Organisation Culture And Workers’ Performance In The Nigerian Banking Sector (A Case Study Of Ecobank Nigeria Plc Auchi Edo State)
This study was conducted mainly to assess and analyse the effect of organizational culture on workers’ performance (the case of Ecobank Nigeria) to make it more competitive in the local and global financial sector and banking industry. The research used primary data through distributing questionnaire to Ecobank Nigeria head office workers. Explanatory and descriptive research design and quantitative type of research approach was used a population of 250workers were purposively selected from core directorates of the bank and using the sample size formula of Uma sekarer(2003)154 samples were made ready and were distributed to members of core directorates and From the distributed154 questionnaires 147 (95.4 %) respondents completed and returned the questionnaire quantitative research approach and explanatory and descriptive research designs were utilized. So, using the returned questionnaires from each respondent. The quantitative data were coded date entry was made and analysed using SPSS 23 statistical tools including descriptive and inferential statistics done both Pearson’s correlation and multi linear Regression analysis were used. The findings of the study explained on this research through descriptive ,correlation and regression analysis .The detail of these result the mean value of involvement dimension of organizational culture ,consistency dimension of organizational culture, ,adaptability dimension of organizational culture , mission dimension of organizational culture and workers’ performance are recorded figuratively respectively .And the correlation result of each independent variables with respect to dependent variables produced on this study these are Involvement with Workers’ performance, consistency with Workers’ performance, adaptability with workers’ performance),and mission trait with workers’ performance has r values of all positive with mission trait the highest positive higher r- value. Atthe end regression analysis of coefficients presented and the result of β value of Involvement dimension, consistency dimension, adaptability dimension and mission dimension are listed in figure respectively; showing as β value of all independent variables are positive. this implies that independent variable have positive effect on workers’ performance and also the Hypothesis result of this study show three independent variables rejected /Notes supported and the significant value[P-Value] above 0.05 with the exception Mission dimension .Generally this report would identify the general issues of organizational culture traits mainly involvement dimension, consistency dimension, adaptability dimension, mission dimension and their level of effects and relationships on workers’ performance of Ecobank Nigeria. From all the above findings it is recommended that those insignificant traits like involvement, consistency and adaptability has to be corrected by the bank, whereas Mission dimension since it shows significant effect it has to be maintained by making sure that those in leadership positions are conversant with the organizations mission and to understand help others to understand those cultures of strategic intent and direction.
Table of Content
- 1.1. Background of the study
- 1.2. Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Purpose of the Study
- 1.4. Research Objective
- 1.5 Research Questions
- 1.6 Research Hypothesis
- 1.7 Significance of the Study
- 1.8 The Scope of the Study
- 1.8. Limitation of the Study
- 1.9. Definition of Terms
- 1.10. Organization of the Study
Review of Related Literature
- 2.1 Theoretical Review
- 2.2 Empirical Review
- 2.3 Conceptual Review
- 3.1. Research Design
- 3.2. Research Approach
- 3.3. Population and Sample Size Determination
- 3.3.1. Population
- 3.3.2. Sampling Method and Sample Size
- 220.127.116.11. Sample Size Determination
- 3.4. Methods of Data Collection
- 3.4.1. Data Collection Instruments
- 3.4.2. Data Collection Procedure
- 3.5. Data Processing and Analysis
- 3.6. Validity Test
- 3.7. Reliability Test
- 3.8. Ethical Considerations
Data Analysis and Result Presentation
Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion of the Study
- 5.2 Recommendation
- 5.3 Direction for Future Research
1.1. Background of the study
Earlier researches conducted on organization culture i.e., the antecedents of this research can be traced to the origins of social science. Understanding the contributions of other social science disciplines is particularly important in the case of organization culture. Because of the debates that continue in these areas reflect differences in historical research of traditions (Griffin & Moorhead, 2014)
Now a day great interest with organizational culture began in the 1970s and early 1980s with the work of (Peters and Waterman, 1982; Deal and Kennedy, 1982; and Kanter, 1983). However, academics had drawn attention to the notion of culture operating at the organizational or unit level much earlier. Nevertheless, despite the emphasis given to this concept for the last 50 years, there remain considerable debate and contention surrounding the nature of and the value of studying organizational culture (Brooks, 2006).
