The Impact Of Occupational Stress On Nurses Productivity In Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH)
Occupational stress can no longer be considered an occasional, personal problem to be remedied with palliatives. It is becoming an increasingly global phenomenon, affecting all categories of workers, all workplaces and all countries of which nurses of JUTH are not exceptional. In line with such an approach, this research is aimed at accessing the impact of occupational stress on nurses productivity in Jos university teaching hospital (JUTH). Data for the study was gathered from both primary and secondary sources. A sample size of 70 nurses was selected using systematic random sampling method. Empirical results from the data indicate that workload, Conflict among colleagues and supervisors are other major causes of stress in nurses at JUTH. It was established from the research that stress affects output, quality of work which leads to client dissatisfaction of nurses. Therefore, stress has negative relation with the performance of nurses.
1.1 Background to the Study
Stress according to Abolade (2018), is a multidimensional and dynamic notion. Undesirable levels of stress have a detrimental effect on the organization’s overall effectiveness. As a result, in order to perform efficiently, the organization or management must effectively regulate the degree of stress. To accomplish this organizational purpose, all elements affecting stress must be accurately recognized and quantified.
There is no unique appropriate amount of stress for everyone. Positive stress infuses life with expectation and excitement, and we all flourish under some level of stress. Our objective is not to eradicate stress, but to learn to handle it and to harness its benefits. As a result, it is critical for both individuals and organizations to handle stress effectively (Abolade 2018).
The subject of establishing a high-performance company is a prominent one in the training and development industry. Organizations cannot afford anything less in these competitive times. Developing a high-performing company involves an awareness of the elements that drive performance, one of which is stress. We are all aware that we live in a dynamic world in which change-related pressures abound across society and in our jobs. We are presented with several uncertainties in the environment in which we live and work every day, whether it is at our homes, workplaces, marketplaces, churches, political meetings, or while driving on the streets (Vijayan, 2017). Workers are always being pushed to adapt to competitive pressures, organizational change, new problems, and the pursuit of increased efficiency and performance in the workplace. All of these factors and more contribute to an employee’s job stress.
In recent times, there has been a growing belief that the experience of stress at work has unwelcome effects, both on the health and safety of workers and on the health and effectiveness of their organizations (Payne, 2001). This belief has been reflected not only in public and media interest, but also in increasing concern voiced by the trades unions and by scientific and professional organizations, including the International Labor Office. Particular concern has been expressed for the effects of stress on health-care professionals and, in particular, on nurses. He concluded that nursing is, by its very nature, a “stressful” profession. In a similar vein, Harris (2001) observed that every day the nurse confronted with grief, stark suffering, and death as few other individuals do. A lot of nursing tasks are unrewarding and mundane. Many are, by normal standards, disgusting and distasteful. Some are simply frightening, others are often degrading. It is barely amazing that nurses, faced by such tasks and events, have been detailed to experience high intensities of stress, and their difficulties emerge to be further worsened by a range of organizational matters increasingly accepted as being active in the stress process.
Stress has been grouped as a stimulus or antecedent, as a response or consequence, and as an interaction. It has been deliberated from many diverse perspectives. For instance, Smith et al (2001) anticipated a physiological evaluation that supports considering the connection between stress and illness. On the contrary, Cox and Griffiths (1996) argued that a psychological view in which stress is has a particular relationship between the person and the environment.
Menzies (1960) recognized four sources of nervousness among nurses: decision making, patient care, taking responsibility, and change. The nurse‟s responsibility has long been considered as stress-filled based upon the human suffering, physical labor, work hours, interpersonal relationships and staffing that are vital to the work nurses do. However, in the last three decade the work stress of nurses‟ have been rising due to the increasing use of technology, continuing going up in health care costs and unrest in the work environment.
Stress is a common and costing setback in today’s working environment. Smith et al (2001) indicated that majority of workers report high intensities of stress and are associated with considerable rises in health service utilization. He also indicated that stress is the main cause of labor turnover, absenteeism, conflict and accidents in any organization. It is against this background that this study seeks to assess the Impact Of Occupational Stress On Nurses Productivity In Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), one of the leading hospitals in Northern Nigeria.
1.2 statement of the Problem
Work stress threatens the wellbeing of organizations and employees’ performance (Musyoka, et al., 2012). The issue is becoming a serious problem for many organizations due to organization cost and other negative effects towards organizations and employees’ performance (AL-Omar, 2003). Azizolla, et al. (2013) state that work stress exists when people experienced difficulties in coping with the demands relating to work and when sense of wellbeing is jeopardized. According to Kazmi, et al. (2008) health sector is an inherently stressful work setting with long working hours, ethical dilemmas, difficult patients and incompatible demands. Health sector in Nigeria is among of the sectors which are affected by the said problem. Therefore, it is not exempted from the said consequences. There is however a paucity of research evidence as to whether work stress affects the performance of health workers in Nigeria in general, but JUTH in particular. It is in this respect that this study aims at assessing the nurses performance, assessing the extent of work stress among nurses and evaluates the relationship between work stress and nurses performance
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to examine the impact of occupational stress on nurses productivity in jos university teaching hospital (JUTH). Specifically, we aim to:
- Examine some of the causes of stress among nurses at JUTH
- Determine the effect of stress on the performance of nurses at JUTH
- Evaluate the the Rate/frequency of Stress among nurses
- Examine the Management of stress on nurses in JUTH
- Evaluate the Relationship between stress and performance of nurses in JUTH
1.4 Research Question
The questions that the study will seek to be answered are;
- What are some of the causes of stress among nurses at JUTH?
