The Impact Of Using Multimedia Tools On Teaching And Learning In Secondary Schools

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The Impact Of Using Multimedia Tools On Teaching And Learning In Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study investigated the impact of using multimedia tools on teaching and learning physics in secondary schools in Oyo State. Quasi-experimental design was adopted. A sample size of 40 Secondary school (SSS III) students participated in the study. Purposeful sampling technique was used to select two intact classes from two colleges. A validated 40 – items instrument from WAEC standardized test was used to collect data on the students’ performance. To avoid bias, the researchers prepared lesson plans that were used for the teaching of the two groups. The teachers from the two secondary schools were trained on how to use the lesson plans and multi-media instructional strategy, so as to control variability in the instructional procedure in the study. Four research questions and one hypothesis were raised.

The data was analyzed using SPSS, mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while t-test was used to test the null hypothesis. Multi-Media instructional strategy improved the mean performance of the students in Physics, as seen in the post-test mean performance of 46.75 as compared with pre-test mean performance of 25.75 respectively, for the experimental group. There is significant mean difference in the post-test academic performance of students taught Physics using Multi-Media instructional strategy. Among the recommendations made was: Stakeholders in education should make available and encourage the use of multimedia instruction in secondary schools of Oyo State by providing multimedia instructional tools.


Table of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Hypothesis of the study
  • 1.6 Significance of the study
  • 1.7 Scope of the study
  • 1.8 Delimitation of the study
  • 1.9 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Education
  • 2.2 Teaching
  • 2.3 Learning
  • 2.3.1 Learning through direct experience
  • 2.3.2 Learning through multimedia
  • 2.4 Multimedia
  • 2.5 Nature and Characteristics of Multimedia Approach
  • 2.6 Impact of Multimedia Technology in Teaching of Physics
  • 2.7 Need and Significance of the Study

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research design
  • 3.2 Area of the study
  • 3.3 Population of the Study
  • 3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
  • 3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.6 Validation of the Instrument
  • 3.7 Reliability of the Instrument
  • 3.8 Treatment Procedure
  • 3.9 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.10 Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

Results And Discussion Of Findings

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Major Finding
  • 4.3 Discussions of the findings

Chapter Five

Conclusion And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • 5.3 Suggestions for Further Research
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background To The Study

This is an era of science and technology where science is the backbone for the prosperity of a nation. Science education plays an important role in the development of a nation. In Nigeria, science is a compulsory subject up to elementary level (Grade I to Grade VIII). Iqbal and Mahmood (2000) (as cited in Barwell et al., 2007) maintained that our different education policies (1972; 1979; and 1998-2010) emphasized on science education “to trigger students’ curiosity in scientific inquiry and understanding of scientific concepts and processes” (p. 13). The quality of science education in Nigeria has declined to the lowest and needs to be improved (Memon, 2007). Our current teaching strategies have failed to enhance problem-solving skills, curiosity, and critical and logical thinking among students of science. There is a need to move from traditional approaches to more innovative information and communications technologies (ICTs) enriched approaches for meaningful learning. The fast-paced, diverse, and technologically advanced world has posed challenges for both teachers and students. The use of MULTIMEDIAs in the teaching and learning process has become an important feature.

The term “multimedia,” which consists of “multi” – which means integrating many expression methods – and “media” – which implies technical key words such as “computer,” “dialogue,” and “digital,” has changed its meaning through the decades. The term multimedia can be defined as a platform that integrates analogue information in various forms such as text, images, and audio-visual materials to a single digitized data and relays them using several (multi) vehicles (media). It is a system that allows users the use of easy and high-speed information communication networks. As information becomes digitized, all media can now be integrated into one and all the necessary multimedia equipment may be controlled by just one computer system. Multimedia is the exciting combination of computer hardware and software that allows you to integrate video, animation, audio, graphics, and test resources to develop effective presentations on an affordable desktop computer. (Fenrich, 1997).

