The Impact Of Parenting Style On The Psychosocial Adjustment Of Junior Secondary School Students In Isolo Area, Lagos State
This study was aimed at investigating the influence of parenting styles on Psychosocial adjustment of junior secondary school students in Isolo Area, Lagos State Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was employed to collect the requisite data. The study was carried out on a sample of 368 junior secondary school students ten (10) selected junior secondary schools, using stratified sampling technique. Parenting Style Questionnaire (P.S.Q) was used to assess the three (3) parenting styles. While Modified Psychosocial adjustment Scale (M.S.A.S) was used to assess the Psychosocial adjustment level of the students. Three (3) hypotheses were formulated and tested in the study. the results of data analysis using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and t-test indicate that parenting styles (Democratic Autocratic and Permissive) have significant influence on Psychosocial adjustment of junior secondary school students. While parents’ education and gender have no significant influence on Psychosocial adjustment of junior secondary school students. It is therefore recommended that parents should apply the democratic style of parenting which emphasizes the development of a cordial relationship with children. This could be done by treating them with high sense of responsibility, listening and responding positively to their demands and complains.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
- 4.5 Interpretation of Result
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
Earlier researches posited that the influence of the home upon a child develops in him certain attitudes that are helped or hindered by his experiences in the school and that parents are responsible for the emotional and psychosocial adjustment of very young children. Parents and school people or teachers share the responsibility for the behaviour habits of the older child and adolescents. But, nowadays, most of the positive attitudes taught by the parents at home are hindered by some experience gathered by children in school and outside home. Therefore, these experiences gathered give rise to increase in children‟s difficulty in school and psychosocial adjustment. Parental educational level is an important predictor of children‟s educational and behavioural outcomes(Dubow, Boxer,&Huesman, 2009: Davis-Kean, 2005, Dearing, Macartney, & Taylor, 2002; Duncan, Brooks-Gunn, & Klevanov, 1994; Haveman and Wolfe, 1995, Nagin&Tremblay, 2001; Smith, Brooks-Gunn, &Klebanov, 1997). Also on the parents‟ education, its measure usually designates whether or not the youth or students parents attended secondary schools or higher level of education.
Child-rearing practices are socializing processes in any social group that have tremendous influence on the individual child‟s moral judgment and psychosocial adjustment. In social climates that are conducive, affectionate, cordial lovely, and peaceful, children from such a home develop moral judgment quickly and behave morally in the process of their development. Danasabe as cited in Mustafa (2008), States that there is an increase of behavioural problem among youths such as delinquency or youth hooligan otherwise referred to as “Yan daba” in northern Nigeria. It is a display of kinds of behaivour which are in disharmony with the established pattern and expectations of the schools and which constitute a deterrent to the youth progress, academic achievement, psychosocial adjustments and general development. This conduct is disturbing to others, interferes with the normal procedures of schools, the society and result in being nuisance to the society. Onyejiaku as cited in Obeh (2009) explains his finding of the causes of immoral behaviour among the Nigerian children. He states that most children who manifest deviant and anti-social behaviour come from bad homes where relationships are strained; there is no parental care and affection. He further states that there is hatred abuses and disrespect for one another or each other and overtly display criminal tendencies, children in such homes and society witness incessant squabbles, physical confrontations, violence and social norms and values receive little or no attention. All these problems might be because of ignorance of the parents or their low level of education which made them ill-equipped in training of their children for proper emotional and social development. But Obeh (2009) on his own view states that adults in Nigeria society must be aware of the fact that where mutual interest and understanding exist, where husband and wife are positively and peacefully related and where children receive high standards of training by modeling and imitation, there is likelihood that the society shall be free from insecurity and rancor. He further explains that, If the children who are “leaders of tomorrow” imbibe good moral standards right from home and the teachers are morally models for them to imitate and model their behaviour after them, it will be difficult for them to deviate from those moral standards over-night and therefore such children are going to experience less difficulty in psychosocial adjustment at home and at school. Adedipe as cited in Akiboh (2009) discovered similar problem in Nigeria situation where he says that the family in the current situation in Nigeria is becoming increasingly obsolete with some of its essential and traditional functions under attack because it is characterized by the stability of unlimited extra- marital activities, increase in single parenthood and downgrading of the parenting roles. And all these aforementioned factors affect the moral and social development of young children.
