The Impact On Police Brutality In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Imo State 2020)

Project and Seminar Material for Criminology And Security Studies

The Impact On Police Brutality In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Imo State 2020)


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the impact on police brutality in Nigeria, an experience of Imo State 2020. The study was carried out to assess the level of police brutality perpetrated in Imo State in the year 2020; assess the forms of policy brutality perpetrated on residents in Imo State within the year 2020; and assess the effect of police brutality on its victim in Imo state in the year 2020. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of residents of Owerri metropolis, Imo state. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of of the study reveals that there were high level of police brutality perpetrated in Imo State in the year 2020. Furthermore, the study revealed that policy brutality has heavy impact on victims in the Nigeria. It results to fear of police officers, lack of trust on the policy, sustaining of physical injuries, and death. Therefore, it is recommended that the \government should stop politicizing policies, but give due diligence to policy formation. Some Nigerian public policy dies from the start because they are meant only to pacify the public on the temporal ground and not targeting to solve a problem. Therefore, policymakers should target problems and follow up the policy through monitoring and evaluation to ensure it achieves its purpose. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

In our globalized world, the high rate of cases of police brutality is becoming worrisome, because the essence of policing is public service. According to Leonard (2021), in a democratic society, the police are guardians of public safety and are accountable to the public in the execution of their tasks. Karumba (2020), termed “police brutality” as human rights violations by police, which include beatings, racial abuse, unlawful killings, torture, indiscriminate use of riot control agents at the protest, assault, etc.

Police brutality, which is the use of torture, violence as an interrogative technique, and other wanton abuses of human rights remain some of the major flaws of the Nigeria Police Force (Ogunode, 2015). The acts of Nigerian police brutality are against international human rights treaties and the activities of the police as an institution are meant to be guided at the national and international level by conventions, standards, and treaties (Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966). However, some specific provisions of human rights include freedom of thought, conscience and religion; freedom of opinion and expression, the right against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatments, the right to peaceful assembly, and the mandate of the dignity of every individual is respected.

In recent times the increasing number of reported videos of police brutality on citizens on social media has drawn national attention to law enforcement procedures and police misconduct. According to Amnesty International (2021), this growing number of recorded cases of police brutality, human rights violations, and abuse of power has contributed mainly to the growing incidence of citizens’ resort to self-help and other informal methods of airing grievances, which was displayed during the EndSARS protest of 2020. This gruesome situation of abuse of police authority often stimulated intense public debate among lawyers, researchers, judges, and even members of the public. For example, a viral videotape on 11th September 2021 showed a police officer engaging a young lady in alteration and physical assault while on duty at a checkpoint in Obeagu Awkunanaw, along Agbani road in the State. On 21st January 2022, there was also a video clip circulating on Twitter of a police officer who assaulted a lady and opened fire on her in Edo State. According to Sunday (2021), this shows an act of unprofessionalism and disrespect to one’s fundamental human rights. Reports of the torture of Shedrack Ochoche by the police force in the Mabush division in Abuja, who died after being locked up for several days in a cell captured the public’s attention and raise troubling questions regarding the limits of legitimate and demanding sanctions.

However, Fall (2012) opined that police officers should not use more force than is necessary to maintain control of an incident, carry out an arrest, or protect the public and/or themselves from imminent danger. Although the Law gives Police officers immunity from suit as long as they act within the scope of their authority. But when outside the bounds of this authority, they can be held accountable for their actions (Amnesty international 2021). In the views of the Global G.L.O.W team (2020), often police officers abuse their power by using force beyond the limit permissible by law, infringing on the rights of innocent civilians, and causing a lot of harm and pain to people.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

There is barely a nation or region on earth where police violence and human rights violations are not committed with complete impunity. Police brutality, the use of torture as an interrogation method, and other egregious violations of human rights continue to be some of the most egregious defects of the Nigeria Police Force, which has drawn widespread public condemnation (Amnesty International, 2015; Ogunode, 2015). The discrepancy between government reports and that of media sources, calls the attention of researchers to the effort of the government in tackling police brutality in Nigeria.

