, regime instability, executive interference, “top-down” and “bottom-up” policy approaches, statutory incoherence, etc and attempts to identify, examine and analyze those of the variables that have contributed to the low pace of development in the agricultural sector in Enugu State.
Employing the documentary study approach, secondary data relevant to the inquiry were collected from ENADEP progress annual, quarterly, field and implementation completion reports (ICR), journals, Federal and State ministries of agricultural and natural resources research reports, the examination of seminar papers, published and unpublished works, textbooks, conference proceedings as well as detailed and rigorous interviews of key stakeholders and specialists in the field. The following major findings emerged from the study; first, there is frequent executive interference in the internal affairs and management of Enugu State Agricultural Development Programme by the state government resulting in frequent high level management staff turn-over particularly with regard to the office of the Project Manager with the attendant consequence of protracted delays in the execution of project activities. Second, there is a clear lack of prudent management of available project funds, occasioned by the high rate of corruption and diversion of project funds by the state government.
Third is the issue of farmer’s lukewarmness and conservative attitude to technological changes in the agricultural field. Finally, based on the findings, the following recommendations are made: (1) it was clear from the study that executive interference and politicization of the office of ENADEP’s Project Manager contributes to the ineffectiveness of ENADEP, (2) identified also, was the issue of low staff morale occasioned by the non-payment of staff salaries and entitlements. This gave rise to the use of seconded ministry staff that does not pay loyalty to ENADEP management to perform crucial functions. To secure the commitment of staff for better and effective policy implementation, ENADEP should be made to hire and retain enough staff capable of its services.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
However, the programmes could be sustained because of political will and commitment, policy instability and insufficient involvement of the poor people in these programmes (CBN Enugu Zone, 1998). The assessment of these programmes and
institutions as provided below justified this point.
The impact of these programmes on poverty alleviation recorded degree of success, example, the establishment of the Directorate of Food, Road and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI) was not only a departure from the previous programmes but complementarily associated basic needs such as food, shelter, portable water, road construction, etc. However, DFRRI could not achieve many of its objectives, because; it was over ambitious in scope, steeped in corruption, and lack of effective mechanism for coordination among the three tiers of government (CBN Enugu Zone, 1998).
National Agricultural and Land Development Authority (NALDA) was set up in 1993 to provide strategic public support for food land development, promote optimum utilization of rural land resources and encourage the evolution of economic size rural settlements. Other programmes like Agricultural Development Programmes (ADP) and the Strategic Games Reserves Programmes (SGRP) had in one way or the other impacted positively on the agricultural sector. This programes were able to acquire sustainable land into economic size farm plots and distinguished them to farmers and advised them on all aspects of land conversion and land degradation control. These programmes, however, was faced with some problems which include taking more than their statutes allowed and that over-burdened them and reduced their ineffective.
Natural Resources Development and Conservation Scheme (NRDCS) was established to harness agriculture, water, solid mineral resources, conservation of land and space particularly for the convenient and effective utilization by small-scale operators and the immediate community (Okoye and Onyukwu, 2007). Agricultural Development Programmes were articulated to curb food insecurity in the state. The programme is intended to increase food production and income of the small-scale farmers but there have not been serious and identifiable efforts at improving the food situation in the state. There have not been observable attempts at embarking on extensive farm settlements and elaborate agricultural programmes. As a result, it has lost focus and direction.
There has been a poor implementation of the various programmes. The severe budgetary and governance problems afflicted the full implementation of the programmes.
This has resulted in facilities either not being completed or broken down and abandoned. Furthermore, inappropriate programmes and lack of involvement of the beneficiaries in the formulation and implementation had resulted in the unsuccessful implementation of the programmes.
Corruption has bedeviled various anti-poverty programmes of government including Agricultural Development Programmes. The manifestation and problems associated with corruption in Nigeria and the state in particular have various dimensions. Among these project finances, diversion of resources, conversion of public funds to private uses, etc.
(Okoye and Ojukwu, 2007). As observed, lack of accountability and transparency made the programmes to serve as conduit pipes for draining national resources. Thus, the effect of corruption is both direct and indirect on non-implementation of agricultural projects.
Policy implementation is the linkage between a formulated public policy and its objectives with a concrete and tangible policy outputs. Thus, implementation provides a major explanation for the failures or successes of public policies in organizations. In Enugu State Agricultural Development Programme, there are abundance of public policy failures, resulting from the inability of management to direct project activities to obtain desired policy objectives and policy ends. This makes public policy implementation an indispensable variable in the policy process. Indeed, implementation stage determines whether policies become tangible or concrete. The effectiveness of public policy is measured by its goal achievement while implementation is the determinant.
In this study, we have examined statistical data on the achievement and nonachievement of Enugu State Agricultural Development Projects, and we have came to the conclusion that the project have performed poorly on the provision of potable water, farm inputs, and extension services. This poor performance has been attributed mainly to political interference on the operations and management of the agency as well as frequent regime changes. From our study, it was clear that the Enugu State Government has an overbearing influence on the day-to-day operations and running of the Enugu State Agricultural Development Projects, resulting to frequent diversion of project funds and poor contract execution. The study argues that for them to be effective and result-oriented there must be a good measure of independence for the policy implementation, and sanctions have to be placed on the offenders.
Arising from the findings of our study, we now make the following recommendations, which we consider germane in enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of Enugu State Agricultural Development Projects:
- The project should be independent of the state government politics, to permit concentration of efforts on the part of the project management towards goal oriented activities, rather than submitting blindly to top state government officials to award and pay for un-existing and unexecuted contracts. The project manager and management should be career civil servants, whom their appointment, promotion and discipline should be under the State Civil Service rules and guidelines, instead of leaving it at the whims and caprices of the State Governors‟ controlled Agricultural Development Project Executive Council (ADPEC), which is the highest policy-making organ of the project in the state.
- Following from above, there is the pressing need to give the project manager free hand to administer the organization in accordance with the guidelines set out by the World Bank and other donor agencies.
- There should be a change in the composition of members of the Agricultural Development Project Executive Council (ADPEC). For example, the Chairman of the ADP Executive Council should be a professionally trained and practicing agriculturist or a Public Administrator who should be in a sound position to assess the needs of the state.
- The staff salaries and allowances should be up-graded to reflect the level of responsibility and duties, which the project entails.
- There should be timely introduction of relevant and modern technologies with adequate provision of necessary farm inputs and logistics to extension agents and field supervisors. Also, there is need to engage in aggressive mobilization and up to date information to farmers and thus, promote the achievement of set goal and objectives.
- The state government should return as soon as possible to procurement of fertilizer to Enugu State Agricultural Development Programme whose Extension Agents should be used as tools for grass root effective distribution. This will eliminate
“black market” in the sale of fertilizer especially if the price is highly subsidized to make the fertilizer business unattractive.
- Finally, a mechanism of involving farmers, implementers and other major stakeholders in formulating agricultural policies in the state should be put in place so that there is a common understanding of policy goals, and objectives by all and sundry.
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