Impact Of Poor Work-Ethic On Organizational Efficiency In Public Sector Organization (A Case Study Of PHCN Owerri)

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Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management BAM

Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management BAM


I dedicate this work to the Almighty God the fountain of my life and to my sweet caring and loving mother Mrs. Nwachukwu Maria and my father Mr. Raymond Alaribe and to all my family members for their support and encouragement.


With thanks and gratitude in my heart I see it as a duty to thank my supervisor Mr. Nwosu A.N and my H.O.D. Mr. Augustine .U. Ohiri for making this work a success.

My greatest gratitude goes to my sweet loving and caring Mother Mrs. Maria for her words of encouragement and most importantly her financial support without her, this work wouldn’t have been a success. I also acknowledge my father Mr. Raymond Alaribe for his support both financial and otherwise.

How can I forget my brothers and sisters master Chidiebube Nwachukwu, Miss Kasarachi Nwachukwu, Master Chiedozie Nwachukwu for their love and concern towards me in the course of this work.

Finally, I want to thank my love and also my friend Mr. Sunday otuikpi for his words of encouragement, I say more grace to your elbow. I also want to thank my friends; Ejike Chinaza, Ugochi, Osuagwa Linda, Onuiri Chinaza, Ogu Rosemary, Nwagwu Chioma, Nwachukwu Chizoba, kanu Eberachi, Nwagwu Ruth, Nwihu Ogechi, Ibe Chinoye, Onwuka Nndimma, Onuoha Sandra, Ndu Evelyn, Mathew Rejoice, and my co-managers I love you all!!!.


It is obvious that an organization whose workers attitude to work is negative or contrary to the company’s goals and objectives is bound to have less competitive advantage over other competitors.

Employees are the bedrock of every organization so even when an organization injects new technology into it’s system in a bid to enhance productivity positive results may not be achieved.

Recently, the Nigeria attitude to work deteriorated and thus the level of productivity in all sphere of the economy has suffered greatly.

Gossiping and bitering among the officers while neglecting duties is now the order of the day amongst workers especially in government establishment some even go as far as absenting themselves from work for several days still collect their pay at the end of the month. This has amounted to reaping where one did not sow”.

Therefore, this study will try to uncover the reasons for poor work ethics and productivity in the Nigerian workers.
Its aim is to know whether negative attitude to work is a result of remuneration, poor motivation, staff recruitment and placement leadership style of the organization and many other polices of the organization or whether it is a result of the workers inherent laziness and abhorrence for work.

Finally, efforts will be made to proffer solutions to this poor work ethics thereby helping to ameliorate the problems.

Table Of Contents

  • Title page i
  • Approval page ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgment iv-v
  • Abstract vi-vii
  • Table of content viii-x

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Limitations of the study
  • 1.8 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature review
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Concept “Attitude and work”
  • 2.3 Attributes of the Negative Attitude
  • 2.4 Climate conditions
  • 2.5 The relevance of motivation and leadership towards behaviour

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Research Design and methodology
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Sources of data
  • 3.4 Method of data collection
  • 3.5 population and sample sizes determination
  • 3.6 Sampling techniques
  • 3.7 Validity and reliability of measuring instruments
  • 3.8 Methods of data Analysis

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Presentation and analysis of data
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Presentation of data
  • 4.3 Analysis of data
  • 4.4 Interpretation of result (5)

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Summaries of findings conclusion and recommendations
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary of findings
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendations
  • Reference
  • Appendix

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Many years ago, employees being looked upon as mere tools lined for the sole aim of achieving the organizational goals. During that time, employees were given task to perform whether they were willing or not. The manager never realized that there were certain factors to be considered if a worker is expected to perform well in order to increase the productivity of the organization.

As time went by, the manager realized that for effective performance workers welfare, good working environment, wages incentives etc. will go a long way in raising the morale of the employee, thus enabling management to meet the organizational goals, and the employees to work ethically.

Thus poor work ethics of most of the workers are very common in most of the levels of government that exist in the country which is the federal government, State Government and finally the local Government on the government establishment such as Nigeria Telecommunication, Nigeria Airports Authority, National electricity power Authority which is now power holding company of Nigeria (PHCN) which shall form the basis of the research work. The commitment of most Nigerian workers to their work has frantically declined in the recent years compared to their attitude to work some years back.

This attitude of workers is such that they have set their own goals, which are in contradiction to the cooperation’s objective. The workers go as far as connecting and he disconnecting people’s meters illegally in an attempt to collect money from the attested customers into their own pockets which is not proper; without supplying the people with light, or rendering their services. Some sell companies equipment to individuals in attempt to make money, they also issue forged electricity bills to their client so as to collect the money when payment is made.
A critical appraisal of this work ethics will help reveal some factors behind it. Also effort will be made to find remedy to this bad behavior of workers to their work.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

It is certain that a satisfactory final out-put of work is as a result of the quality and quantity of work input by the staff or worker hence a bad workman, staff or worker will undoubtedly produce a bad work.

