Impact Of Public Policy And Its Execution At The Grass Root
This research project tends to examine the Impact of Public Policy and Its Execution at the Grass Root (A Study of Napep in Badary Local Government)
Survey design was employed with the use of a well structured questionnaire. Respondents were selected based on simple random sampling technique. Sample size of seventy one (71) respondents were selected.
Three hypotheses were formulated and tested with the use of Chi-Square analysis. The analysis resulted to rejecting all null hypotheses and hence accepting the three alternate hypotheses.
Based on decisions of the tested hypotheses conclusions were reached that; there is a significant relationship between public policy formulation and execution at the grass-root; the various challenges public policy formulation is facing have effect on policy execution at the grass-root; Citizen Consultation and participation aids the actualization of public policy formulation and execution at the grass-root. It was recommended that public policy be it at federal state or local government should be separated from politics.
1.0 Background To The Study
Policies are crucial to the- success of all human endeavours (Ogunsola, 2008). They clarify existing conditions and objectives, and articulate relevant actions and strategies to reach the desired conditions. They also “involve taking the necessary actions, evaluating their outcomes and impacts, drawing lessons to guide future conducts and performances, and varying what is (to be) done in the light of the lessons. It must be realized that the essence of public policies is to improve the living conditions of the people (Akpan, 2000). The incidence of policy failure could be tantamount to a worsening of the said living conditions. This is especially so in the socioeconomic sphere. Nigeria’s poor socioeconomic conditions since the attainment of political independence have been ascribed to a variety of causes. Prominent among these is policy failure, which itself derives from a panoply of adverse influences.
These influences include, inter-alia, policy errors and poor implementation of appropriate policies. It has often been advanced that Nigeria has no difficulties with plan and policy formulation, while the problems are usually with implementation. However, one important realization is that both policy formulation and implementation are complementary facets of the policy process.
Unless we cultivate this complementary and take a holistic perspective of the policy process, we can hardly guarantee the desired policy success. In other words, an isolatory good performance in the area without the other translates invariably to overall failure (Nancy, 1991).
At the level of policy formulation, policy errors have been known to occur as a result of inadequate policy analysis and inaccurate and untimely data or outright unavailability of relevant information. In addition, implementation problems traverse a wide range of issues, including. corruption, lack of will to execute, emergence of unforeseen execution difficulties deriving from inadequate analysis, adverse internal and external shocks and sabotage and above all, inadequate materials for reference purposes (Gitu, 2001). Other problems arise from resistance from otherwise beneficiary communities as a result of one-involvement and lack of popular participation, and so forth. The cumulative consequence of the foregoing is the apparent and emergent “Nigerian paradox” of a country that is rich in resources while the citizens are predominantly poor (Keye, 1995).
Policy making can be defined as the elaboration of policy in terms of formulation and implementation. It is the process by which the government or enterprise develops and implements an effective strategy to meet desired objectives (McClure, 2000). In this case, a strategy is the unified comprehensive plan that is developed to reach these objectives. The policy formulation process entails the determination of the policy problem, policy content, design of implementation ‘strategies, and monitoring, review and revision of strategy. For any policy to achieve its goals, it must be predicated on a clearly identified and articulated strategy. While a goal is a statement of what is intended to be achieved, a strategy is a broad course of action or unified comprehensive plan geared towards reaching the objectives. Strategies are broad –statements f “how to” reach the goals: The strategy chosen must derive from the social values or philosophy which informs the policy and must be clearly and specifically linked with the goals of policy (Ekaete, 2001).
Public policies, thus aim to promote societal well-being, good governance and development. Accordingly, they deal with a wide range of societal issues – economic, political, social, cultural, scientific and technological, and environmental – for example, in agriculture, industry, defense: health, population, social welfare, education, transport, utilities, housing, environment, political structures and organizations, law and order, and regulation of economic and social activities (Suberu, 1999).
Local policy-making is complex, demanding the very best of local officials. It is worth the effort. The destiny of a community the fulfillment of its dreams and aspirations – flow out of the exercise of policy-making. The policy-making process weighs and balances public values. Often there is no “right’ choice or correct technical answer to the question at hand. That is why policy-making can be an adversarial process, characterized by the clash of competing and conflicting interests and viewpoints rather than an impartial, disinterested or “objective” search for “correct” solutions for policy problems. Because of these value clashes, the policy-making process can get emotional. However, it does not have to be rancorous (Abubakar, 2004).
1.1 Statement Of Problem
Public policies are aimed at addressing the numerous problems and concerns of societies. They can be simple or complicated, depending on the nature of the problems. Economic policy making, for example, is much more complicated than promulgating laws or regulations. While some major policies can be changed by the “strokes of pen”, most require a continuous and difficult period of formulation, analysis and implementation (Wolgu, 1997).
Because public policy is an aggregation of a people’s collective hopes, wishes and aspirations, development decision-making should not be a top-down but a needs-motivated, people supported, community-involved, bottom-up process. This requires wide consultation prior to the initiation of policy and involvement of stakeholders in policy implementation. But it is saddening to note that in Nigeria today, majority of the people whom this public policy is meant for are not well informed.
