Impact Of Government On Learning Outcomes In Schools In Rural Communities (A Case Study Of Community Secondary School Ikot Akpan Ishiet, Onna Lga. Akwa Ibom State)

Project and Seminar Material for Political Science

Project and Seminar Material for Political Science


Abstract


This study investigates “Impact of government on learning outcomes in schools in rural communities”. The study was carried out in IkotAkpanIshiet, Onna Local Government area.

The poor state of the rural schools and their predicament accompanied by unfavourable government education policies towards the rural area was the sole purpose that motivated this study. Relevant literatures reviewed showed that the rural schools in Nigeria are in a “sorry‟ state. The urban bias theory was the theoretical framework adopted for the study.

The study made use of an exploratory and survey design. A Population of 226 was the number of persons sampled for the study. The mean, standard deviation and Chi square (X2) were the tools used for the data analysis.

The study revealed that Government Educational policies are not geared towards the development of the rural education sector as almost all the rural human and materials education resources are poor and unattended to. The study recommended an urgent need of special educational policy to be formulated for the development of the rural education sector.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background To The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives Of The Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Formulation Of Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significant Of The Study
  • 1.7 Scope Of The Study
  • 1.8 Limitation Of The Study
  • 1.9 Definition Of Terms

Chapter Two:

Review Of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Education In Rural Nigeria
  • 2.2 Historical Analysis Of Educational Policy Formulation In Nigeria
  • 2.3 Government Policies And Educational Development In Rural Akwa Ibom
  • 2.4 The Barriers To Good-Quality Rural Schools
  • 2.5 Theoretical Perspective

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Sources Of Data
  • 3.3 Sampling And Population
  • 3.4 Instrumentation
  • 3.5 Validity
  • 3.6 Reliability
  • 3.7 Method Of Data Collection
  • 3.8 Data Analysis
  • 3.9 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Hypothesis Testing
  • 4.3 Research Decision

Chapter Five:

Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background To The Study

The problems of education in Nigeria is perceived to be general, it is said to be more severe in the rural areas.

Anyaebu et al (2004) noted some of these challenges as;

  1. Lack of zeal and interest by teachers due to poor and delayed salary and poor condition of work.
  2. Frequent strike action by teachers
  3. Lack of curricular and other materials such as textbooks, libraries, instructional materials and at times classrooms, desk and chairs. According to Dike (2004), about 2000 (mostly primary) schools existing in the rural areas in Nigeria are said to have no classrooms, lessons are received under trees or (thatched houses).
  4. Instability of the government institutions and infrastructure that is transportation, communications, and utilities.Many primary schools in the rural areas are not even connected to the power supply grid and are therefore unable to take advantage of new development in educational technologies.
  5. Low community participation in education planning and policy implementation.

Due to this situation and personal reasons, many teachers reject posting into rural areas while those that do not, treat their presence in such areas as a part time assignment.Yet, effectively educating the rural population that make up over 60% of the country is a necessary precondition for national development.

Education is one of the key strategies for rural development since it propels that development of desirable attitudes that are favourable to change and for technical progress. Anyeabu et al (2004) thus opined that rural education is key to rural development and an essential building block of national development; that poverty cannot be eradicated without eliminating illiteracy among the rural populace and without finding a systematic way to raise their level of knowledge.

According to Olayide et al (cited in Fabunmi 2003), there is the general consensus that the rate of agricultural development and rural transformation is directly related to the educational standard of the rural communities. Such rural education programme will widen the rural populace’s horizon and predispose them to greater receptivity of new ideas.

The major aim of education is learning which is achieved through the teaching and learning process. According to Plato (437-337 BC) “Aesthetic education brings grace to the body and nobility to the mind. Until man in his physical and sensuous mode of being has been accustomed to the laws of beauty, he is not capable of spiritual liberty”.

Therefore education would be incomplete without due consideration being given to rural areas. Education holds a significant place in this regard, so far as it forms a very convenient and powerful medium for individuals express themselves in a variety of ways in any situation including his mental skill in relation to overall academic performance.

However, it is sad to note that some schools in rural areas have no rooms allocated for teaching even some with class rooms lack furniture; in some schools, teaching is carried on in makeshift classrooms and this can be uninspiring and boring. Inadequate and half-baked teachers in some secondary schools are also an issue of concern in this study (Madeki S.J, 2008).

Education impacts social change, by improving individual social position as well as standard of living. Education also increases critical ability of rural people to diagnose their needs, assert their right, taking greater control of decision affecting their lives.

Education has the potential to respond to the transformation of rural areas, increase labour force and enhancing security. As the pivot of the educational system, the National policy on Education (FRN, 1981) noted that teachers in all educational institutions including the universities, should be professionally trained because is considered as a tool to be used for the integration of the individuals into the society to achieve self-realization, develop national consciousness, promote unity and strive for social-economic, political, scientific, cultural and technological progress.

The need thus arises for appropriate reforms and policies to address pertinent issues affecting the development of our educational system especially as it concerns education in the rural areas. Noting this need for reform, the World Bank (2003) asserted that;

„over time, as the political economy of the country worsened, much of the educational system of Nigeria appeared to stagnate and, during some periods, contract. Teachers have few materials with which to complement their skills, and there is no produce and distribution of additional materials”.

It went further that between 1994 and 2001, the allocation for instructional materials across 26 states of the federation, was equal to just 1.5 percent of total expenditure on primary schooling, that there were significant problems in of instruction, (ii) the use of instructional time, and (iii) very little opportunity for in service training for which less than 0.2 percent of total primary expenditures are devoted.