Raduan (2008) observes that, a high degree of workers’ performance is related a culture with wellintegrated and effective set of values, beliefs and behaviours. However, many researchers concur that culture would remain linked with superior performance only if the culture is able to adapt to changes in environmental conditions. Furthermore, the culture must not only be extensively shared, but it must also have unique qualities, which cannot be imitated (Awadh et al, 2013).
Banks are people centric and make use of predominantly knowledge of workers and at the same time the banking industry is one of the sectors with stiff competition and because of this, highly technical skills and high level of understanding between workers is needed (Petcharak, 2012, Dwintaric, 2012).
There are different ways of classifying organizational culture. In this study, organizational culture is conceptualized along four primary characteristics. These are Involvement Trait, Consistency Trait, Adaptability Trait, and Mission Trait. To develop an organization that has the competitive advantage of value-based, the management needs to pay attention to its organizational culture, because organizational culture is a set of values, beliefs and attitudes among members of the organization that adds to employees‟ performance and consistency of behavior (Hakim, 2015).
Employees are one of the most important determinants and leading factors that determine the success of an organization in a competitive environment. This is especially true for service organizations like banks that rely heavily on their good behaviour of employees to provide courteous services to their customers in this competitive environment.
This study therefore took into consideration how organizational culture adapts overtime tirelessly to cope up with such dynamic changes and meet the varying demand of employees and their adaptability to working culture to improve the actual performance of the employees of case bank. Therefore, a supportive culture as pointed out by Ritchie (2000) is considered as a motivational instrument promoting employees to perform smoothly and ensures better productivity. Therefore, this study sought to examine the effect of organizational culture on employee performance among Ecobank Nigeria.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
Workers’ performance, in relation to organizational culture of the banking industry has received little attention – a lot of the academic researchers in this area have focused on workers’ performance in relation to organizational culture of other sectors like telecommunication, transport. Despite the plethora of studies on organizational culture in the last few decades, there is no research conducted to assess causal relationship between organizational culture and employee’s performance considering Ecobank Nigeria.
Empirical studies shows that even though a lot of attention has been given in exploring the extent of the relationship between organizational culture and employees’ performance (Ojo, 2010; Omniyi, Salau, &Fadugba, 2014), still there are literature gaps which were identified by authors (Omoregbe&Umemezia, 2017).
No matter how this topic is rich in studies, many researchers concur on the fact that there is no agreement on the precise nature of the relationship between corporate culture and workers’ performance. Because of these conflicting results, the question of whether corporate culture improves or worsens employee’s performance is still worthy of further research (Ojo 2009).
Furthermore, Ogbonna and Harris (2000) declare that despite many research works done in this area and contributions from various fields, there is no generally acceptable causal relationship between organizational culture and employees’ performance. Despite the existence of these studies, This means that the effect of organization culture on employee’s performance in the banking industry has received substantial research attention in Nigeria. But contextually there is limited research output which centre Development Bank operating in the industry. Wonishet (2013) indicated the effect of organizational culture on workers’ performance taking variables such as power culture, achievement culture, role culture, and support culture which are of variables which have shortcomings on explaining the detail behaviour of the group. Many studies have been performed in the developed countries and very little has been done in developing countries such as Nigeria, especially in the banking industry.
Therefore, the above-mentioned key issues have initiated the researcher to investigate the effect of organizational cultures on employees’ performance with new variable constructs which were not considered by other researchers. The researcher uses the Denison’s model of dimensions of organizational culture i.e such as involvement, consistency, adaptability and Mission, which are known to test behaviour of a group in any organization therefore the researcher utilized this model of organizational culture dimension to test the group behaviour of the case bank related with its employees performance.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to investigate organisation culture and workers’ performance in the Nigerian banking sector
1.4. Research Objective
- To identify the effect of Adaptability trait on workers’ performance of the case bank
- To check whether mission trait has a positive relationship with employ performance of the case bank or not
- To examine the effect of consistency trait on workers’ performance of the case bank
- To test the effect of involvement trait on workers’ performance of the case bank
- To verify the most dominant organizational culture trait which will have significant effect on workers’ performance of the case bank.
