The Impact Of Parental Motivation On Student Academic Achievement In Two Contrasting Secondary Schools In Rivers State
This study was carried out to examine the impact of parental motivation on student academic achievement in two contrasting secondary schools in Rivers State. The study is was specifically set to examine the effect of motivation on the educational achievement of students at secondary level, find out if motivation from parent will influence students academic achievement, determine whether parental involvement is a significant motivational factor to secondary school students, and investigate if parents educational background will influence students’ academic performance. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of students of two selected secondary schools in Rivers State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses were tested using Pearson Correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that motivation from parent will influence students academic achievement. Therefore, it is recommended that head teachers, Board of governors should clearly state and explain to parents about the necessity of teaching and learning materials to boost the students‟ academic performance. To mention but a few.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organization of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
- 4.5 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
The finest gift that parents can leave their offspring is the opportunity to further their own education. The growth of the family is the first step in the development of the country. It is beneficial to society as a whole when families are successful in instilling moral principles in their offspring and making the world a better place as a result. It is widely accepted within the development community that the cultivation of human resources should serve as the point of departure for any genuine kind of progress. The evidence of such a desire to construct a healthy and robust economy in a way that is both effective and efficient is the pursuit of a formal education. The steady deterioration of our nation’s educational system has been traced back to a great number of causes, which have been pinpointed as the culprits in a variety of research investigations. A number of issues, including the size of the classroom, the inadequate teacher-student ratio, the inadequate teaching resources, the attitude of the instructors towards the task, and the lack of seriousness on the side of the pupils, all contribute to this problem (Orhungur, 2022). Even though there are more competent instructors available, as well as improvements in technology and facilities for teaching and learning, Nigeria’s educational system is still in the process of losing its ideals.
The observation that some pupils are very talented in their job while others are severely incompetent served as the impetus for this research project. When such variances in scores are tracked, it is more typically determined that one of the primary contributing factors is the family history of the individual. Because of this, it is essential to investigate the amounts of such contributions as well as the effect they have on children. This will allow for the formulation of helpful recommendations that can be given to parents, educators, educational planners, and the government. According to Orhungur (2022), the socio-economic background of the family is, to a considerable part, responsible for determining the family’s cultural heritage. The kid’s engagement with the larger society and impression of it are primarily impacted by the experiences she had earlier, while she was at home. As the child grows up and goes out into the attention of the broader society. The child’s personality is shaped by the environment of the family and the opportunities it provides for socialization. For example, Nigeria is a civilization that is made up of many different ethnic groups, each of which has its own unique cultural background in regards to aspects such as the size of their families, their occupations, and in some extreme situations, their religious beliefs.
These aspects each impose their own unique barrier, which makes it more difficult for children to get an appropriate education. It is possible that a child’s academic achievement and, by extension, their educational upbringing are both influenced to an equal degree by the social setting or style of settlement of the family and extended family system. Motivating someone to work harder and more effectively in their chosen field is the single most important factor. It is obvious that a kid will be motivated and pushed toward high academic goals if certain elements are prevalent in the familial history of the child. These factors include: Praise, incentives, recommendations, and many other types of reward systems should be used as motivating elements to push pupils to reach greater levels of success, according to the advice given by Denga (2021) in Eyake (2022). It is very possible that the sort of household a kid is a part of will have a significant impact on how much success the child has throughout his or her time spent in school. For instance, a child whose parents take a lot of interest in what they do at school and give them the necessary support by providing all of the required books and finances needed has a significant advantage over a child whose parents do not provide him with these kinds of incentives and encouragements. This is because the child whose parents do not provide him with these kinds of support and encouragement is less likely to succeed academically. In addition, the kinds of stimuli that students are exposed to in their varied contexts have a significant impact on both their attitudes toward learning and their academic outcomes. This may be taken into account in terms of the kind of family, the house, the social orientation of the parents, the educational level, and employment, to name just a few of these factors. It is consequently self-evident that the stimulation that is provided by the household has a direct bearing on the performance of the pupils. The effect of a child’s family is not unrelated to the child’s educational upbringing in any way. The kid learns from each member of the family and, as a result, the youngster uses each of them as a model for his or her own behavior. Eyake (2022) was cited in the text. According to Adeyemo (2022), the child is damaged if the house does not provide the child with the necessary equipment to fit him or her into his proper place in society and guide him or her properly for his or her future career. In other words, if the house does not provide these things, the child is damaged. In today’s society, an examination of the proportion of students who drop out of secondary school implies that these students often come from broken households, are raised in polygamous families, or have other issues that are socially connected. Polygamy has historically been practiced by humans due to agricultural society’s emphasis on big families. The larger the family, the more the financial and other social duties that the parents take on for themselves. And the educational achievement of kids who come from these kinds of families suffers a significant setback the majority of the time. This is due to the possibility that these parents may not be able to pay the costs associated with supporting an education for their children. Other circumstances, such as a parent’s relocation for employment, a divorce, or even death from an unavoidable cause, may have a negative impact on a child’s growth and development, which in turn can have a ripple effect on the child’s educational achievement.