A policy must be conceived before it is formulated, but it must be formulated before it can be implemented/executed. All these can only be done by having adequate information and data which should be made available to the public but unfortunately this is not so because of lack of adequate facilities in Nigeria (Osundina, 1973).
The policy analyst must, however, note that informed policy decision have to be based on proper scrutiny of data. The absence of adequate and reliable data can handicap such a scrutiny and -consequent policy decisions. Government must, therefore, adequately fund data gathering management and policy research, which can help to identify problems, state options and – proffer practical recommendations for easy decisions and action.
For a long time in Nigeria, especially during colonial era and immediate post-independence period, policy making has not being guided by scientific models or principles but by instrumentalism i.e., an experimental process by which government reacted to problems and situations as they arose (Akpan, 2000). Although the situation has since improved as reflected in certain key policies and programmes, many economic and social problems in the country have subsisted because of weakness in public policy formulation and implementation. Some of the weaknesses and problems are due to inadequate information and data leading to “planning without facts” and also most policy decisions and statements are not predicated on sound analysis.
The major problem this project intends to investigate is the extent to which there is a relationship between public policy formulation and its execution at the Local Government level, how public policy can help improve the living standard of the grass-root people, taking cognizance. of challenges affecting policy at the grass-root.
1.2 Objectives Of The Study
The main objective of this study is to critically examine the relationship between public policy formulation and execution at the grass-root. Other specific objectives. Include:
- To underpin the various challenges of public policy formulation and execution at the grass-root.
- To examine the role of citizen consultation and participation in public policy formulation and execution at the grassroot.
1.3 Statement Of Research Questions
The following research questions will guide this study:
- Has there been a correlation between public policy formulation and execution at the grass-root level?
- Has the various challenges hindered public policy formulation and execution at the grass-root?
- Has citizen consultation and participation aided the actualization of public policy formulation and execution at the grass-root?
1.4 Statement Of Research Hypotheses
Considering the nature of problems stated above, the following research hypothesis would be tested for rejection or acceptance.
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between public policy formulation and execution at the grass-root.
Hi: There is a significant relationship between public policy formulation and execution at the grass-root.
- Ho: The various challenges public policy formulation is facing does not have any effect on policy execution at the grass-root.
Hi: The various challenges public policy formulation is facing have effect on policy execution at the grass-root.
- Ho: Citizen Consultation and participation does not aid actualization of public policy formulation and execution at the grass-root.
Hi: Citizen Consultation and participation aids the actualization of public policy formulation and execution at the grass-root.
1.5 Significant Of The Study
The result of this study will bring to limelight the relationships that exist between public policy formulation and execution at the local government level called the grass-root. It will also confirm or debunk the role of citizens and residents in the actualization of policy formulation and execution at the grass-root. Finally, the study will equally critically examine the challenges encountered in policy executions.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
This study will focus mainly on the impact of public policy execution at the grass-root level it will be limited to Badagry Local Government; however the study will provide the basic foundation required for further research.
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
The research will be restricted to the staff and populace of Badagry Local Government in Lagos State because of the problems of time, cash constraints, also lack of adequate facilitate and thorough examination and analysis of the subject matter.
1.8 History Of Badagry
The Ogu or Ogbugbe people of Badagry Local Government Area in the Lagos southwest area are part of the Yoruba/Popo sub-group who emigrated from the ancient ketu kingdom of present day Benin Republic .According to the historical account, the Ogus originally migrated from lIe-lfe in the late 13th century into the then Dahomey Empire which subjugated ketu Kingdom and from there broke into two different waves.
While a band of the Ogu moved westward into Accra and Lome to Ga and Ewe stocks respectively, the second group led by Akran Gbafoe, moved eastward along Porto-Novo and Yewa creeks (later Badagry creeks). They settled along the Kweme coastline and Olege lagoon to form the chain of Ogu communities with Badagry as the epicenter in the 15th century. Badagry which is the centre of the Ogu population in Nigeria derived its name “Agbadaigi” from the Ogu reference Agbagreme which subsequently, at the advent of the Europeans in the 16th century was converted to Badaqry.
Since its founding, Badagry has grown from a small principality of four Ogu sub-ethnic groups of Wheda, Wheme, Whra and the Combined Ga/Ewe and Ajah to become an ancient major slave outpost; beacon of Western civilization and Christianity in Nigeria and headquaters of Badagry division. It also become one the five administrative division of Lagos state in time past. More importantly, the town was the place in Nigeria where Christianity was first-preached in 1842 by Rev. Thomas Birch Freeman. Also, the first storey building in Nigeria, the C.M.S (Anglican) Mission house was built in 1845 at the Marina (Asaju, 2006).
1.9 Organization Of Study
This research work is divided into five chapters.
- Chapter one is introducing the subject matter of the study stating the research problem, objectives, significance, hypothesis, scope, limitation of the study and definition of term.
- Chapter two involves a thorough examination of the subject matter via literature review. Journals and articles that- are related and relevant to the research work.
- Chapter three reveals the research methodology to be employed.
- Chapter four is used to present relevant data gathered from various sources and the analysis of these relevant data.
- Chapter five which is the last chapter that summarizes the research work, inference and recommendation.
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