1.5 Research Questions
The study will answer the following basic research questions:
- What is the effect of adaptability trait on workers’ performance of the case bank?
- Is there a positive relationship between of Mission trait and bank’s workers’ performance?
- To what extent do consistency trait affect workers’ performance of the case bank?
- What is the effect of involvement trait on workers’ performance of Eco Bank?
- Which dimensions of organizational culture is most significantly affecting employee’s performance of the bank?
1.6 Research Hypothesis
To provide answers to the research questions the following hypotheses will be tested in this research.
- Ha1: Adaptability trait has positive and significant influence on workers’ performance.
- Ha2: Mission trait has positive and significant influence on workers’ performance.
- Ha3: Consistency trait has positive and significant influence on case bank performance.
- Ha4: Involvement trait has positive and significant influence on case bank workers’ performance.
1.7 Significance of the Study
Corporate culture is an important component in the field of organizational behaviour and business ethics. This study will create more insight and greater need for organizational members like different level Eco Bank line managers, Directors, and Team managers to better understand the context of corporate culture and its effect on workers’ performance.
The information that will be obtained will be useful to the Government and research institutions that may want to advance the knowledge and literature on intellectual capital.
It may also add to literature on the subject as reference material and stimulate further research in the area. This study may be very valuable to the area of study of Corporate Cultures and Management in financial institutions and banks in Nigeria. The study will be useful to academicians as it may provide information that can be used as a basis for further research. The study will also propose areas for further research which will be very important to researchers who will easily get to know what needs to be done in the area of study.
1.8 The Scope of the Study
This study mainly focused on examining the effect of Organizational culture on workers’ performance. The independent variables of the study are involvement trait, consistency trait, adaptability trait and mission trait. The dependent variable is workers’ performance. Even though the study of organizational culture is very vital or crucial and need to be seen at industry level, to conduct the study with limited time, and budget constraint, the scope of this study is limited to investigation of effect of organizational culture on employee performance by taking the case of only Core Directorates which are very vital for the existence of the bank i.e Project Appraisal Directorate (PAD) ,project Rehabilitation and Loan Recovery directorate (PRLR) and Customer Relationship and Management (CRMD) of selected head office staffs with a population of 90,118 and 42 respectively a total of 250 population of Ecobank Nigeria head office staffs were selected purposively and since it was difficult and to take data from all population due to time and budget as well as un willingness of some members to fill questionnaire I was forced to reduce the sample size using the formula of umaserkar (2003). To sample size of 154 only and questioners were distributed to only 154 respondents and 147 of them returned the questionnaire in a one-week period of time
1.8. Limitation of the Study
There were a few difficulties to complete this research; one of the limitations is the field of organizational culture and its effect in an organization has emerged in past recent decades, besides to this The study is limited to focus only on employees who are under Head Office even if the bank has huge number of employees in all the twelve districts and branches both in Addis and outlying area, this is due to the fact that the concept of Organizational culture is a high level strategic concept and it is assumed that it is more familiar to employees who are near to issues related to the conception, development and execution of strategic matter
1.9. Definition of Terms
Involvement as a cultural dimension is defined as a regular participation of employees in deciding how their work is done, making suggestions for improvement, goal-setting, planning, and monitoring of their performance (Macleod and Brady, 2008)
Consistency is the second trait which emphasizes on maintenance of the status quo by being well coordinated and well-integrated also the organization devises clear agreement about the right way and the wrong way to do things
Adaptability, depicts the ability of the organization in translating the demands of the business environment into action through creating change, customer focus and organizational learning environment. Adaptability deals with translating the demands of the business environment into action
The last trait is mission whereby organizations devise meaningful long-term direction and Organization with this trait clearly defines Strategic direction, Vision, Goals and Objectives of the company. Mission involves defining a meaningful long-term direction for the organization
1.10. Organization of the Study
This research paper consists of five chapters. The content of each chapter is summarized as follows:
- Chapter 1 of the study presented background of the study, background of the organization, statement of the problem, research questions, research objective, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitation of the study, definition of terms, and organization of the study.