In the area of adjustment it‟s history of is as old as human race and the process starts from birth and terminate at death (Onyejiaku, 1991). Adjustment is a house hold word, and life is a continuous process of adjustment. In other words in life, one is either eating, drinking, sleeping, resting, seeking affection from parent or loved ones, striving to achieve social approach, working hard to satisfy an economic need, striving for independence or exerting effort to meet another private need, (Denga, 1988). According to Denga, there are needs that one tries to meet. Unmet needs create tension, and make one restless, aggressive, uncooperative, impudent, delinquent, unsocialized, compulsive, potentially cranky and repulsive. These traits constitute maladjustment. An individual who is struggling to meet his needs according to Denga (1988) is striving towards adjustment.
More so Adjustment is a dynamic concept and applies to everyone. Adjustment as a goal is a state which one strives to be effective or contented. That being the case one could be adjusted to his friends, love relationships; job, school and oneself (Bernard, 1972). psychosocial adjustment therefore has many components such as ability to interact with others, ability to participate in social activities as well as conforming with social norm, values and disciplines. Parents are in position to provide the child‟s first social setting in which mutual liking; love and affection are nurtured either between the child and themselves or other relations. The child development of trust, self confidence and personal expression is dependent on the prevailing air of social interaction and the level of emotional stability in the home. Children require home where there are warmth, attention and helping bahaviour for optimum social development. Every child whose home environment allow for the development of trust and self confidence is the one who will trust teachers and the peers (Isangedighi, 2007). Children nurtured under parents who are hostile and quarrelsome will normally need additional and special attention at school, if they have to cope with social and intellectual demands of school life (Isangedighi, 2007).
There are a lot of researches on influence of home on other behaviours and general performance of children in schools, but less is been done on the impact of parenting style on the psychosocial adjustment of junior secondary school students in Isolo area, Lagos state, Nigeria . Therefore there is need for the above research topic.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Education is considered to be not only a means of improving one‟s own life but also that of others around one. There lies the importance of wholesome education in child‟s life. In today‟s multicultural world, example Nigeria with more than one hundred cultures, education necessitates adjustment. Children with different abilities, different skills, and different parental level of education and different cultures, get educated together, providing them an opportunity to hone their adjustment skills thus acting as a training ground for the rest of their lives. During school life, a child has to learn to co-exist and co-operate with other students and teachers of different religious, different cultures, different opinions and different outlook towards life.
The students need healthy and purposeful relationship with parents and important others for their wholesome psychosocial adjustment. Some parents do not program their day to day activities which allow for enough time to interact with their children. In recent time, most fathers and mothers are out there struggling for money under the current hard economic condition, and hardly create time to interact with their sons and daughters. This has a deleterious effect on positive social development of the children. In the children development process, the quality of interaction he has with parents and other adult matters a great deal. The child needs stimulating interaction with parent on a daily basis for proper psychosocial adjustment. Denga (1983) asserts that there is a high incidence of juvenile delinquency among children of polygamous families because the father tends to remove himself socially from mother-child unit to avoid being accused of partiality. His attention and quality of interaction with his children become strained. The children in that circumstance will grow to be socially maladjusted because of lack of involvement and attention by the parent. Denga (1988) later on observed that if an adolescent grows up under good parenting, he will likely develop a congruent personality and a healthy psychosocial adjustment.
The students enrolled in junior secondary classes are experiencing the last part of their period of “storm and stress” of adolescent (Mukherjee, 2002) a very critical stage of their lives. During this period, they keep vacillating between being children and being adult. Though adjustment is major concern at all life stages, it becomes especially critical at the stage of late adolescence. Being a phase of rapid growth and development, adjustment problems generally are at their peak during this period. Most adolescent students experience adjustment difficulty in emotional, social and educational aspects of their lives. Adjusting to constant changes in their internal as well as external environment becomes a major challenge for the students.
