Impact Of Nigerian Airspace Management Agency Towards The Development Of Tourism And Hospitality Industry In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Tourism and Hospitality

Impact Of Nigerian Airspace Management Agency Towards The Development Of Tourism And Hospitality Industry In Nigeria


Abstract


Aviation services play a vital role among other services in the tourism industry throughout the world. Hence, the main objective of this study is to find out the Impacts of Nigerian Airspace Management Agency (NAMA) towards the development of tourism and hospitality industry in Nigeria, these impact are economic impact, environmental impact and social impact. The aviation industry supports tourism and international business by providing the world’s only rapid worldwide transportation network.

Airlines transported 2.8 billion passengers and 47.6 million metric tonnes of air cargo in 2011, connecting the world’s cities with 36,000 routes. By providing these services, the aviation industry plays an important role in enabling economic growth and providing various economic, social and environmental benefits. Airspace management prevents mutual interference from all users of the airspace, facilitates air defense identification and accommodates the flow of all air traffic safely.

This research work will examine the challenges encounter by NAMA in the aviation industry and also provide possible solutions to the challenges. In furtherance, the research will also explain the economic, environmental and social impacts of Nigerian airspace management agency towards the development of tourism and hospitality industry Nigeria.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

Introduction

  • Statement Of Problem
  • Objectives Of The Research
  • Research Questions

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • An Overview Of NAMA
  • The Organizational Structure of NAMA
  • A Brief History of Nigerian Aviation Industry
  • The Current State of the Nigerian Aviation Industry
  • Challenges to the Nigerian Aviation Industry
  • Empirical Review

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • Research Design
  • Method and Instrument of Data Collection
  • Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

Data Presentation And Analysis

  • Data Presentation
  • Statistical Presentation of Tourists Arrival and Departure at the Study Area
  • The Role Of NAMA
  • Importance of Air Travel to Tourism Development in Nigeria.
  • Problems of Air Travel in Nigeria
  • Prospects of Air Travel in Nigeria

Chapter Five

Summary, Recommendations, And Conclusion

  • Summary
  • Recommendations
  • Conclusion
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

Aviation is the science or practice of flying through the air in heavier-than-air machine. Aviation is one of the greatest and important unique inventions of man in the area of transportation. It is the most veritable means of transportation of people and goods around the globe. Other uniqueness includes expeditious circulation of vital assets, which members of international community treasure most, namely: information, money and properties. Aviation brings together people of different nationalities, creed and socioeconomic backgrounds more than any other industry worldwide. It fosters trade and commerce among various people of the world.

According to Dr. Assad Kataite, Council President of International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) at the 33rd Session of ICAO in Montreal Canada in year 2001, ‘global transportation is a driver of economic development, a catalyst for business and tourism and a vehicle for social and cultural development worldwide’2 . So since 17 December 1903 near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina when a bicycle repairer Orville Wright propelled himself through the air a distance of 120ft the first powered flight3 in a heavier than-air aircraft known to human, the equivalent of 0.23 passenger-mile, the first such statistics recorded in the history of aviation, air transportation has been beneficial to man.

Crime on board aircraft border on terrorism, hijack or air piracy, assassination, bombing and so on which make flight unsafe. Violent crimes or unlawful acts in aviation have always posed great threat and challenge to international civil aviation5 . Additionally, deliberate shooting down of aircraft by nations that claimed their national airspace was trespassed on is inimical to flight safety6 . Moreover, civil aviation has been swept up in the wave of commercialization, 16 globalization and trans-nationalization, with implication for safety and security that have to be addressed.

Regulations for safety and security is under the Chicago convention, the responsibility of individual states, as ownership and operation of airlines, airports and air traffic control devolve from governments and cross-border involvement becomes more common, the need for seamless co-ordination beyond national and regional borders becomes even more fundamental7 . This study is built around the legal responsibilities of airspace managers (specifically the Nigerian Airspace Management Agency) for their own navigation, passengers and development of the tourism and hospitality industry.

Air transportation globally constitutes significant proportion of the nations’ socio-economic system and development. It facilitates movement of people, goods and services thereby assists in generating contact and revenue on which economic, social and political progress of nations radiate. For example this 2006 Air France-KLM recorded great revenue increase in its fiscal quarter of over 11.9% that is 5.8 billion euros and added 25 extra frequencies 15 to its European destinations and British Airways’ first quarter profit rose over 72% in increased travel from London4 . So air transport has done more than provide a carrier service, it has affected economic way of life, made changes in social and cultural viewpoints and had a hand in shaping the course of political history. Air transport industry contributes directly to the economy through its employment and revenue generation and indirectly by its purchase of goods and services from suppliers of the industry. There is urgent need for governments to develop the industry to meet international standard and requirement.