In addition, the socioeconomic status of a child’s parents is one of the most significant aspects that has a significant impact on the child’s educational upbringing. As a result of malnutrition, along with other negative emotional and psychological effects, a child’s mental development will be significantly slowed down if either or both of their parents do not earn an income sufficient enough to support the family. In the majority of families, one or both parents may not earn an income at all. According to Orhunger (2022), a low-income household that has a lot of feeding difficulties is more likely to have children whose physical and mental development provides genuine hurdles to the school’s endeavor at achieving the best possible development of the kid.
In the modern world, it is widely acknowledged that the primary purpose of education is to enhance the academic performance of pupils and students. It is the responsibility of educational activities to ensure that students attain the educational objectives they have set for themselves. When a child leaves school intermittently, it is possible that the parent motivation on the academic performance of the child is lagging and lacking (Ugochi, 2022), and as a result, the parent must make an effort to motivate the child so as to enhance and boost his or her academic weakness. In order to ensure that every child participates in schooling, the National Policy on education enacted a law that primary educations should be tuition free, universal and compulsory. According to Muola (2022), students who are driven to do well in their test are more likely to do well in their examination. According to Salvin (2021), who was quoted in Ugochi (2022), the idea that motivation is what gets one moving and determines where one is heading was proposed. It is anything that prompts, compels, and energizes a person to perform or behave in a certain way at a given moment with the intention of achieving some specific goal or objective. On the basis of this, one interpretation of motivation is that it is the force that initiates, guides, and sustains goal-oriented activity such as studying in order to attain academic success. Because children shape their sense of self, their values, and their beliefs about their abilities at a young age, motivation is critical to the academic success of students at any age.
Furthermore, the development of early academic motivation has significant implication for later academic performance and career choices (Slavin, 2021). It has been shown that children’s academic success in school is significantly impacted by both the intrinsic and extrinsic motivations that they experience (Mangal, 2021). The academic motivation of students may be exhibited in a variety of different motivational levels, which might be high, moderate, or low. Low-motivated children might be disruptive, and as a consequence, are more likely to do badly, which may lead to truancy and school dropout; high-motivated students tend to be more hyper-active in learning and excessively worried in the learning environment. Keep the kids focused on a task until they have achieved some level of success, since a modest boost in motivation results in a moderate rise in performance (Ngwoke, 2022).
The level of academic achievement attained by kids is held in the highest regard by parents, teachers, concerned citizens of Nigeria, and the government. A person’s academic success may be defined as the extent to which they are able to achieve the academic objectives that they have set for themselves. According to the Davidson Institute’s (2004) definition, academic accomplishment is “a measure of the degree of success that an individual has in the mastery of information, skills, and understanding.” Additionally, it is the accomplishment of a certain level of perfection (Umeano, 2022). The amount to which pupils are successful in their academic work is referred to as their academic performance. According to the definition provided by Answer Corporation (2010), academic performance is the degree or extent to which one has acquired excellence in their academic pursuit of academic accomplishment. Academic performance and academic accomplishment are inextricably linked to the point that they cannot be disentangled from one another because of the intricate web of connections that exists between the two.
It has been shown by a number of studies that the majority of students who are successful, great achievers, and well adjusted came from families where there is a sustaining, wholesome relationship as well as parental care and motivation towards the child’s academic performance. All things considered, this is true for the majority of students who are successful. This research has a tendency to illustrate the importance of parental motivation and how it has a derivative influence on the academic brilliance, performance, and accomplishment of the student.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Recent years have seen a decline in the overall academic performance of pupils enrolled in secondary schools, which has caused widespread cause for worry. Many people, including the student’s parents, teachers, and counselors, have voiced significant worry with the student’s declining academic performance. Despite the measures that have been put in place by the federal government to ensure that teaching and learning are carried out in an efficient manner, the low academic performance of students continues to rear its ugly head. There has been a persistent fall in students’ motivation and participatory learning, which has led to a common worry and complaint among instructors of secondary schools: students’ poor academic performance and short attention spans as a result of this decline. As a direct consequence of this, pupils in secondary schools engage in problematic behaviors such as skipping classes, showing up late, engaging in bullying behavior, and being socially reactive (Orhungur,2022). These disruptive behaviors may be traced back to the interactions that take place between the parents and their children in the home environment. Therefore, it would appear that the parent-child relationship is flawed, and that the parents do not give a damn about the academic status and performance of their children’s schools, which has severely crippled the academic performance of the students and even led to a loss of self-concept in some cases. The parents’ drive on the student’s academic performance, both intrinsic and extrinsic, was gone and replaced with desire (Orhungur,2022).