The genetic make-up time and rate of late maturity vary for boys and girls especially during adolescence. Societal norms and perceptions are also different for boys and girls resulting in significant differences in level of psychosocial adjustments of boys and girls ( Jain&Jandu, 1998; Mikuliner, 2004; Mythili et al 2004; Hampel & Petermann, 2006; Kuruvilla, 2006; Shalu&Audichya, 2006; Raju & Rahmatulla, 2007; Jaikumar and Mathumanickam, 2012). Family interactions and relationships between family members play a pivotal role in the adjustment issues of adolescents (Jaikumar & Mathumanickam, 2012; Werner et al 2003; Rowchowdhary & Basu, 1998; Dratar, 1997; Conger et al, 1997; Scott &Scott, 1959; Varni, 1986; Srivastava, 1984). The type of schools and the medium of instruction also influence the adjustment level of the adolescent (Raju & Rahamatulla, 2007; Pradhan, 1992; Sharma & Gakkar 1991).
In secondary schools system some students appear to be socially adjusted while others are not. Reports as reflected in Ekpo, (1997) and Balogun (1997) and those discovered by the researcher through physical visits and interview with some school discipline masters indicate serious manifestation of unhealthy or maladjusted behavior of adolescent students in institution of learning. Among the behavior commonly discovered and reported are unfriendliness, fighting among themselves and even with teachers, indiscipline conduct like assault, rape, destruction of school property, classroom disturbance, minor stealing, examination malpractice, and secret cult activities involving lost of lives. Most of the other problems centering adolescent students also include physical appearance, health and physical development, mark scored, relationship with members of their families, their teachers, their peer group members of both sexes and or family adjustment. This maladjustment may lead to absenteeism, truancy, low achievement and other unworthy habits of students. (Subramanyam, 1986). The displays of these social maladaptive behaviours have become an issue of great concern to well meaning citizens of Lagos State including researchers. It seems over the years; very limited research has been done on psychosocial adjustment problem of adolescent students in junior secondary school in the state. This study was undertaken to find out the relationship between quality of parenting styles and parents education and the student‟s psychosocial adjustment within the junior secondary schools environment in the state. Therefore, in a nutshell the problem of this research is to investigate the impact of parenting style on the psychosocial adjustment of junior secondary school students in Isolo area, Lagos state.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study is designed to achieve the following objectives;
- To find out the influence of parenting styles on psychosocial adjustment of students.
- To investigate the influence of parents‟ education on psychosocial adjustment of students.
- To determine whether there is gender difference in the psychosocial adjustment of male and female students.
1.4 Research Questions
The researcher puts forwards the following research questions;-
- To what extent do parenting styles influence the psychosocial adjustment of students?
- To what extent does parents educational level influence the psychosocial adjustment of students?
- What is the difference between the mean scores on psychosocial adjustment test of male and female students?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
For the research to be successful and educationally accepted, the following hypotheses are going to be subjected to testing and statistically analyzed;-
- There is no significant difference between the mean scores of students brought up under either Autocratic democratic, or permissive parenting style in a psychosocial adjustment test.
- There is no significant difference between the mean scores of students from parents with high and low educational level in psychosocial adjustment test.
- There is no significant difference between the mean score of male and female students in psychosocial adjustment test.
1.6 Significance of the Study
There have been several researches conducted on influence of behavior on social relationship in and outside school environment. Sociologists, social psychologists and guidance counselors have carried out a lot of investigations on how human beings relate to one another, and how, parents use their knowledge (experiences and skills) in training their children (young one) to learn and relate well and the reasons and importance of such relationships.
Since parents/ home is believed to be the first social contact of the child, it has a very important functions towards enhancing the social behavior and general adjustment in and outside school. Parenting styles or parent-child interactions also appear to influence children‟s social problem – solving orientations by teaching children strategies for initiating interactions (Petit, 1992). But the extent of the influence of parenting styles and parents‟ education on student‟s psychosocial adjustment is not clearly and specifically known. The finding of this research will help the parents, teachers and students to know clearly the extent of influence of parenting styles and parents education on psychosocial adjustment of junior secondary school students in Lagos State.
