Impact Of Government On Learning Outcomes In Schools In Rural Communities (A Case Study Of Community Secondary School Ikot Akpan Ishiet, Onna Lga. Akwa Ibom State)

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Project and Seminar Material for Political Science

Project and Seminar Material for Political Science


I humbly dedicate this work to God Almighty who has given me the gift of life, good health, protection, knowledge and above all wisdom to make this work a reality.

To my parents ……………… for giving me both moral and financial support throughout my ND time. And also to my sisters, …………………………… and to my brothers …………………


I am very thankful to God Almighty for his grace upon me. To my academic mentors in the persons of …………………, my project supervisor for educating me on the act of project writing and method of its researchers and also to other lecturers who have taught me in the course of writing this project.

I equally appreciate the effort of my family members and all those other in making sure that I am a useful member of the society.

May God bless and sustain them all in their pursuit or strive to attain their life goal.

Table Of Contents

  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract

Chapter One:Introduction

  • 1.1 Background To The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives Of The Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Formulation Of Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significant Of The Study
  • 1.7 Scope Of The Study
  • 1.8 Limitation Of The Study
  • 1.9 Definition Of Terms

Chapter Two:Review Of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Education In Rural Nigeria
  • 2.2 Historical Analysis Of Educational Policy Formulation In Nigeria
  • 2.3 Government Policies And Educational Development In Rural Akwaibom
  • 2.4 The Barriers To Good-Quality Rural Schools
  • 2.5 Theoretical Perspective

Chapter Three:Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Sources Of Data
  • 3.3 Sampling And Population
  • 3.4 Instrumentation
  • 3.5 Validity
  • 3.6 Reliability
  • 3.7 Method Of Data Collection
  • 3.8 Data Analysis
  • 3.9 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Hypothesis Testing
  • 4.3 Research Decision

Chapter Five:Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaire


This study investigates “Impact of government on learning outcomes in schools in rural communities”. The study was carried out in IkotAkpanIshiet, Onna Local Government area.

The poor state of the rural schools and their predicament accompanied by unfavourable government education policies towards the rural area was the sole purpose that motivated this study. Relevant literatures reviewed showed that the rural schools in Nigeria are in a “sorry‟ state. The urban bias theory was the theoretical framework adopted for the study.

The study made use of an exploratory and survey design. A Population of 226 was the number of persons sampled for the study. The mean, standard deviation and Chi square (X2) were the tools used for the data analysis.

The study revealed that Government Educational policies are not geared towards the development of the rural education sector as almost all the rural human and materials education resources are poor and unattended to. The study recommended an urgent need of special educational policy to be formulated for the development of the rural education sector.

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background To The Study

The problems of education in Nigeria is perceived to be general, it is said to be more severe in the rural areas.

Anyaebu et al (2004) noted some of these challenges as;

  1. Lack of zeal and interest by teachers due to poor and delayed salary and poor condition of work.
  2. Frequent strike action by teachers
  3. Lack of curricular and other materials such as textbooks, libraries, instructional materials and at times classrooms, desk and chairs. According to Dike (2004), about 2000 (mostly primary) schools existing in the rural areas in Nigeria are said to have no classrooms, lessons are received under trees or (thatched houses).
  4. Instability of the government institutions and infrastructure that is transportation, communications, and utilities.Many primary schools in the rural areas are not even connected to the power supply grid and are therefore unable to take advantage of new development in educational technologies.
  5. Low community participation in education planning and policy implementation.

Due to this situation and personal reasons, many teachers reject posting into rural areas while those that do not, treat their presence in such areas as a part time assignment.Yet, effectively educating the rural population that make up over 60% of the country is a necessary precondition for national development.

Education is one of the key strategies for rural development since it propels that development of desirable attitudes that are favourable to change and for technical progress. Anyeabu et al (2004) thus opined that rural education is key to rural development and an essential building block of national development; that poverty cannot be eradicated without eliminating illiteracy among the rural populace and without finding a systematic way to raise their level of knowledge.

According to Olayide et al (cited in Fabunmi 2003), there is the general consensus that the rate of agricultural development and rural transformation is directly related to the educational standard of the rural communities. Such rural education programme will widen the rural populace’s horizon and predispose them to greater receptivity of new ideas.

The major aim of education is learning which is achieved through the teaching and learning process. According to Plato (437-337 BC) “Aesthetic education brings grace to the body and nobility to the mind. Until man in his physical and sensuous mode of being has been accustomed to the laws of beauty, he is not capable of spiritual liberty”.