- Chapter 2 of the study is composed of related literature review on organizational culture and workers’ performance with its relationship and effect. In addition, it includes empirical review made on previous studies on organizational culture on workers’ performance and conceptual framework.
- Chapter 3 deals with the research methodology that is used, and it encompasses introduction, descriptions of the study geographic area, research design and approach, target population, data type and data sources, data collection instrument and data analysis.
- Chapter 4 describe the finding of analysis and interpretation of the study with subtopics introduction, response rate, demographic presentation, analysis on the three types of organizational culture, workers’ performance, and the interpretation on the relationship of organizational culture and workers’ performance.
- At the end Chapter 5 highlighted the implications based on the results; it will include summary of major findings, conclusions, recommendations and finally suggestion for further research.
Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Conclusion of the Study
Based on the findings of the research it is possible to draw a number of conclusions.
The major objectives of this study is to investigate the effect of traits of organizational culture dimensions on employ performance in Eco Bank.
The results indicated that all the variables of organizational culture (involvement, Adaptability, Consistency, and Mission) are positively related with Workers’ performance.
A descriptive statistical tools and multiple regression analysis were used. and the demographic data of educational status of respondents indicates that the majority of the respondents about 90.4 % of the respondents were Degree and MA/MSC holders this implies that the better academic status of the respondents helps the them to have a clear understanding of organizational cultural traits than other similar organizations.
According to Regression Analysis regarding involvement dimension showed insignificant in affecting employ performance of the Ecobank Nigeria this shows that there are some inefficiencies with in the bank in the provision of autonomous power and involvement of employees in decision making.
With respect to Adaptability culture, it also shows insignificant effect on workers’ performance, this result indicates that in Eco Bank new and improved way of doing works is not well adapted to its adequate level. Based on regression analysis of consistency cultural trait consistency has got insignificant effect on workers’ performance of Eco Bank
This indicates that the case bank has to provide gap filling training as usual and strongly work on setting of clear values that support employees and managers in making consistent decisions
From the all four dimensions of organizational traits Mission dimension has got significant result than others this indicates that this cultural trait is found to be practised more strongly in the organization/case Bank) and Eco Bank has to continue the mission practice as usual more over the result witnesses Employees of Eco Bank has have good understanding of why they are doing their tasks, how the work they do help the performance of the employees and the organization.
The banking industry is a competitive industry so, as organizational culture is a competitive edge and employees are the backbone of the organization so the Ecobank Nigeria is needed to improve its organizational set up with regard to the study findings.
Based on the findings and conclusions of the study, the researcher recommends and suggests the following.
The result of involvement it shows insignificant on workers’ performance of Eco Bank. From the review of involvement culture which comprises of empowerment, team orientation and capability development, team orientation and then empowerment have great contribution to involvement at the highest level. In order to make further its employee identification with the organization, the management of Ecobank Nigeria should extend its employee involvement in decision-making that affects them, giving them the authority and additional responsibilities, delegation and ability to manage their own work.
The finding of consistency result shows insignificant effect on workers’ performance of Ecobank Nigeria to correct this gap The organization should improve its consistency culture, by exerting core values that form the overall dominant culture shared by the majority of the members in the organization. If this is adhered to, the different functions and departments of the organization will be able to work together well to achieve common goals. On the other hand.
From the research finding of Mission culture dimension indicates significant effect on employ performance of the case bank, this shows that the Management of Ecobank Nigeria plays a great role in influencing the organizational culture through its strategy and structure. So the mission culture should be maintained by making sure that those in leadership positions are conversant with the organization’s mission and help others to understand those culture of strategic intent and direction, vision and goals and objectives of the organization. In order to keep the mission culture as before and improving in the future, there should be consistently revisiting of organization’s vision, strategic intent and direction as mentioned in the literature
5.3 Direction for Future Research
Due to time and resource constraints, the researcher did not incorporate the detail sub culture dimensions to validate the responses. It is done on general Denison’s cultural dimensions; I recommend the next researcher to go through the detail sub dimensions because this work is only based on responses based on the perception of the selected respondents 147; generalization of these results is so limited. However, I believe that it could be seen as a springboard for future similar research.
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