The behoiviour of Nigerians to their work has gone a long way in affecting the quality of their work. One may therefore be asked what reason could be responsible for this poor behaviour to work.

In most organization in Nigeria today, jobs are not secured, this insecurity leads to fear and anxiety, which often dampens workers morale, secondly, many Nigerians who do the actual work in most organizations are not well paid.

This can make the effective workers to be dissatisfied and consequently their performance would be affected. If this behavior is not well checked, it may wreck the entire organization and bring about how performance and productivity of a particular industry or organization as the case may be.

1.3 Objective Of The Study

The major objective of this project is the impact of poor work ethics on organizational efficiency in public sector (PHCN). Also, this project is to define and analyzed the concept of behavior and its effect on the organization as a whole. It is also aimed at leaving these factors underlying human behavior factors that determined how people behave under certain condition in their place or work. And to reveal the factors that prevent the employee from doing his best.

Another objective of this study is to expose these workers or employees behavior that affect the productivity in the organization especially in government establishments. This study would be most beneficial to heads of organizations and workers in general (management or Directors). This study is also used (ND) in public Administration.

1.4 Research Questions

To guide the study, the researcher has formulated the following research questions;

  1. What are the cause and effect of poor work ethics of workers in (PHCN)?
  2. Is there any incentives given to workers in order to make them behave ethically?
  3. What factors is militating against the effective performance of workers in PHCN companies?
  4. Can it be said that unfavourable environment factor are the reason why workers behave unethically.
  5. How can PHCN motivate their workers in order to make them behave ethically, improve their performance and efficiency?.

5.1 Significance Of The Study

The wiliness of most Nigerian workers to do their works has drastically declined in the recent years. Today, most workers have set their own goals outside the organizational goals which are in contradiction to the corporations aim. The workers go as far as connecting and disconnecting people’s meters illegally in an attempt to collect money form the affected customers into their own pockets instead of the firms. Based on the premise, the research work will be of immense theoretical and practical relevance.

  1. To unveil those workers behavior that affects productivity in any organization especially in government establishment.
  2. To outline those factors underlying human behaviour factors that determines how people behave or will behave on certain conditions.

1.6 Scope Of The Study

For the purpose of this project research work, the study will be limited to appraising the bad behaviour to work of the Nigerian workers or employees by using the National electricity power Authority known as power Holding company of Nigeria (PHCN) as a case study.

Thus this study will be limited to uncovering the reasons for the corporation, the importance of motivations and leadership towards behaviour. Also employee or worker selection and placement will be appraised as well as finding solutions to these negative behaviour and ways to increase productivity at the power Holding company of Nigeria (PHCN) formally regarded as National Electricity power Authority (NEAP).

1.7 Limitation Of The Study:

The researcher encountered lot of problems in the cares of carrying this study effectively and efficiently, prominent among them are:

1. Non Disclosure Of Information:

The uncooperative behaviour of most of the staff of National electricity power Authority now called power Holding company of Nigerian (PHCN) in respondent to some of our questions was a major draw back in the course of carrying out this research work.

2. Inadequate Finance:

The researcher being student and dependent on their older relations are greatly limited in their source of finance to apply from school to the organization under study in order to obtain relevant information needed. This was rather involved on roads in trying to get in touch with the staff or workers who sometimes, seemed not to be keeping appointment schedules.

3. Time:

Time contributed more to the problems. The researcher limited was shared between scrambling for information and other academic works. That entire problem not with standing, the researcher succeeded in getting information required for the study.

1.8 Definition Of Term


In economics, is a term used to describe how well or how efficient an economy resource are used in the process of production. The extent to which a given economy reaches its full potential and extent to which it expands that potentials depends in part on this productivity.


Leadership is a managerial ability to accomplish group or organizational goals by working with and through people, and also a person who lead a group of people especially in an organization.


It is the chosen of both the number of people who are competent among the group of people, who are capable of working in favorable conditions.


Charles ray and Charles Eison (1984) defined motivation as an internal organizer capable of directing behaviour in a particular direction, is also what keep an employee or worker in working process. Goy Deselan (1988) sees motivation as a drive which arouses ones behaviour in a particular way the person feels will lead to rewards.
Therefore, motivation could be defined as the inner stimulant that induces a person to behave the way he does.

I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic

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How to nail it on the head during your project defence

You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic

Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.



Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy ( a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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