According to Amnesty International (2015), detainees are regularly held by the police for longer than the constitutionally guaranteed 48 hours before being brought before a judge, often waiting weeks and even months. The foregoing impediments to the enforcement of judgments in Nigeria have led to a lack of confidence in the court and the judiciary by the public and it is without a doubt that the impact is felt more strongly by the poor who usually fall victim to human rights violations and abuse (Amnesty international, 2015). Although over the years the Nigerian government has repeatedly expressed willingness to address the problems in the criminal justice system, improve access to justice and reform the NPF. Despite several review panels in recent years, which presented detailed recommendations for improvement, little has been done. In view of the above, this study seek to assess the impact on police brutality in Nigeria, an experience of Imo State 2020.


1.3 Objective of the Study

Generally, this study seek to assess the impact on police brutality in Nigeria, an experience of Imo State 2020.

Specific objectives of the study are stated below.

  1. Assess the level of police brutality perpetrated in Imo State in the year 2020.
  2. Assess the forms of policy brutality perpetrated on residents in Imo State within the year 2020.
  3. Assess the effect of police brutality on its victim in Imo state in the year 2020.

1.4. Research Questions

  1. What is the level of the police brutality perpetrated in Imo State?
  2. What are the forms of policy brutality perpetrated on residents in Imo State?
  3. What are the impact of police brutality on its victim in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: Police brutality has no negative impact in Nigeria.
  • Ho: Police brutality has a significant negative impact in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will serve as a source of empirical literature for researchers and knowledge for both scholars, students, police institutions, and other institutions involved in crime prevention. It will also be of great significance to the government and will as well serve as a foundation on which further research can be made.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study set out to assess the impact on police brutality in Nigeria. The scope centered on Owerri Imo State due to the high level of police brutality reported there in 2020.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Police Brutality: Police brutality is the excessive and unwarranted use of force by law enforcement agents. It is an extreme form of police misconduct or violence and is a civil rights violation. It also refers to a situation where officers exercise undue or excessive force against a person.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact on police brutality in Nigeria, an experience of Imo State 2020. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to assess the impact on police brutality in Nigeria, an experience of Imo State 2020. The study specifically was aimed to assess the level of police brutality perpetrated in Imo State in the year 2020; assess the forms of policy brutality perpetrated on residents in Imo State within the year 2020; and assess the effect of police brutality on its victim in Imo state in the year 2020.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are residents of Owerri metropolis, Imo state.


5.3 Conclusions

Police brutality as a form of human rights abuse is not peculiar to Nigeria as it was seen in many other countries, but its incessant manifestation in Nigeria is alarming and has called the attention of concerned citizens. Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion;

  1. There were high level of police brutality perpetrated in Imo State in the year 2020.
  2. The forms of policy brutality perpetrated on residents in Imo State within the year 2020l include; racial abuse, torture, indiscriminate use of riot control agents at the peaceful protesters, and unlawful killings.
  3. Policy brutality has heavy impact on victims in the Nigeria. It results to fear of police officers, lack of trust on the policy, sustainabiliy of physical injuries, and death.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Most importantly, there is an urgent need at fixing the country’s economy which will translate into the standard of living of her citizens including the police officers. It is believed that this will bring about a higher standard of living, as the officers will be well paid. By this, they will not have any excuse for extortion.
  2. Also, the government should stop politicizing policies, but give due diligence to policy formation. Some Nigerian public policy dies from the start because they are meant only to pacify the public on the temporal ground and not targeting to solve a problem. Therefore, policymakers should target problems and follow up the policy through monitoring and evaluation to ensure it achieves its purpose.
  3. Training and retraining of the police officers should be a high priority for the police service commission and other stakeholders of the security sector. The police deal with civilians on daily basis and therefore should be constantly trained on how to deal with the unarmed public with weapons at their disposal. The training should include providing them with documents on and training with the UN Principle on the use of force and firearms.

Get Complete Project Material

6,000 Naira

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦6,500 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($25)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: The Impact On Police Brutality In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Imo State 2020)

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.