Therefore education would be incomplete without due consideration being given to rural areas. Education holds a significant place in this regard, so far as it forms a very convenient and powerful medium for individuals express themselves in a variety of ways in any situation including his mental skill in relation to overall academic performance.

However, it is sad to note that some schools in rural areas have no rooms allocated for teaching even some with class rooms lack furniture; in some schools, teaching is carried on in makeshift classrooms and this can be uninspiring and boring. Inadequate and half-baked teachers in some secondary schools are also an issue of concern in this study (Madeki S.J, 2008).

Education impacts social change, by improving individual social position as well as standard of living. Education also increases critical ability of rural people to diagnose their needs, assert their right, taking greater control of decision affecting their lives.

Education has the potential to respond to the transformation of rural areas, increase labour force and enhancing security. As the pivot of the educational system, the National policy on Education (FRN, 1981) noted that teachers in all educational institutions including the universities, should be professionally trained because is considered as a tool to be used for the integration of the individuals into the society to achieve self-realization, develop national consciousness, promote unity and strive for social-economic, political, scientific, cultural and technological progress.

The need thus arises for appropriate reforms and policies to address pertinent issues affecting the development of our educational system especially as it concerns education in the rural areas. Noting this need for reform, the World Bank (2003) asserted that;

„over time, as the political economy of the country worsened, much of the educational system of Nigeria appeared to stagnate and, during some periods, contract. Teachers have few materials with which to complement their skills, and there is no produce and distribution of additional materials”.

It went further that between 1994 and 2001, the allocation for instructional materials across 26 states of the federation, was equal to just 1.5 percent of total expenditure on primary schooling, that there were significant problems in of instruction, (ii) the use of instructional time, and (iii) very little opportunity for in service training for which less than 0.2 percent of total primary expenditures are devoted.

It is on the above problems that this research work is being carried out to look at the situation in AkwaIbom state using rural schools inIkotAkpanIshiet,Onna local government area as our focal point of study.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

This research is an attempt to investigate the discrepancies between urban and rural areas in terms of educational rural development process. The gap between urban and rural areas arising from conduciveness of environment, availability of manpower and facilities in the teaching and learning process. Other issues of textbook selection or recommendation is a matter of concern to curriculum planners, the teachers and even the ministries of education.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The main objective of this study is to assess the impact of government on learning outcomes in schools in rural communities:A case study of community secondary school IkotAkpanIshiet, Onna LGA. Akwaibom state.

Specifically, the study tries to

  1. Examine the state of rural schools in IkotAkpanIshiet, Onna LGA.
  2. Assess the adequacy of government policies on education towards rural educational development inIkot Akpan Ishiet, Onna LGA
  3. Examine the problems that Government face in trying to implement policies to improve rural education in IkotAkpanIshiet, Onna LGA.

1.4 Research Questions

The following are the research questions drafted by the researcher to help in executing the study:

  1. What is the state of rural schools in IkotAkpanIshiet, Onna LGA?
  2. What is the adequacy of government policies on education towards rural educational development in Ikot Akpan Ishiet, Onna LGA?
  3. What are the problems that Government face in trying to implement policies to improve rural education in Ikot Akpan Ishiet, Onna LGA.?

1.5 Formulation Of Hypothesis

  • HA:There is a relationship between current government policies and rural educational development.
  • HO: There is no relationship between current government policies and rural educational development.

1.6 Significant Of The Study

This study when completed will be beneficial to the students, tertiary institutions, teachers and ministries of education. In addition, the study will try to provide adequate and enough information for planners of educational policies and curriculum with a particular reference to rural development process. No doubt, the study will help ministries of education to make useful and important recommendations on how to develop rural areas.

The curriculum designers could receive vital information about the problem being suffered in rural areas in teaching and learning and may adopt a system of solving the problems that will eliminate the difference and bridging the wider gap between urban and rural areas.

Be that as it may, the study will no doubt enrich the libraries with useful copies of papers as researchers in Oredo Local Government Area in particular and Nigeria at large. It will also provide relevant information to researchers who might be interested in the educational research.

1.7 Scope Of The Study

This study is designed to show areas to which the research work is carried out; it includes both the male and female respondents ofcommunity secondary school IkotAkpanIshiet, Onna LGA. Akwaibom state.

