The Impact Of Newspaper Advertisement In An Organization

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

The Impact Of Newspaper Advertisement In An Organization


Abstract


This study probes the role of newspaper advertisement in an organization. It specifically tackles the impact of advertisement. The research posits that the current trends in advertisements as observed of Globacom Nigeria Limited. The assumption that advertisement has direct and powerful effects is shared by optimistic modernization theory. The research applies the theory of acculturation along with the culturation hypothesis. The Newspaper adverts have played a dominant role in the growth of Globacom Nigeria Limited. From the review of related literature, The improvement of advertisement policies and tactics will increase consumers attention to the products and services offered by Globacom Nigeria Limited. The analysis of collected data using the survey research method Recommendations to check the cultural genocide for further research were preferred.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study.

According to Dominick (2002:369), Advertising is any paid form of non-personal, presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, services usually paid for by an identified sponsor. From the foregoing, certain words of elaboration, advertising is “non personal”, it is directed towards a large group of anonymous people, even direct mail advertising, which may be addressed to specific person, is prepared by a computer and signed by a machine.
Many attempts were made in the past to formulate a definition of advertising, one of such attempts led by the American Marketing Associations (AMA 1977) Cited in Suleiman (2004:35) says. Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of goods, services or ideas by identified sponsors.

Secondly, advertising typically “paid for”. This fact differentiates advertising from publicity, which is not usually purchased. Sponsors such as Globacom Nigeria limited pay for the time and space they use to get their message across. Non-profit organizations, such as the Red Cross, advertise but do not pay for time space. Newspapers run these adverts free as public services.

Thirdly for obvious reasons, the sponsor of the advert is the brain behind the advert otherwise, why advertising? Perhaps the only situation, in which the identification of the advertiser may not be self-evident, is political advertising. Because of this, publishers will not accept a political advert without a statement identifying those responsible for it.

Newspaper advertising in Nigeria can be traced to the growth of commercial activities even before the arrival of the white man. The methods of advertising prior to the arrival of the whites according to Ogbodoh (1990) cited in Okunna (2002:86) were town crier shouting and calling peoples attention to a situation or event in the town.
Ekwelie in his book ‘Mass Media and National Development’ opines that before the emergence of cities, villages and little neighborhoods had ways of advertising wares.

In communities children would sing recognizable songs to announce the availability of goods when in cities, today, and one can still hear the mating song of pap sellers.

The view that traders were satisfied with the spreading of their waves on the ground waiting for customers to make their first advance is entirely misleading. Traders called the attention of prospective customers to the excellent quality and quantity of their goods and sometimes coined slogan to give added effect to their usually exaggerated claims.

However, modern day newspaper advertising began in 1859, while the commercial advertising started in 1928 when West African Publicity (WAP) and the fore runner of lintas were established by United African Company (UAC). In 1859, the English Reverend gentleman, Henry Townsend established the first Newspaper in Nigeria called Iwe iroyin fun Egba ati Yoruba. Though the newspaper was mainly for ecclesiological matters, it carried advertisement on birth, weddings, deaths, church activities and vacancies for house boy and maid ship schedules and other social events.

Iwe Irohin blazed the trail in newspaper advertisement and established, newspapers such as Anglo African, The Lagos Observer, The Eagle, The Lagos weekly record, the critic and Mirror e.t.c. in the Lagos colony and after 1914 when the amalgamation had taken place.

Advertising business received a boost as from the 1920s when business activities in Lagos and its environs peaked. Many foreign companies such as Lever Brothers, Raleigh Bicycle, Dunlop, Pz, NACCET, Cadbury, Good year Tyres, Ovaltine, Nugget, Guinness, and Schnapps were bases in Lagos.

The West African Publicity provided advertising services to these companies through the “three ps”- poster, press and pamphlet.

Posters happened to the most dominant medium, while WAP (West African Publicity) concentrated very much on site purchase and acquisition. Over three hundred (300) sites were acquired along Nigeria sites at post offices, market places and road function in many towns. No doubt, WAP (West African Publicity) become the indisputable poster monarchs of Nigeria. With the increased political tempo between 1930 and 1950, many Newspaper, were established and commercial advertising became a major source of revenue for them.

Glo Gateway, a subsidiary of GLO, is GLO’s International Wholesale Voice and Data Exchange Trading Business Unit. Due to an expansion program which took place in 2008, Glo Gateway now covers 140 countries under its roaming services, and it is currently connected to 235 networks. Year 2008 also saw growth in Glo’s data roaming for mobile phones, laptopsand BlackBerry handsets, which has now spread to 72 networks in 29 countries. This now gives GLO the largest roaming coverage for voice and data in Africa. Glo Gateway recently acquired a license in Côte d’Ivoire.
As a part of Glo’s service offering, Glo Broad Access will be vastly improved by the laying of the fibre optic cable for the metro ring, which is progressing steadily. The Glo Broad Access was launched on the 24th of November 2009.

Glo Broad Access offers landline telephones, broadband internet and video, all on a single digital wire line.
Glo-1(a network technology) is the first successful submarine cable from the United Kingdom to Nigeria, and GLO is the first individual African company to embark on such a project.