Development of this industry will enhance economic development of countries especially developing ones. Alas, this beautiful achievement of man is bedeviled by hazards. Law has to intervene to minimize the hazards by regulating air traffic operations, imposing duties and obligations on the various entities involved in air navigation. Besides, aviation has always been exploited by perpetrators of unlawful acts, whose trademark is terrorism. Aviation is constantly being targeted all over the world by terrorist groups and individuals who see it as the most effective avenue to propagate political views, plights and motives. It has always been very effective in gaining media attention and publicity for terrorism. Thus security and safety have been major aspect of concern, which cannot be ignored by the international community.


Statement Of Problem

It is axiomatic to point out here that despite the expansion and improvement of air travel in Nigeria since independence, the Nigerian airports so to say are still facing some challenges. Findings have shown that the first plane crash in Nigeria occurred on November 20, 1969 when a government-owned DC 10 aircraft on a flight from London crash landed in Lagos. It killed all 87 passenger and the crew on board. Since then similar tragic incident resulting in various air crash which has claimed a lot of lives have remained obvious in the aviation sector in Nigeria.

For over two decades, from 1990 to 2012 to mention but a few, Nigerian aviation sector, both civilian and military had witnessed a number of unfortunate calamities and deteriorations. In September 1992, a Hercules C -130, military plane crashed in Ejibgo, Lagos five minutes after take-off, in which 192 middle ranking and senior military officers perished. In November 1996, 142 people died when an ADC Boeing 727 plane plunged into a lagoon near Lagos, and in May 2002, an EAS Airline plane crashed in Kano killing 148 people and non-passengers on the ground. On 23 October 2005, a Bellview airline crashed immediately after take-off, killing all on board passenger, and in December 11, of the same year, many lives of young school children were lost when a Sosoliso airline – Flight 1145 crashed in Port Harcourt. In September 19, 2006, a military plane, Dornier 228 crashed at Mbakumu, Benue State, claiming the lives of 13 senior military officers (Osaremen, 2012:1). The most sorrowful was the recent Dana air crash of June 2012 claiming the lives of all 153 passenger on board and those in the comfort of their houses in Lagos just five minutes before landing.

All these boil down to lack of good practice in the aviation sector and not taking adequate measures in the maintenance of air craft and airline operators in the country. Regrettably, despite the pain and agonies, grief and the loss of lives associated with air mishaps, the usual way the federal government and the aviation sector attend to them shows lack of competence in the aviation sector and most likely to be caricatured in the real sense.

Having examined this, the government has finally realized that travel and tourism holds the key to the much-needed diversification of the economy and has been initiating measures to reposition the industry as an alternative source of foreign exchange. Through diversification, travel and tourism is expected to continue gaining recognition as an important tool for stimulating rapid economic growth in Nigeria (www.euromonitor.com/traveland-tourism). Nonetheless, more efforts are needed to develop this industry to match other African countries like Kenya, Ghana, and South Africa. Interestingly, there is a strong correlation between areas of high tourist movement and high airport traffic in Africa, which shows the increasingly mutually dependent state of air transport and tourism in modern economies. Airports in Africa that have traffic above 5 million passengers are linked to regions with well developed tourism sites and strong tourism arrivals. However, the Murtala Mohammed International Airport, Lagos (MMIA), which is no doubt located in the one-time capital of Nigeria and Nigeria’s commercial capital, recorded 6,748,290 traffic in 2011 alongside other airports in Africa which recorded theirs respectively.

However, the major problem of the airports boils down to the Federal Government’s attitude towards executing projects and the NAMA’s inability to monitor them properly to the end to achieve their desired goals and achieve the desired development of the tourism and hospitality industry. It is in lieu of this that the researcher covers the impact of Nigerian Airspace Management Agency towards the development of tourism and hospitality industry in Nigeria.