Multimedia is characterized by the presence of text, pictures, sound, animation and video; some or all of which are organized into some coherent program (Phillips, 1997). Today’s multimedia is a carefully woven combination of text, graphic art, sound, animation, and video elements. Thus, multimedia is an integration of multiple media elements (audio, video, graphics, text, animation etc.) into one synergetic and symbiotic whole that results in more benefits for the end user than any one of the media element can provide individually. Nature and Characteristics of Multimedia Approach include;

  1. Multimedia approach uses a number of media, devices, and techniques in the teaching learning process.
  2. Multimedia approach has come out of researches and experiments in educational technology utilized to improve the process of teaching-learning.
  3. Multimedia approach aims at providing meaningful learning experiences.
  4. Select the media carefully so that one does not hamper or reduce the effect of the other i.e. each media must complement the other.
  5. Use media sequentially and judiciously. Then it would be possible to make optimum use of them in a most economical manner.

Multimedia-aided teaching (MAT) is a means of instructional delivery usually used with the traditional method of teaching (Rolfe & Gray, 2011). It is a presentation consisting of words, sound, and pictures that is designed for meaningful learning (Mayer, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). Multimedia elements have paramount importance in teaching of science (Altherr, Wagner, Eckert, & Jodl, 2004). With the help of multimedia, we can present different phenomena and processes vividly, simulate complex content, and present different levels of abstraction. This helps in meaningful and authentic learning. MAT is useful especially when students have low motivation and low prior knowledge (Singh, 2003). “Multimedia is characterized by the presence of text, pictures, sound, animation, and video; some or all of which are organized into a coherent program” (Phillips, 1997).

Mujibi (2004) explained that technology is changing teaching and learning whether it is middle- scholars examining a scientific hypothesis through a simulation of forth grades living miss apart living apart collaboration on a study of local weather patterns through electronic mail technology is that without strongly leadership, not every student will enjoy technology advantages. Without a well throughout policy and the commitment to fund up to date technology in the schools the interest of children, their parent and the community will not be well sound, schools will fall further behind the society that surrounds them. Technology is artificial to preparing students to live, learn and work successfully in a digital age. New technology based models of teaching and learning have the power to drastically improve educational outcomes.AS a result of many people are asking how to scale up the scattered, successful “Islands of motivation”, instructional technology has empowered into universal improvement in schools enabled by major sniffs in standard educational practices.

Undertaking “systematic reform” (sustained, large scale simultaneous motivation in curriculum; pedagogy; assessment, professional development, administration; incentives and partnership for learning among schools, businesses home and community (settings) requires policy for small scale educational improvement. Technology-based innovations offer special challenges and opportunities in this scaling up process. Systematic reforms are not possible without utilizing the full power of high performance computing and communications to enhance the reshaping of schools. Yet the cost of technology, its rapid evolution, and the special knowledge and skills required of its users pose substantial barriers to effective utilization.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Things are changing globally, and there are different and modern ways of doing things, if the essence of the educational policy is aimed at producing man-power which can cope with the ever-changing modern world, and be part of the global village “the chalk and talk method”; hardly bringing participatory interaction method must give way to the use of innovation and technology driven which the ICT proffers.

The overwhelming and glaring features of the present educational systems and structures are the abnormal and unending deterioration if the quality of education at all level over the years. The West African Examination and National Examination Council result have constantly elicited thus groin reality which seriously necessitates urgent attention. Thus it is the aim of this study to provide a template on which the revival of the educational system can be built, also to find out the impact of multimedia tolls on teaching and learning in secondary schools through the use of ICT and as well as investigating the problems associated with the use of multimedia in teaching and learning process.


1.3 Objectives of the study

The main objective of this study is to find out the impact of multimedia tools on teaching and learning in secondary schools.

The specific objective that will guide this study is:

  1. The mean difference in the pre-test performance scores of students using multi-media and traditional instructional strategy groups
  2. The effects of multi-media instructional strategy on post-test of experimental and control group students’ academic performance students in Physics.
  3. The effects of traditional instructional strategy on post-test of experimental and control group students’ academic performance in Physics.
  4. The mean difference between the post-test mean academic performance of secondary school students when multi-media and traditional instructional strategies are used in teaching Physics.

1.4 Research questions

Four (4) research questions were formulated to guide the study.

  1. What is the mean difference in the pre-test of students’ academic performance of students in Physics of secondary schools in Oyo State?
  2. What is the posttest mean academic performance of students taught using multi-media instructional strategies in Physics?
  3. What is the posttest mean academic performance of students taught using traditional instructional strategies in Physics?
  4. What is the posttest mean difference between the academic performance of students that are taught using multi-media instructional strategies and traditional instructional strategies when compared?

