The Impact Of Parental Involvement And Motivation On Junior Secondary School Students’ Academic Performance In Basic Science In Delta State

Science Education Project and Seminar Material

The Impact Of Parental Involvement And Motivation On Junior Secondary School Students’ Academic Performance In Basic Science In Delta State


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the impact of parental involvement and motivation on junior secondary school students’ academic performance in basic science in Delta State using some selected junior secondary schools in Asaba, Delta State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain whether parental involvement influences junior secondary school students’ academic performance in Basic Science in Delta State; ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between motivation and students academic performance in Basic Science; find out the motivational strategies adopted by Basic Science teachers in enhancing students academic performance; determine whether parental involvement is a significant motivational factor to junior secondary school students in Delta State; and find out whether parental involvement and motivation will relatively influence junior secondary school students’ academic performance in Basic Science in Delta State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of basic science teachers in some selected junior secondary schools in Asaba, Delta State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 57 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that parental involvement and motivation will relatively influence junior secondary school students’ academic performance in Basic Science in Delta State. The study also revealed that the motivational strategies adopted by Basic Science teachers in enhancing students academic performance include; demonstration of appropriate teacher behaviour, accepting all students equally, encouraging and supporting students, accepting mistakes as normal part of learning, and use of rewards and reinforcement. Therefore, it is recommended that head teachers, Board of governors should clearly state and explain to parents about the necessity of teaching and learning materials to boost the students‟ academic performance. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Academic achievement represents performance outcomes that indicate the extent to which a person has accomplished specific goals that were the focus of activities in instructional environments, specifically in school, college, and university. The problem of students’ under-performance in secondary schools in Nigeria has been a much discussed educational issue. In solving any problem however, it is pertinent to understand the causes of such problems. Many causes or agents have been studied as the etiological starting point for investigating the phenomena of school failure or success. These causes are looked into from several perspectives including the role of the students, teachers, parents or family, school environment, society, government etc. Notable works among these are effects of: students’ study habits (Ayodele & Adebiyi, 2013; Obasoro & Ayodele 2012), school environment (Adesoji & Olatunbosun, 2008; Okoro, 2004), teachers’ competencies (Akiri & Ugborugbo, 2009), parents’ economic status (Osonwa et al, 2013), continuous assessment (Kolawole & Ala, 2014; Okwu & Orum, 2012), educational funding (Ugwulashi, 2012). However, much attention have not been given to parental involvement and motivation as determinants of students academic performance in Basic science, which is the focus of this study.

Parents are very germane and crucial to a child’s well-being and development in later life. Parents are the most immediate relation of a child (Chris, 2009). This is because parent in the home are children’s first teacher. As a child moves from infant to toddler and then to a pre-schooler, he learns how to speak, listen, write and read which latter develop the child to achieve academically. The influence of parents on children school achievement is well documented in numerous studies. Gadsden (2003) says greater parental involvement at early stage in children’s learning positively affects the child’s school performance including higher academic achievement. In a related finding, Atanda (2014) discovered significant influence of democratic parenting style on students’ academic performance. This emphasizes the significant role of parents in their children’s academic progress.

On the other hand, Wright, Horn and Sanders (2007) concluded that the most important factor influencing student learning is motivation. This is because motivation influences both developmental and academic performance outcomes. Motivation is a complex and dynamic construct that is a function of the past, present and future and is dependent on both the whole group and the individual (Hardré & Sullivan, & Pintrich, 2002). Teacher’s motivational strategies to students aim at improving academic performance of students hence to increase students’ academic motivation. Gottfried (1990) defines academic motivation as “enjoyment of school learning characterized by a mastery orientation; curiosity; persistence; task-endogen; and the learning of challenging, difficult, and novel tasks”. On the other side Turner (1995) define academic motivation as the “voluntary uses of high-level self-regulated learning strategies, such as paying attention, connection, planning, and monitoring”.

According to Crookes (1991), creating motivational condition in the classroom include demonstration of appropriate teacher behaviours, demonstrate the acceptance and caring behaviour, taking students’ learning progress seriously and portray high expectations of what students can achieve. Others include enthusiasm and creation of pleasant and supportive classroom atmosphere, encouraging risk-taking and acceptance of mistakes as a normal part of learning.

In explaining the motivational strategies applicable to students, Schmidt (2011) maintains that teachers should vary the activities, tasks, and materials due to the fact that lessons that always follow the same format can lead to increased levels of boredom and decreased levels of attention. Dornyei (2001) on other side argues that motivation goes through phases: motivation needs to be generated and then maintained. On the basis of the above, this study seek to examine the impact of parental involvement and motivation on junior secondary school students’ academic performance in basic science in Delta State.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Recent years have seen a decline in the overall academic performance of pupils enrolled in secondary schools, which has caused widespread cause for worry. Many people, including the student’s parents, teachers, and counselors, have voiced significant worry with the student’s declining academic performance basic science. Despite the measures that have been put in place by the federal government to ensure that teaching and learning are carried out in an efficient manner, the low academic performance of students continues to rear its ugly head. There has been a persistent fall in students’ motivation and participatory learning, which has led to a common worry and complaint among instructors of secondary schools: students’ poor academic performance and short attention spans as a result of this decline. As a direct consequence of this, students in secondary schools engage in problematic behaviors such as skipping classes, showing up late, engaging in bullying behavior, and being socially reactive (Orhungur, 2022). These disruptive behaviors may be traced back to the interactions that take place between the parents and their children in the home environment. Therefore, it would appear that the parent-child relationship is flawed, and that the parents do not give a damn about the academic status and performance of their children in schools, which has severely crippled the academic performance of the students and even led to a loss of self-concept in some cases. In view of the above, this study will determine the impact of parental involvement and motivation on junior secondary school students’ academic performance in basic science in Delta State.