Glo-1 (a network technology) has the potential to provide high speed internet services, faster, more reliable and cheaper telecom services for the public. Glo-1 will potentially facilitate foreign investment and employment opportunities especially to Africans.

The 9,800 km long cable originates from Bude in the UK and it is laid from this origin to Alpha Beach in Lagos, where it will have its landing Station. Glo-1 will also improve teleconferencing, distant learning, disaster recovery and telemedicine among several other benefits for Nigerians and the people of West Africa.

In August 2003, Glo Mobile was launched in Nigeria. Glo Mobile introduced lower tariffs, pay per second billing and alongside other value added services. Although Glo Mobile was the fourth GSM operator to launch in Nigeria, within seven years of the company’s operation, its subscriber base has grown to over 25 million.

In June 2008, Glo Mobile was launched in the Republic of Benin. Glo Mobile showed unprecedented growth through the sale of 600,000 SIM cards in the first ten days of operation. Glo Mobile offered Per Second Billing, which charges subscribers for the exact airtime used. They also offered other value added services such as MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service), Glo Magic Plus, news and information, vehicle tracking, musical ring-back tones and mobile banking.

In May 2008, GLO acquired an operating license through its Glo Mobile division in Ghana and plans to capture 30% of the then current 11 million subscriber market within 18 months of launch. They plan on achieving this goal by launching with bundled voice and Internet services for Ghana and through specifically targeting ‘un-serviced’ areas outside Ghana’s two major cities, Accra and Kumasi. Glo Mobile was set to launch in Ghana the first quarter of 2010. This has however been postponed to the third quarter of 2011, and again to 2012. In january 2012, Glo Ghana opened the “Reserve your number” campaign, but still without opening the network. On April 8, 2011 GLO launched the sub-marine optical fiber GLO1, one part of its maiden operation in Ghana, to usher in another major player in the Ghana telecommunication industry.

In October 2009, GLO acquired submarine cable landing rights and International Gateway Services in Côte d’Ivoire
The company also provides marketing functions for companies outside the Globacom Nigeria Limited (Nigeria) division. Newspaper adverts have played a dominant role in the growth of Globacom Nigeria Limited, the role that Newspaper adverts played is as follows:

  1. It gives necessary awareness and exposure of the company product to the general public.
  2. It encourages brand loyalty, which gives reason for a repeat purchase.
  3. It motivates consumers to buy the products.

One of the methods of advertising used by Globacom Nigeria Limited to reach their public is through Newspaper. They also engage in out door activities like sales promotion and exhibition, where they give out T. shirts, P-caps and plastic containers, which bear the company names on them to distributors and customers,

The organizations also carry out advertising campaigns nationwide and they do this through the Newspapers. Advertising is very essential for the development of Globacom Nigeria Limited, it is vital to the extent that they cannot survive without it. The main purpose of the organization is to get market to satisfy the needs of the people in return, for profit. Hence without Advertisement nobody will come to know their products, let alone purchasing their products and the information they need about a particular product.

Whenever Globacom Nigeria Limited advertise their product, they recorded high sale of their products to the extent that they has to increase their production to meet the demands of their numerous customers and this have tremendously brought development to the organization.

The companies advertise a particular product from its introductory stage, at its maturity stage sometimes depending on the season as the demand for some products is seasonal. The money spent on advertisement by Globacom Nigeria Limited does not affect them negatively, in the sense that when they advertise they create awareness in the minds of the people as a result of this they widen their market share, what they gain outweigh what they spend.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

There are many consumer products in the market, some of those products are well known in the market by the consumer while there are some other products that have long been in existence and yet the consumer are not aware of them. At times, certain products (consumer) that are new have gained wide publicity than those that are old, that have better features and quality. What are the reasons behind the market ability of those consumer products? Why do consumer prefer certain products to the others? What are some factors militating the awareness of certain product. The type of media which those products are advertised. Could it have effect on the product awareness? Success of some consumer products could it be as a result of quality and better newspaper advert?


1.3 General Objective

The general objective of this study was to assess the impact of newspaper advertisement in an organization.

Specific Objectives
  1. To identify the relationship between newspaper adverts and the organization
  2. To identify the relationship between newspaper advertisement and the consumer buying behaviour.
  3. To identify the relationship between newspaper advertisement and profitability of Globacom.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the relationship between newspaper advert and the organization?
  2. What are the relationship between newspaper advertisement and the consumer buying behaviour?
  3. Is there a relationship between newspaper advertisement and profitability of Globacom?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study is very timely, especially today as we have new consumer products being produced and brought to the market. It should be noted that time, energy and money are been put in place to see what these products are completed. If they are produced and the consumers are not aware of it, of what use is the product to our society.

This is the more reason why organizations, private producers or manufacturers should endavour toadvertise their product in whatever way possible but most especially through the newspaper, so that the users of those products be alert that this product exists, its benefit and usefulness should be projected well so that fast choice can be made. Even if the product is of high standard and quality, it would be of no use if the picture of the benefit and usefulness are not portrayed well.