Objectives Of The Research

The main objective of this study is to assess the impact of Nigerian Airspace Management Agency towards the development of tourism and hospitality industry in Nigeria. Specifically, the study has the following objectives;

  1. To ascertain the terminal/airport facilities of Murtala Mohammed Airport, Lagos, as well as the present condition of the airport
  2. To examine the operational activities of NAMA with the aim of achieving their overall tourist activities especially with international tourists in the country
  3. To evaluate the role of NAMA in air travel and tourism in Nigeria
  4. To identify the problems, challenges associated with air travel and tourism in Nigeria.
  5. To proffer possible solutions to the problems for the future of air travel and NAMA

Research Questions

The following questions were formulated to guide the study;

  1. What are the terminal/airport facilities of Murtala Mohammed Airport, Lagos, as well as the present condition of the airport?
  2. What are the operational activities of NAMA with the aim of achieving their overall tourist activities especially with international tourists in the country?
  3. What is the role of NAMA in air travel and tourism in Nigeria?
  4. What are the problems, challenges associated with air travel and tourism in Nigeria?
  5. What are the possible solutions to the problems for the future of air travel and NAMA?

Chapter Five


Summary, Recommendations, And Conclusion

Summary

It is now important to note that, air travel and tourism cannot be over-emphasized. The fact is that without tourism, there will be no transport, and without transport, there will be no tourism. This is simply because they work hand in hand and dependent on each other for maximum growth. With that, we can say that tourism and travel are as old as time; because from time immemorial man has travelled from one place to the other using different modes of transportation. However, the expansion of travel and tourism has an impact on air transportation. Thus, they complement each other. The expansion of international tourism has a large impact on air travel, hence the growth in tourism industry reflects on the air transformation.

The tourism sector as noted is now a major player in growing the economy of any country hence, Nigeria as a country is an ideal destination for all kinds of tourism – eco tourism, cultural tourism, religious tourism, business tourism, health tourism among others. With this in mind, it is then important to maintain an international standard in the aviation sector that will make Nigeria Airports, particularly MMIA a world – class aviation hub. This is because airports have grown beyond the concept of a place where passenger and cargo are boarded and lands. Rather they have become the main focal point of growth for the economy of a nation, which also contributes huge chunks to their Gross Domestic Products (G.D.P) Jetlife (2011:32). This, however, will give and improve the nation’s image and perception around the world, though such an image has been long overdue. Having said that, the on-going remodelling and reconstruction will improve safety at the aviation sector, but there is need to create ways to support and maintain it in the future.

As a result of this growth, there has been improved facilities and new technology on modes of transport which can accelerate the movement of tourist from one choice of destination to another. Air travel or transport has become that one mode of transportation which/that can meet or fill this gap. It plays a dominant role in inter-regional movement of tourists, which usually entails long-haul travel and routes. Therefore, to achieve this, airports have a major role to play because it is seen as the gateway of a nation and the first point of contact to international or domestic tourists,

Aviation sector provides the only and trusted world-wide transportation network, which makes it absolutely necessary for tourism and global business. And Nigeria aims to have a world-class aviation sector that is self-sustaining and pivotal to socio-economic growth (Jetlife 2012:34). With MMIA, and the transformation going on, that has put in place modern facilities it will eventually facilitate the movement of tourist and give them the comfort they deserve. With this image being projected globally and the volume of work at these airports, including best practice in the end, Nigeria airports will surely meet the international standards of foreign airports. Having noted that, air travel contributes to sustainable development not only by facilitating tourism; it also generates economic growth and broadens people’s leisure and cultural experiences.

Additionally, the administration of President Goodluck Jonathan and the Aviation Minister Princess Stella Oduah, have the following as the aviation master plan in the industry:

  1. Institutionalize world-class safety and security standards.
  2. Development of Infrastructure.
  3. Reformation of institutions, develop capacity and increase professionalism.
  4. Transformation key airports into a network of domestic and international hubs.
  5. Growth of domestic airlines and create financial stability.
  6. Development of airport cities (Aerotropolis) to transform airports into major centres of employment, shopping, trading and business leisure and ;
  7. Creation of national carriers (Source: FAAN News Track, 2013).

