Impact Of Poverty Reduction On Sustainable Development In Nigeria
Extreme poverty is a global challenge facing all regions of the world including developed economies of Europe and North America but particularly serious in developing countries of Asia and Africa. Indeed, poverty reduction is an indispensable precondition for sustainable development, which entails meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability for the future. This study examined the impact of poverty reduction on sustainable development in Nigeria with reference to Kaduna State. Some challenges confronting poverty reduction strategies in Nigeria were identified to include corruption, ethno-religious conflicts, income inequality, political instability and other severe problems. Finally, the study proffered some strategies for enhanced poverty reduction and sustainable development in Nigeria. These measures include massive job creation by private and public sectors, provision of infrastructural facilities such as electricity in the rural areas and development of sustainable micro-credit schemes. This research submits that there can be no sustainable development without effective poverty reduction.
1.1 Background of the Study
Many people when they hear or read about the word poverty will automatically think and look at poverty as being simply a lack of money. This is partly true but for a better understanding of poverty it is necessary to go beyond this simple or common sense, definition of poverty. Poverty is much more than a simple lack of money. For example, if you were stranded on a desert island and you had several thousand dollars or pounds in cash, while those around you had things like food, clothing and shelter would be in poverty? You could not eat your money, nor could. Your fellow inhabitants might not even want your money, particularly if they believe that a rescue is not eminent. In such a situation , lack of money means equal poverty. This is, however, only part of the story
with regard to poverty yet in order to understand poverty and inequality, we must probe beneath surface reality and go beyond the common sense explanation which is simply another for cliché.
Definitions of Poverty
There are two different ways in which researchers define poverty; Absolute poverty and relative poverty.
Absolute poverty refers to the situation in which a person lacks those things that help to sustain human life. The lack of basic human needs such as food, shelter and clothing. This form of poverty was once quite common in countries such as Britain and American but has since declined, particularly since the introduction of the welfare state. This form of poverty is still prevalent in many third world countries.
Relative poverty refers to the situation in which a person lacks the necessary resources to enable them to participate in the normal and desirable
Poverty is not new but at each mention, it stirs a lot of misgiving. This is because it has a very devastating influence on its victims. It reduces the social and psychological prestige of its victims. Poverty is a condition of being poor. This could be evident even amidst plenty because there could be reeking poverty as a result of lack of knowledge to translate potentiality into practical creativity for the benefit of society.
In other words, if there is a poverty of something, it therefore means that there is a lack of it or the quality of it is extremely low. The foregoing shows the picture of our beloved country, especially when a deep reflection is made on the Nigerian question and the Nigerian condition. It is also so pathetic in the sense that the country that is potentially rich in oil and gas and other natural resources cannot boast of putting food on the tables of its citizens in fact an average Nigeria is said to be living below one dollar. Researcher has it that the foundation of most social vices and corrupt practices both in high and low places is caused by poverty. At present, Nigeria is rated as one of the poorest country of the world, a country with abundant resources both in human and mineral resources. It is as a result of this and other maladies that are experienced by the citizens of the world especially the third world countries that the United Nations in year 2000 in a meeting popularly referred to as millennium summit in the United State of America, arrived at the millennium development goals, (MDGs). According to UN the 189 members of this organization by 2015 are supposed to have met these goals. The nine goals have the “reduction of extreme poverty and hunger” as the first goal to be met by the stipulated year.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Nigeria no doubt ranks among the most endowed nations on earth. It is spread over nearly a million square kilometers of very rich soil that bears great potentials for all forms of agriculture, as well as massive oil and gas reserves that accords her an enviable position in the comity of nations. Endowed with such enormous human and material resources, Nigeria possesses all it takes (in potential) to be one of the most prosperous nations in Africa, and indeed the world. Very embarrassing social indicators however paint Nigeria in the image of one of the world’s greatest contradictions. Hence, the World Bank (1996) describes Nigeria as a paradox. This position continues to be confirmed by events and official statistics in the country. Particularly worrisome is the fact that the country earned over US $ 300 billion from petroleum during the last three decades of the twentieth century. But rather than record remarkable progress in national social economic development, Nigeria as Obadan (2006), observes retrogressed to become one of the 25 poorest countries in the world, at the threshold of the twenty first century. Two in every three Nigerians (66%) lived below the extreme poverty line of US $ 1 per day. (Nigerian Health Review,2006). This indeed, is in sharp contrast to the early 1970s when Nigeria as Obadan (2006) recaps, was “among the richest 50” in the world. Nigeria’s steady nose-dive into the horrifying depths of poverty with its attendant consequences makes the issue of sustainable poverty eradication very imperative. This paper therefore assesses Nigeria’s poverty challenge with a critical appraisal of what the government has done.