- What is the effect of stress on the performance of nurses at JUTH?
- What is the Rate/frequency of Stress among nurses?
- What is the Management of stress on nurses in JUTH?
- What is the Relationship between stress and performance of nurses in JUTH?
1.5 Significance of the Study
Nurses are the cornerstone of the nation‟s health care industry, they do not only offer care and comfort, but also serve as role models for good health care. There is therefore adequate justification to study the impact of occupational stress on nurses productivity in jos university teaching hospital (JUTH). Such study will help the nurses to identify the causes of their stress and how to manage it and be able to deliver well to increase their performance.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study has two limitations concerning the findings. First, the study area of this research was a public hospital and even so only one public hospital represented all nurses. Secondly, this study cover nurses of the chosen hospital where by other medical staffs like laboratory technician, therapists, and administrators’ at the study area were not included. This suggests that the findings of this study would be limit at nurses of the JUTH only. There could be regional/cultural specific factors which may make results of this study specific to either the hospital characteristics or region’s culture and geographic location. A study with wider coverage of hospitals in the whole country would be able to mitigate the potential effects of these limitations.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
This research work is specifically on the impact of occupational stress on nurses productivity in jos university teaching hospital (JUTH). In the limitation on research work of this magnitude or nature can be carried out without limitation. Hence, during the course, certain constraints were encountered.
The cost of thorough research is not what can be afforded by a student. The prices of materials needed for this work has gone up and transport fee has also gone up.
The time was one of the limitations in the process of carrying out this research work.
Scarcity of Literature:
The research encountered some problems in collection of literature especially on the bank History and operations. This are hindered the smooth running of this work.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
Stress is the wear and tear of our body experienced as are adjust to continually changed environment.
(ii.) Stress Management:
This can be define as various effort to control and reduce the tension that occurs in stressful situation.
This is either skilled or unskilled individual who is assured to be economically gesture, and he/she is employed for some form is reward.
(iv.) Work Environment:
This is the organizational arrangement of the work situation, which has a high impact on the employee.
This is the degree of effectiveness in utilizing the facilities of production, especially in labour and material.
(vi.) Destructive Stress:
This is the stress that acts in a dysfunctional way for both individual and the organization.
1.9 Organization of the study
The rest of the dissertation is organized as follows: Chapter two discusses related studies. The chapter covers definitions of terms, theories, empirical studies, research gap, conceptual frame work and summary. Chapter three presents the research methodology adopted by the study. Chapter four presents and discusses the study findings while chapter five provides conclusions and recommendations
Conclusions and Recommendations
In conclusion, it said that stress is a natural phenomenon that can be experienced by all human beings irrespective of gender or social status. Thus this subject matter must be well understood especially by management of organization such as in JUTH a, in order to have a good policy direction to help promote high performance among nurses in the hospital and other such health institutions.
Organizations may be hesitant to spend money for additional programs and staffing, but could be convinced if they were really made aware of the high cost of occupational stress due to increased absenteeism, compensation claims, risks of litigation due to errors, negativity and decreased patient satisfaction. Decreasing stress for nurses in the workplace is multifaceted (Rosenstein, 2002). The first step is for organizations to recognize, and accept that the work environment is responsible for much of the stress experienced by nurses, and not just something that nurses have to deal with of their own. Therefore, administrators must be committed to implementing changes that will help to minimize some of the known stressors of nurses. Nurses need to feel that they are involved in decision making especially related to patient care issues. Therefore a more decentralized democratic management approach would be beneficial and this is imperative to increase nurses‟ visibility in the workplace by establishing programs that recognizes their contributions.
The results of this study give information for stakeholders at hospital to provide , nurses with a variety of programmes for managing the level of stress during and after their working time in order to maintain or improve on the current performance of employees. For example, stakeholders at hospital should create training programs for doctors, nurses and medical attendants on how to handle stress resulted from their daily activities at hospital settings.
Moreover, the hospital management can create social or cultural activity that can facilitate to gather doctors, nurses and medical attendants, making seminars for open dialogue to share feelings, perspectives, and experiences, or scheduling of social events where doctors, nurses and medical attendants involve in culturally relevant activities together.
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