1.8 Limitation Of The Study

Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

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How to nail it on the head during your project / seminar defence

You are through with writing that project / seminar. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic

Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.

Structure of a Seminar Paper

I feel like there is a lot of stress out there among grad students about writing seminar papers, especially when we’re told that our goal should be to make an original contribution to the field. That idea can be quite intimidating when we’re just starting out. It feels like you’ve asked us to jump off the deep end of the pool and we don’t know how to swim.

I think part of the problem is that we’re still working out how to structure seminar papers.** Each paper we write is another step closer to a successful, effective, and effective paper; however, we’re still flailing our arms (and other miscellaneous body parts) around because we’re uncertain of exactly how to go about it. I realize, of course, that there is no one right answer. However, below is my suggestion at sticking your toes in the water.

Section #1 — Introduction

Provide a little bit (or a lot) of motivation for the reader to read your entire paper. Failing that, your reader should know what the paper is going to be about by reading your introduction.

Paragraph #1 — Get some attention.

  1. Provide a context by citing a recent text in the field — the point that is cited may or may not be the main point of the text — it is what jumped out at you.
  2. Set-up broader context of what you’re going to do

Paragraph #2-?? — Define issue and the gap.

  1. Define issue and any key terms
  2. Limit scope as necessary
  3. Establish significance of issue
  4. State problem by defining the gap
  5. Explain how present research attempts to fill the gap
  6. Outline contributions (readers will see lit review for more detail.)
  7. End with thesis and preview organization of the rest of the paper

Section #2 — Literature Review

Give some credit where credit is due.

  1. Indicate the current state of the issue/problem/topic
  2. Define or qualify terms
  3. Engage sources in conversation with each other (don’t just copy in annotated bib)

Section #3 — Argument / Discussion

As stated in the Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing:wallow in those complexities!!

  1. Examine issue
  2. Argue how issue can be mitigated, mediated, or mashed
  3. Provide evidence and support
  4. Make some lively commentary along the way

Section #4 — Conclusion

We’re almost done. Don’t quit now.

  1. Summarize research question
  2. Qualify argument/discussion if you need to
  3. Explain where we go now
  4. End well

Section #5 — Works Cited

Double check

Is everything listed on the works cited?

Tips: it’s ok to use sub-headings to keep yourself organized.

Tips On How To Know What Your Supervisor Is Looking Out For In Your Project

Apparently all schools/colleges ask their undergraduates especially the final students to write their final year project before they are certified to be graduates. These projects are mostly discovery activities geared towards problems solving or basically to make new discoveries or better still have a better understanding of a problem with the aim of proffering better solutions.

With this assigned task an undergraduate will need an advisor, a counselor or a supervisor to guide and direct this activity for a desired result and a successful ending and of course, in return the supervisor have factors to look out for in a student project, so that the aim of the project writing will not be defeated.

As a final year student planning to write your final year project, there are some factors you need to consider when trying to have a good working relationship with your supervisor and you must have the below tips at your fingertips to know what your supervisor look at for in your project.

Selecting the right topic or title:

The supervisor would want to know how knowledgeable one is, in a chosen topic and how far one can go with the topic by asking one diverse questions which could be simple or a bit tough. So one thing is to choose a right topic and another thing is to be knowledgeable about the said topic.

The relevancy of the project topic to the degree course:

This is one of the important things a supervisor looks out for in a project. A final year project must have a purpose and objectives and most importantly be problem solving and must be related to the course of study. So a project topic should be relevant and interesting.

The realistic plan for the project:

A project supervisor will always look at how realistic a project topic is. Will the project aims be achieved and at the specified time. If it will outlived the specified time such topic might be dropped and a new topic adopted to run the set time and fulfill its purpose.

Quality of research materials available:

Another factor a supervisor will consider in project writing by a student is the quality of the materials available for research on the chosen project topic, can materials and information be readily available and are those materials of high standard and convincing not just bogus and fictitious analysis but materials that research has be carried out by scholars related to course of study. So a source of materials used for a project is very important and most supervisors look out for this.

The funding channels:

Almost all project writing needs a good amount of funding to achieved the desired aim, A supervisor would always want to find out how the project will be funded, so as not to have hitches when the project is on. So to have a smooth working relationship with ones project supervisor, the funding of the project must be considered and revisited from time to time. Because a supervisor will look out for this aspect too.

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