The disparity in performance between students and academic excellence constitutes a huge cause of anxiety and severe concern as well as discomfiture for both parents, school managers, policy makers, and different governments that are responsible for the education of students’ in secondary level institutions.
For example, some students are able to pay their school fees on time, whereas others were frequently sent away for nonpayment of school fees. Additionally, some students struggle with the provision of school uniforms, whereas others do not have this issue. Experience has shown that these kinds of differences exist among the students who are enrolled in secondary schools, and that these differences have an impact on the academic performance of the students. In a similar vein, some students’ parents encouraged them to do well in school by providing them with educational tools like text books and exercise books, whereas other students’ parents did not do this. Furthermore, some children arrive to school well-nourished, while others do not. Then, one begins to ponder if the impact of one’s family history had had a role in these problems.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of the study is an investigation into the impact of parental motivation on student academic achievement in two contrasting secondary schools in Rivers State. Specifically, the study will be guided under the following:
- To examine the effect of motivation on the educational achievement of students at secondary level.
- To find out if motivation from parent will influence students academic achievement.
- To determine whether parental involvement is a significant motivational factor to secondary school students.
- Investigate if parents educational background will influence students’ academic performance.
1.4 Research Questions
In order to achieve the derived objectives, the following research questions were raised;
- What is the effect of motivation on the educational achievement of students at secondary level?
- Will motivation from parent influence students academic achievement?
- Is parental involvement a significant motivational factor to secondary school students?
- Will parents educational background influence students’ academic performance?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between parental motivation and the academic performance of secondary school students.
- Ha: There is a significant relationship between parental motivation and the academic performance of secondary school students.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of the study would be useful to the stakeholders as it could help the Ministry Of Education to come up with seminars to educate the parents on their roles in promoting academic performance in secondary schools. The findings could enable the school administration to identify the cultural practices among the parents that hinder the academic success among students. As a result, students would be advised accordingly. In addition, the findings could enable the parents to see the need of meeting the basic needs of their children and develop positive attitude towards education.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study will analyze the impact of parental motivation on student academic achievement in two contrasting secondary schools in Rivers State. The study is limited to two selected Secondary Schools in the area. The selected schools include;
- Community comprehensive secondary school Rumuokwurusi
- Eliud International School, Rumuokwurusi
Hence, the respondents for this study will be obtained from and among secondary school students in the study area.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
This the process through which individual are charged to increase their action or performance either by internal or external factors.
This is used in the study to refers to students’ attitude to competition for excellent in their attitude toward participating in classroom activities and home work. It also used to students’ interest in learning.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of parental motivation on student academic achievement in two contrasting secondary schools in Rivers State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the impact of parental motivation on student academic achievement in two contrasting secondary schools in Rivers State. The study is was specifically set to examine the effect of motivation on the educational achievement of students at secondary level, find out if motivation from parent will influence students academic achievement, determine whether parental involvement is a significant motivational factor to secondary school students, and investigate if parents educational background will influence students’ academic performance.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent arestudents of two selected secondary schools in Rivers State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.
- Motivation has a positive effect on the educational achievement of students at secondary level.
- Motivation from parent will influence students academic achievement.
- Parental involvement is a significant motivational factor to secondary school students.
- Parents educational background will influence students’ academic performance.
Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:
- Strict measures must be put in place by the District Educational Officer, which can enforce parents to fully participate in the academic affairs of their children.
- Head teachers, Board of governors should clearly state and explain to parents about the necessity of teaching and learning materials to boost the students‟ academic performance.
- Government should organize seminar and workshop to parents on the need to support their ward regularly.
- Parents should endeavour to school fees to their ward regularly.
- Parents should endeavour provide learning materials to their ward regularly.
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Frequently Asked Questions
Does the parent-child relationship affect the academic performance of the students?
It seems that parent-child relation are faulty and that the parent give no damn on the academic status and performance of the students which has extensively cripple the students’ academic performance and even lead to loss of self-concept. The parents motivation both intrinsic and extrinsic on the student academic were lost and lust.
What is the relationship between motivation and academic performance?
Moderate increase in motivation gives moderate increase in performance, keep the students preserving on a task until some result is achieved (Ngwoke, 2004). Academic performance of students is of utmost importance to parents, educators, concerned Nigerians and government.
What is the importance of parental involvement in education?
Parental involvement has many positive impacts in the classroom, especially for students in elementary school. Research has found that parental involvement in lower elementary school was key in the academic achievement of students.
Is the academic performance of secondary school students deteriorating?
The academic performance of secondary school students in recent time has been a source of concern to all. Parents, teachers, counsellors etc. have expressed considerable concern about the deteriorating student’s performance.