It is on the above problems that this research work is being carried out to look at the situation in Akwa Ibom state using rural schools inIkot Akpan Ishiet, Onna local government area as our focal point of study.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

This research is an attempt to investigate the discrepancies between urban and rural areas in terms of educational rural development process. The gap between urban and rural areas arising from conduciveness of environment, availability of manpower and facilities in the teaching and learning process. Other issues of textbook selection or recommendation is a matter of concern to curriculum planners, the teachers and even the ministries of education.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The main objective of this study is to assess the impact of government on learning outcomes in schools in rural communities: A case study of community secondary school Ikot Akpan Ishiet, Onna LGA. Akwa Ibom state.

Specifically, the study tries to

  1. Examine the state of rural schools in Ikot Akpan Ishiet, Onna LGA.
  2. Assess the adequacy of government policies on education towards rural educational development in Ikot Akpan Ishiet, Onna LGA
  3. Examine the problems that Government face in trying to implement policies to improve rural education in Ikot Akpan Ishiet, Onna LGA.

1.4 Research Questions

The following are the research questions drafted by the researcher to help in executing the study:

  1. What is the state of rural schools in Ikot Akpan Ishiet, Onna LGA?
  2. What is the adequacy of government policies on education towards rural educational development in Ikot Akpan Ishiet, Onna LGA?
  3. What are the problems that Government face in trying to implement policies to improve rural education in Ikot Akpan Ishiet, Onna LGA.?

1.5 Formulation Of Hypothesis

  • HA: There is a relationship between current government policies and rural educational development.
  • HO: There is no relationship between current government policies and rural educational development.

1.6 Significant Of The Study

This study when completed will be beneficial to the students, tertiary institutions, teachers and ministries of education. In addition, the study will try to provide adequate and enough information for planners of educational policies and curriculum with a particular reference to rural development process. No doubt, the study will help ministries of education to make useful and important recommendations on how to develop rural areas.

The curriculum designers could receive vital information about the problem being suffered in rural areas in teaching and learning and may adopt a system of solving the problems that will eliminate the difference and bridging the wider gap between urban and rural areas.

Be that as it may, the study will no doubt enrich the libraries with useful copies of papers as researchers in Oredo Local Government Area in particular and Nigeria at large. It will also provide relevant information to researchers who might be interested in the educational research.


1.7 Scope Of The Study

This study is designed to show areas to which the research work is carried out; it includes both the male and female respondents of community secondary school Ikot Akpan Ishiet, Onna LGA. Akwa Ibom state.


1.8 Limitation Of The Study

Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.9 Definition Of Terms

Impact:

A marked effect or influence.

Imbalance:

A lack of proportion or balance.

Stagnate:

Showing little activity.

Immensely:

To a great extent, extremely.

Pivot:

The central point.

Discrepancy:

A difference or lack of compatibility between two or more facts that should be similar.


Chapter Five


Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

Based on the outcome from the data collected from the field and analyzed, the following conclusions could be drawn from the study;

  1. The state of rural schools in Ikot Akpan Ishiet, Onna local government areas of Akwa Ibom State could be said to be in a poor state.
  2. The Academic performance of the rural schools in Ikot Akpan Ishiet, Onna L.G.A. is poor compared to the urban schools.
  3. Government policies on education towards rural educational development inIkot Akpan Ishiet, Onna local government area are inadequate.
  4. Government policies in improving the quality of education in the rural areas in Ikot Akpan Ishiet, Onna, has not been successful.
  5. The rural schools in IkotAkpanIshiet, Onna L.G.A face more challenges than schools in the urban centres due to government biased policies that is skewed towards benefiting the urban centres.
  6. Rural students in IkotAkpanIshiet, Onna L.G.A face more challenges compared to their urban counterparts due to unfavourable government policies against the rural areas.
  7. The Teachers in the rural schools in Ikot Akpan Ishiet, Onna L.G.A. face more problems in the rural areas than the teachers in the urban centres because of policies that favours teachers in the urban centres.
  8. The government face both institutional and implementation problems in trying to implement policies that might improve rural education in Ikot Akpan Ishiet, Onna L.G.A.
  9. Finally, Government education policies are not geared towards the improvement of rural education in Ikot Akpan Ishiet, Onna L.G.A.

5.2 Recommendations

Towards improving the system of rural educational development in rural Ikot Akpan Ishiet, Onna and Nigeria as a whole, the following recommendations are hereby proffered;

  1. Development of an institutional arrangement for government support of rural schools and education.
  2. Special educational policies directed to improve the rural areas should be formulated, monitored and implemented with proper supervision.
  3. Formation of an association of rural education practitioners coupled with a centre for research on rural education and to encourage specialized extensive research and discourse on the issue of rural education and develop professionals in the area.
  4. Development of appropriate legal and policy arrangement for rural education distinct from that of the urban centres.
  5. Evolvement of an arrangement for training of specialist teachers in rural education and subsequent professionalization of same.
  6. Extensive awareness creation/parental programme for rural dwellers, on all aspects of rural education.
  7. Development of adequate capacity for initiating, planning and implementing sustainable innovations/reforms programmes in the rural education sector.
  8. Provision of an improved reward scheme for teachers in rural areas. The rural inducement allowance can be enhanced or improve in order to attract the best hands to the rural areas.
  9. Involvement of non-governmental bodies in providing and supporting rural education, the way they have succeeded in tacking the numerous health problems found in the rural areas.
  10. Equipping the libraries and laboratories of the rural schools to the same or near the standard with those in the urban
  11. Centres and employing qualified teachers to manage, use and teach the students the use of these facilities, so that they can meetup with the urban students.

Impact Of Government On Learning Outcomes In Schools In Rural Communities (A Case Study Of Community Secondary School Ikot Akpan Ishiet, Onna Lga. Akwa Ibom State)


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