The research findings will help the parents in knowing which type of parenting style influence psychosocial adjustment most and apply it in dealing with their children for better children psychosocial adjustment.
The research findings will help the teachers to choose the best leadership style (i.e the autocratic, democratic or permissive} and apply it in their classroom management so as to help students in their process of psychosocial adjustment.
The findings of this study help the students or children to bear with the type of parenting style use by their parents and adjust properly in their daily home and school activities.
The recommendations that emerged from this study will also go a long way in helping the government to use teachers and school guidance counselors on minimizing students‟ psychosocial adjustments problem in our junior secondary schools and society in general.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The research focused specifically on the impact of parenting style on the psychosocial adjustment of junior secondary school students in Isolo area, Lagos state. The study is limited to three (3) types of parenting styles usually practiced in Nigeria that is autocratic, democratic and permissive. Parents‟ education judged by the highest educational qualification attained by the students‟ parents is also focused here.
The study covered only the JSS II students of junior secondary schools Isolo area.
The study covers the JSS II students only because they are in their second year of study. They must have spent more than a year in their junior secondary education. They are familiar with the junior secondary school system. Their psychosocial adjustment can be easily studied and predicted without much difficulty.
The research is delimited to JSS II students because, if the whole of the arms are to be used or covered, it will require more time, money and other resources. The study is also delimited to address four (4) variables. These are: Parenting styles (autocratic, democratic, & Permissive), parents education, psychosocial adjustment and gender difference.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Finance, inadequate materials and time constraint were the challenges the researchers encountered during the course of the study.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
They are parents who are very strict in dealing with their children and they place high value on obedience and conformity.
They are parents who are moderate in dealing with their children, they listen to their children‟s complains and consider their developing needs and capabilities.
Low Educational Level:
It is referring to having no formal education, Adult Education, Primary Education, and Secondary Education.
These refer to the different ways or methods parents use in bringing up their children
This refers to the knowledge or experiences and skills judged by the highest educational qualification acquired or attained by the parents of the students.
This is a form of parenting where by parents are not much care about their children‟s activities. They mostly allow their children to decide what to do for themselves.
This is considered as a person‟s ability to behave and interact with other individuals in an accepted way and achieve satisfaction.
1.10 Organizations of the Study
The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.
The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
This chapter consists of summaries of the whole research work and major findings. A conclusion is also going to be drawn recommendations made from the findings and conclusions of the work are also going to be presented in this chapter.
The study focused on the influence of parenting styles on psychosocial adjustment of junior secondary schools students. The research was conducted in Isolo Area, Lagos State.
The fundamental issue focused in at hand was on the implications of some key home variables on psychosocial adjustment of children in schools within the frame-work of the society. Areas such as parenting styles usually practiced in Nigeria settings that are autocratic, democratic and permissive and parents‟ education judged by their highest educational qualification were x-rayed and examined. Male and female students difference in psychosocial adjustment was also examined.
Three hundred and sixty-eight (368) JSS II students were used. They were randomly sampled from ten (10) junior secondary schools in Isolo Area, Lagos State. With the result of the study, it seems as if the family or home factors which is considered and known over the years, as the key variable that affect school as well as psychosocial adjustment is reducing in its‟ effort towards performing such function on the children. This study has as well demonstrated in the need for greater commitment of the parents towards the choice of experiences and skills to be used for grooming or training of their children for proper social and academic adjustment.
The data collected was subjected to statistical analysis using Analysis of Variance(ANOVA) and t-test. The statistical analyses were based on the use of computer package for social science (CPSS). Result of findings was then subjected to necessary interpretation. It is meant to apply the result of the findings to contemporary situation in our society.
This is intended to make contribution to the personal and psychosocial adjustments that affect the children in their educational pursuit. The result was meant as well to find (proffer) solutions where necessary as well make adequate contribution towards improving the social development of children in school and the society in general.
Hypothesis one (1) shows the impact of the parenting styles on children‟s psychosocial adjustment. The result reveals significant difference in mean scores of three (3) different types of parenting‟s styles (autocratic, democratic and permissive) examined in the study the mean score of students from democratic parents shown to be higher than those of autocratic and permissive parents. Presently, the study is revealing a significant influence of parenting styles on psychosocial adjustment of students in junior secondary schools. The study is also revealing that there is need for dialoguing and give and take between the parents and their children in day to day activities. This will enhance proper personal and psychosocial adjustment of children at all level of education.