1.5 Hypothesis of the study

Based on the research questions one null hypothesis was developed to guide the study:

Ho1: There is no significance difference between the mean responses of multimedia instructional strategy (experimental group) and traditional lecture method (control group) on the academic performance of students in Physics


1.6 Significance of the study

Technology is evolving at an astonishing rate. It has dramatically changed the ways we work, learn, interact, and spend our leisure time. Computers and information technologies have visibly revolutionized nearly every aspect of life. It is both reasonable and expected that technology should also help lead the way to improve teaching and learning in our schools. Technology offers new ways of teaching and learning, and provides new ways for all involved in education to be openly accountable to parents, communities, and students (National Research Council, 1995).

However this study will expose the students, lecturers/teachers, parents, government at various levels and the general public to the impacts of using multimedia tools in teaching and learning as well as the national development on the suggestion that would be made if well utilized will reduce teacher’s burden in teaching jobs, also facilitating teaching and learning activities.


1.7 Scope of the study

This study is delimited to effect of multimedia instructional strategies in teaching and learning Physics. Other aspects covered by the study include: Qualitative and adequate trade teachers, Insufficient instructional materials, Multimedia method of teaching in secondary schools of Oyo State, viz; Alaafin high school and Alaafin Grammar school Oyo.


1.8 Delimitation of the study

The major problem faced during this research is time, the researcher has limited time to complete the research and also insufficient fund to finance the project also to visit more one school.


1.9 Definition of terms

Impact:

A marked effect or influence.

Multimedia:

A platform that integrates analogue information in various forms such as text, images, and audio-visual materials to a single digitized data and relays them using several (multi) vehicles (media)

Teaching:

Teaching is the activities of educating/instructing or activities that involve imparting of knowledge or skill to learners or animals.


Chapter Five


Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

This study was carried out on the impact of using multimedia tools on teaching and learning in secondary schools. The findings of the study revealed that there is significant difference in the post-test mean academic performance of students taught (Physics). Both experimental group and control group students’ results show the effect of instructions received by each group. If students in secondary schools are well exposed to multimedia instructional strategy (Computer, Television and DVD player, Power points slide and projector) their performance level will greatly improve and the best way to make learning more concrete in the absence of real objects is to make use of multimedia instructional strategy.


5.2 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study which indicated the effectiveness of multimedia instruction as compared to the conventional methods of teaching, the following recommendations were advanced:

  1. Stakeholders in education should make available and encourage the use of multimedia instruction in secondary schools of Oyo State by providing multimedia instructional tools.
  2. The secondary school teachers should learn to adopt the use of multimedia instruction in teaching Physics Works.
  3. National Board for Technical Education should carry out a review of Physics curriculum for secondary schools with a view to incorporate multimedia instructional technique into the teaching of Physics.

5.3 Suggestions for Further Research

  1. The study can be conducted involving the entire course of Science.
  2. This study can be conducted in other subjects at middle or primary level.
  3. The study may be conducted by involving more variables like age, personality and socioeconomic status of underachievers in science.
  4. Similar studies may be conducted to compare the effectiveness of Activity based teaching with other strategies of teaching.
  5. The study may be conducted at college/schools level to find out the effectiveness of multimedia.

The Impact Of Using Multimedia Tools On Teaching And Learning In Secondary Schools


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Frequently Asked Questions


What is the importance of multimedia technologies in education?

The importance of multimedia technologies and applications in education as a teaching or learning tool cannot be over emphasized. This has been confirmed in several studies that have investigated the impact of multimedia technology to the education system.

Does multimedia use accelerate teaching and learning in secondary school teachers?

Visual Art Education Survey: in-depth interview Secondary school teachers 2 Multimedia usage resulted in accelerated teaching and learning processes. 

Can multimedia enhance academic performance of students in social studies?

The study concluded that academic performance of students in social studies was greatly improved when multimedia technique was applied as compared to traditional classroom (Ilhan and Oruc, 2016).

Can interactive multimedia tools be used to teach mathematics?

Milovanovic M., Obradovic J., Milajic A. Application of interactive multimedia tools in teaching mathematics–examples of lessons from geometry. Turk. Online J. of Educ. Technol.-TOJET. 

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