1.3 Objective of Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine the impact of parental involvement and motivation on junior secondary school students’ academic performance in basic science in Delta State. Specifically, this study will;

  1. Ascertain whether parental involvement influences junior secondary school students’ academic performance in Basic Science in Delta State.
  2. Ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between motivation and students academic performance in Basic Science.
  3. Find out the motivational strategies adopted by Basic Science teachers in enhancing students academic performance.
  4. To determine whether parental involvement is a significant motivational factor to junior secondary school students in Delta State
  5. Find out whether parental involvement and motivation will relatively influence junior secondary school students’ academic performance in Basic Science in Delta State.

1.4 Research Questions

The study was guided by the following research questions:

  1. Does parental involvement influence junior secondary school students’ academic performance in Basic Science in Delta State?
  2. Is there a significant relationship between motivation and students academic performance in Basic Science?
  3. What are the motivational strategies adopted by Basic Science teachers in enhancing students academic performance?
  4. Is parental involvement a significant motivational factor to junior secondary school students in Delta State?
  5. Will parental involvement and motivation relatively influence junior secondary school students’ academic performance in Basic Science in Delta State?

1.5 Hypotheses

  • Ho: Parental involvement and motivation will no relatively influence junior secondary school students’ academic performance in Basic Science in Delta State.
  • Ha: Parental involvement and motivation will relatively influence junior secondary school students’ academic performance in Basic Science in Delta State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of the study would be useful to the stakeholders as it could help the Ministry Of Education to come up with seminars to educate the parents on their roles in promoting academic performance in secondary schools.
The finding of the study is very important as it will contribute to the literature on the strategies to motivate students. This is because educators throughout the country are continuously seeking information on a better learning environment with academic success for all students. By ensuring academic success of students, this will have diverse social, economic, cultural and political advantage from individual level, family, community and a nation as whole. Failure to find proper ways to motivated students to study will result to poor performance of students, and as education form the basis of development of any nation hence poor performance of students will in turn lead to poor performance of respective government.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will focus generally on the impact of parental involvement and motivation on junior secondary school students’ academic performance in basic science in Delta State. The study will geographically be delimited to selected junior secondary schools in Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

As with any human endeavor, the researcher experienced small impediments while performing the study. Due to the scarcity of literature on the subject as a result of the discourse’s nature, the researcher incurred additional financial expenses and spent additional time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as during the data collection process, which is why the researcher chose a small sample size. Additionally, the researcher conducted this inquiry in conjunction with other scholarly pursuits. Additionally, because only a small number of respondents were chosen to complete the research instrument, the results cannot be applied to other secondary schools outside the state. Regardless of the limits faced throughout the investigation, all aspects were reduced to ensure the best outcomes and the most productive research.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Parents

For the purpose of this study, parents include family members, siblings, guardians, aunts and uncles, and grandparents who are involved in school for the benefit of a specific student.

Motivation:

This the process through which individual are charged to increase their action or performance either by internal or external factors.

Academic Motivation:

Academic motivation as “enjoyment of school learning characterized by a mastery orientation; curiosity; persistence; task-endogen; and the learning of challenging, difficult, and novel tasks”.

Academic Performance:

This is used in the study to refers to students’ attitude to competition for excellent in their attitude toward participating in classroom activities and home work. It also used to students’ interest in learning.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of parental involvement and motivation on junior secondary school students’ academic performance in basic science in Delta State using some selected junior secondary schools in Asaba, Delta State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the impact of parental involvement and motivation on junior secondary school students’ academic performance in basic science in Delta State using some selected junior secondary schools in Asaba, Delta State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to ascertain whether parental involvement influences junior secondary school students’ academic performance in Basic Science in Delta State; ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between motivation and students academic performance in Basic Science; find out the motivational strategies adopted by Basic Science teachers in enhancing students academic performance; determine whether parental involvement is a significant motivational factor to junior secondary school students in Delta State; and find out whether parental involvement and motivation will relatively influence junior secondary school students’ academic performance in Basic Science in Delta State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were basic science teachers in some selected junior secondary schools in Asaba, Delta State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Parental involvement influences junior secondary school students’ academic performance in Basic Science in Delta State.
  2. There is a significant relationship between motivation and students academic performance in Basic Science.
  3. The motivational strategies adopted by Basic Science teachers in enhancing students academic performance include; demonstration of appropriate teacher behaviour, accepting all students equally, encouraging and supporting students, accepting mistakes as normal part of learning, and use of rewards and reinforcement.
  4. Parental involvement is a significant motivational factor to junior secondary school students in Delta State
  5. Parental involvement and motivation will relatively influence junior secondary school students’ academic performance in Basic Science in Delta State.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Strict measures must be put in place by the District Educational Officer, which can enforce parents to fully participate in the academic affairs of their children.
  2. Head teachers, Board of governors should clearly state and explain to parents about the necessity of teaching and learning materials to boost the students‟ academic performance.
  3. Motivation is important for students performance, hence teachers should make sure that they motivate students adequately to stimulate students active participation in learning so as to improve their academic performance.
  4. Parents should make sure that they raise their children in a good manner which can facilitate studying behaviour by ensuring that they provide good care and that all the necessary needs for children development are ensured.

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