Recommendations

Given the study of the impact of NAMA on development of tourism industry, and having seen the nonchalant attitude of government towards the aviation sector, it is appropriate if the following recommendations will be maintained to salvage the industry for a better future. They include:

  1. Safety and Security: Airports across the country as well as airlines operators (domestic and international) should embrace safety and security standards to meet up to international standard. There should be installation of CCTV cameras all over the airports that will be able to monitor people for safety reasons. There also should be sniffing dogs, 3D scanning machines, and all other modern security equipment. The government should endeavour to put all the security measures that our foreign counterparts are using to enable us meet their standard. Recently, the African Civil Aviation Policy (AFCAP) has mapped out their strategic objectives policy to include the enhancement of civil safety and security and also strengthen the Rule of Law in African Aviation (Aviation and Allied Business Journal, 2013:32).
  2. Technological Improvement is likely to boost international tourists and increase the growth of the nation’s economy if there will be improvement technologically. Installation of all the modern facilities that the federal government has managed to install should be adequately maintained and checked regularly for best practice.
  3. Tourism has increasingly been viewed as a promising area of economic activity that could become a structural part of alleviating poverty and sustainable development. Therefore, Nigeria government should not dawdle in boosting the tourism sector through the aviation sector since it has been noted that the two work in pari passu. They should also maintain an air transport regulatory frame work.
  4. The quantum of deaths experienced in our aviation industry has seriously affected Nigeria in one way or the other. Therefore, government and the aviation ministry should try to regularly check the operators of all the airlines both domestic and international, the age of those aircrafts and their technical maintenance and updates them regularly. They also need regular checks and must be examined by aviation authorities before taking off and landing. Those who are not capable of running the business should be banned out of the business so the sector will have a new leaf and remain more focused and maintain professionalism.
  5. Training is another part in the aviation sector that has been neglected for too long. Probably we do not do trainings in Nigeria or it could be attributed to not attaching importance to anything. Therefore, the pilots, crew members, weather forecasters, engineers, various airline and airport staff-NAMA, FAAN, NCAA, meteorologists among others needs regular trainings. There also should be bodies to monitor the expiration of any training they should undergo and consequently keep updating them. The trainings should be mandatory and properly scrutinized and checked to maintain best practice. In fact, we need to get things right because it’s been long overdue. In this light, the dynamism and recent innovations in civil aviation are fundamental factors that make innovative training a priority for air transport in Africa today (Ohaeri, 2013:24) in Aviation and Allied Business Journal, 2013.
  6. The regulatory bodies and parastatals like FAAN, NAMA, and NCAA should also maintain their focus and take every aspect of their job titles and job descriptions seriously to avoid unnecessary loop-holes on the industry generally. The research feels that some of these bodies do not really know or better understand their job titles and descriptions. The conduct of best practice and professionalism should be adopted and maintain to give Nigeria a place in the face of our foreign competitors.

Conclusion

Nigeria aviation industry over the years has been slow to change, but the recent transformation agenda has heralded a new dawn. Though these changes and renovations have been long overdue, the drive for change has seen an evolution from old faces of our airports to new faces. Consequently, the drive to join the moving train of other countries has yielded at least 50% of improvement in the sector. Perhaps the drive for modernity and development as well as the interrelated nature of the aviation industry and tourism industry, is beginning to give the airports in Nigeria a new lease of life into making them efficient, profitable, self-sustaining, secure and to be comfortable hubs.
Following this new concepts and recent development across the country, particularly in Murtala Muhammed and Port Harcourt International Airports where the study is limited to, basically, some international companies that have ignored the country in the past years, could re-affirm their partnership in this regard thus increasing the number of international tourists to be on a high increase. Once the international tourists or travellers begin to appreciate the modern facilities and opportunities that Nigeria will offer, it will lead to greater passenger numbers and then create an improved economic development in both the tourism and travel sector.

Furthermore, the role and contribution of the regulatory bodies and parastatals like FAAN, NAMA, and NCAA to the aviation sector in Nigeria were ascertained. It suffices to say that, they should regularly maintain their policy, update them if/when need be, and also monitor both local and international airline operators. Once these best practices are put in place, it will ensure safety and reduce fear from passenger within and outside Nigeria. Their policy will definitely serve as a major tool towards refocusing and transforming the entire Nigeria aviation sector in becoming the domestic and international hub that Africa and the world truly deserves once it is responsive. It is noted that the best of policies without adequate skilled manpower implementers would remain a mirage (Ohaeri, 2013:24). Therefore, the aviation training centers in Nigeria will serve as an engine room and nerve centres for the realization and actualization of lofty goals and achievements for the industry.

Aviation is a global business with a goal standards geared towards the safety of lives and engine for sustainable economic development and growth. The theories used in the course of this work have shown that, remodelling of the airports particularly the Murtala Muhammed International Airport, Lagos and the Port Harcourt International Airport, Omagwa, is a practical reality which is aimed at not only giving them new faces or looks, but also aimed at enhancing the safety standards and providing the best security to thousands of international tourists/ passenger, and the domestic passenger alike including their luggage.


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