In addition, the study will determine the factors that are responsible for lack of awareness of certain consumer products in the market. Various forms and types of advert will also be given attention. Limiting factors to organizational effective advert. It is expected that finding positive answer to these questions will bridge the gap that exist between media houses, advertisers and producers/ manufacturers.


1.6 Scope of the Study

In order for this research to be successful and accurate, most of our findings were carried out in Lagos state. We got information and data from newspaper houses about Globacom.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

Based on the topic, a more wider range of sources of information was needed but due to certain factors such as time the project was kicked off by May and is expected to end in August this time period is too short to have gathered all the necessary information that was needed. Another limitation is finance, gathering these data is not easy, it requires money, transportation cost, books to be bought, photocopies made. Since we lacked finance this made us not to go too deep in digging out facts. Tight programme from the advertisers, all this are some of the limitations we passed through during our study.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Paid Forms

This refers to the advertiser purchase of media time or space for telling a story about the product or services.

Non Personal

Advertising is not a personal or face to face presentation.

Identified Sponsor

The source of every advertising message is known.

Advertising

It is an impersonal form of communication or presentation of goods, ideas or services conducted through paid media under open or identified sponsorship.

Product

These are tangible items that satisfy our needs and wants.

Product Loyalty

This is a situation in which consumer are committed and dedicated to a particular product at all times. They are interested and will not buy any other if not that one.

Promotional Mix

This refers to all the features of promotion variables to achieve a desired goal.

Marketing Mix

This refers to the 4ps of market used to promote efficiency and effectiveness. Price, place, promotion and product.

Public Relations

The communication of a product brand or business by placing information about it in the media without paying for the time or media space directly.

Publicity

This is a tool on public relation. It refers to any message about theorganization that is communicated through the mass media but is not paid for by the organization.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This study is organized into five chapters.

  1. The first chapter introduces the study. It provides the background of the study, statement of the problem, research objectives, research questions, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study as well as the organization of the study.
  2. Chapter two provides the literature review related to the study. It defines the key conceptual in the study. It also provides the theoretical perspectives, empirical studies and the conceptual framework of the study.
  3. Chapter three discusses the methodology of the study. It explains area of the study, research design, population of the study, sampling design, data collection methods, reliability and validity of the study as well data analysis procedures.
  4. Chapter four presents the findings of the study.
  5. Chapter five concludes the study. It provides the summary, conclusion and recommendation.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

The study was conducted in Lagos,Nigeria. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of newspaper advertisementin an organization, with reference to Globacom, Nigeria. The study involved 150 respondents, 140 respondents were Globacom customers and 10 were Globacom management. The study employed descriptive design. It was selected because it has the advantage of producing good amount of responses from a wide range of people. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected.

In this study, randomly sampling and focusing group sampling were used by picking only the sample that brought the best information that satisfied the intention of the study. Purposive sampling technique was used in choosing the sources of data. On the other hand the study employed judgment sampling. Purposive sampling method was used to get respondents from a group of normal staff. This enables the researcher to get respondents who have worked with the Globacom for more than one year.

Both primary data and secondary data were collected. Primary data were collected through focus group discussion, observation, interview and questionnaire. On the other hand, secondary data were collected through documentary review.


5.2 Conclusion

From the findings of the study it may be concluded most of customers are influenced by advertisements on television than newspaper.

Generally, it was observed that most of the consumers are affected by advertisement in the buying behaviour. Most of them they buy products which are mostly advert and they make them to be loyal. newspaper advertisement has more impact on consumer buying behaviour more than other media. Statistical analysis of consumer attitude shows that among three dimensions (loyalty, previous buying experience and word of mouth) are significant factors which effect consumer buying behaviour. Advertisers had their largest profits from knowledge of previous purchases of consumer and also the loyalty of consumer to any product plays another important impact in leading consumer attitude to purchase of that product as also noted by Mohammed and Alkubise (2012).

On the other hand, it was observed that traditional media (newspaper, radio and television) adverts are more trusted than new media advert. Reason of less significant impact of online ad on consumer purchase behaviour is the lack of trust and lack of industries involvement in online media. On the other case, online media has started to be familiar and beginning to be trusted by people in the society in the current time of 21st century. There are hundreds of advertising agencies but only few of them actively manage and control online media. Moreover, it was observed that advert has influence in consumer buying behaviour compared to marketing communications. People want to purchase products they have already seen or through experience. Word of mouth and other communication are also powerful of convincing consumer in buying behaviour. Moreover, old people are not easy to try new products compared to youth.


5.3 Recommendations

The study recommends that newspaper media should continue to be used in advertisement because still people believe and trust it. Advertisers should consider creativity when designing print advertisements.

The radio is among the media which has big influence to audience due to its strength such as to be flexible, universal and cheap. Therefore, recommends that advertisers should design radio adverts which are easy to be understood by customers.

Newspaper is very new to many people but it is fast, easy, cheap and global. It has no gate keepers which make it to be in some way not to be trusted as an old media. The study recommends that online media should be used as much as possible because it has no geographical boundaries. It has second chance and easy to assess. Online media can reach large number of customers and can help people to purchase products online fast and avoiding queuing. Advertiser should invest well enough in online media.


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