1.3 Objective of the Study
This study has set out a number of objectives which include:
- To identify the effects of poverty on sustainable Development
- To examine government’s poverty reduction strategies in Nigeria.
- To assess the effectiveness of poverty reduction strategies in Nigeria.
- To identify the constraints of poverty reduction strategies in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
- H0: poverty has no effect on sustainable development
H1: Poverty has effects on sustainable development
- H02: Government policies have no effects on poverty reduction in Kaduna State.
H2: Government policies have effects on poverty reduction in Kaduna State.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study will give clear enlightenment on impacts of poverty reduction on sustainable development in Nigeria. The study will beneficial to students and the general public. The study will also serve as reference to other researchers that will embark on this topic.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study is primary concerned with the Impacts of poverty on sustainable development in Nigeria using Kaduna State as case study. The researcher encountered some constraints which limited the scope of the study;
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Financial Constraint
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
1.7 Definition of Terms
Poverty is a state or condition in which a person or community lacks the financial resources and essentials for a minimum standard of living.
Is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows;
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the impact of poverty reduction on sustainable development in Nigeria with reference to Kaduna State.In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the impact of poverty reduction on sustainable development in Nigeria.
This study was on impact of poverty reduction on sustainable development in Nigeria. Four objectives were raised which included: To identify the effects of poverty on sustainable Development, to examine government’s poverty reduction strategies in Nigeria, to assess the effectiveness of poverty reduction strategies in Nigeria and to identify the constraints of poverty reduction strategies in Nigeria. Two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 Residents of Kaduna Local Government Area in Kaduna State. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up supervisors, administrative staff, senior staff and junior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
Based on the above findings pertaining to the objectives of the study the following conclusions are drawn. Poverty is a very serious problem in Nigeria in general as more than 70% of the entire population is still poor. Considering the current poverty in Nigeria, One can conclude that the past poverty alleviation programs have not achieved much. This is perhaps due to the problems identified as hindering the effective implementation of the programs. There is no doubt in the fact that successive government in Nigeria have attempted to alleviate poverty at one time or the other through their poverty alleviation related programs, the conclusion is that as laudable as some of these programs, they have not been able to lift the life of majority of Nigerians above the poverty line. It is therefore important to give expression to poverty alleviation objectives within National Development Plans with Strategies well integrated into the National Development plans. It is my fervent belief that the level of poverty in Nigeria can be reduced not eradicated through good governance in all the three tiers of governance
Sequel to the above, the following recommendations will help in reducing poverty to a large extent in Nigeria.:
- The need for skill acquisition centres in Nigeria. This entails not just setting them up, but proper funding and monitoring to achieve the desired goals of helping to alleviate poverty.
- The establishment of cottage industries. This will help to create employment for more who cannot get employed in oil companies, civil service and private companies. This can be achieved through collaborative efforts Multi National Co-operations.
- Setting up of Micro Credit Scheme. There is the need for the establishment of Micro Credit schemes in the form of co-operative societies which must assist particularly the rural dwellers.
- The governments at various levels should be seen to be creating enabling environment for, and providing the means of empowering Nigerians towards alleviating poverty in the region.
- Government should device a blueprint to poverty eradication in Nigeria by monitoring their citizens for higher productivity by paying the workers living wages and pension as at when due.
- It is believed that sustainable poverty alleviation or reduction is achievable in Nigeria if investment in physical infrastructure is improved upon. And government should be made to be more accountable to all the people.
- Poverty is a multi-dimensional issue and needs a multi-dimensional approach towards solving it
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