Hypothesis two (2) focused on the influence of parents‟ education on students‟ psychosocial adjustment. It was determined by finding the differences in means scores of those students from parents with high educational qualification and those from parents with low educational qualification. This is necessary because of the fact that previous studies have shown that parents‟ education affect both academic and psychosocial adjustment of children. Behavioural and social psychologist are of the view that the training and education of the child is one of the functions of parents and the society. The study has shown no significant difference in their psychosocial adjustment test, mean scores, showing insignificant influence of parents‟ education on students‟ psychosocial adjustment. In most cases, one would have thought that students from highly educated parents should have scored higher means, showing high level of psychosocial adjustment.
Hypothesis three (3) did not show significant difference in psychosocial adjustment test mean scores between the male and females respondents. Even though the mean scores of the males was a little bit higher than that of female students but the difference is significant. This implies that equal opportunities should still be given to both male and female children in home, school, and in every other aspect of life endeavors in order to strengthen their social and academic adjustment.
Based on the findings of this study the following conclusions became apparent. Students‟ psychosocial adjustment is significantly influenced by the kind of parenting style employed by their parents. This is an indication that parents need to abide by the new technological development especially in the area of their general relationship. Democratization of relationship and leadership has been the cry of every developed and developing country. The finding of this study has testified the important of democracy in general leadership and treatment, with students from democratic practicing parents showing socially well-adjusted behavior in the study. More so our society is a developing society which needs the contribution of all and sundry, hence there should not be disparity in the treatment and attention given to the children in their educational training especially between sexes or siblings so as to enhance proper social and academic adjustment.
It is recommended that:-
Since parenting Styles influence the psychosocial adjustment of students, parents should endeavor to adopt a style such as the democratic parenting styles that ensures or guarantees the development of some measure of positive self-concept, self-confidence, and self-esteems in the students.
Teacher should be encouraged to use democratic style of discipline in this class room management. This is because the style encourages dialoguing and give and take, which the study revealed that it is better for personal and psychosocial adjustment of students.
Parents, teachers and counselors should be in constant communication with their children and students. The strings of communication must never break to avoid loss of control and supervision, which brings students‟ social maladjustment.
Parents and teachers should encourage the children and students to aspire for higher achievement, than that of their parents. This may help them to develop good psychosocial adjustment behavior.
Peer relationship should be encouraged. This could be done (achieve) through organizing social functions that can bring students together in an interactive session on a forum, so as to enhance students‟ psychosocial adjustment.
Parents should ensure that equal opportunity, attention and treatment are given to both male and female children in terms of education which can lead to psychosocial adjustment.
Identification of students with psychosocial adjustment problems should be ensured promptly and appropriate step taken to address such problem. Or after identification the problem should be tackled or proper referrals made for the students.
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Frequently Asked Questions
Do parenting styles influence social adjustment among secondary school students?
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of parenting styles on social adjustment among secondary school students in Lagos Metropolis. To achieve this goal, the researcher formulated four hypotheses to guide the study. There is a significant influence of authoritative parenting style on student’s social adjustment.
What are the factors that influence the parenting style?
There is a significant influence of authoritative parenting style on student’s social adjustment. There is a significant influence of religious background on the parenting style of couples. There is a significant influence of ethnicity on parenting style among couples.
Is there a gender difference in the social adjustment of youth?
There is a significant gender difference in the social adjustment of youth due to parenting styles. The sample was one hundred and twenty (120) secondary school students consisting of 60 males and 60 females. The research instrument to test the hypothesis was the four point Likert-type scale of questionnaire.
Does teacher-student relationship influence psychological adjustment to school transitions?
Our study confirms the importance of the teacher-student relationship in reducing psychological symptoms associated with school transitions, in every type of transition, favoring an improved psychological adjustment to the new environment. A positive teacher-student relationship represents a protective factor for the development of students.