Impact Of Motivation On Teacher Effectiveness In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Brass LGA Bayelsa State)

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Impact Of Motivation On Teacher Effectiveness In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Brass LGA Bayelsa State)


Abstract


This research work investigated motivation and teacher effectiveness in private and public secondary schools in Brass Local Government Area, Bayelsa state.

10 out of 47 secondary schools in the Local Government Area were sampled for this study. Also 50 respondents were sampled, 5 respondents from each of the ten sampled schools. Two different set of the instrument were used to elicit the data needed for the research work. The research questionnaire was on Motivation and Teachers Effectiveness (MTEQ). The data obtained were analyzed using Pearson product moment correlation statistics. The method was used to determine motivation and teachers effectiveness in public and private secondary schools.

The study clearly revealed that motivation has a lot to do with teachers’ effectiveness in schools’, there were significant relationship between motivation and teachers effectiveness, in public and private secondary schools in Brass Local Government Area, Bayelsa State.

Based on the findings, it was recommended that teachers should be adequately motivated in terms of adequate salary and allowance, conducive learning environment, development programmes e. t. c.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the study

An organization’s success lies in a motivated workforce as highly motivated employees strive to produce at the highest possible level and exert greater effort than employees who are not motivated (Ikenyiri, & Ihua-Maduenyi, 2011; Oladele, 2005). Employee’s motivation, organizational performance, and profits are interconnected and cannot be separated (Daft & Marcic, 2007). The most talented and innovative employees are not solely motivated by financial rewards such as money, but seek satisfaction from their work.

Teacher motivation plays an important role in the promotion of teaching and learning excellence. Generally, motivated teachers are more likely to motivate students to learn in the classroom, to ensure the implementation of educational reforms and feelings of satisfaction and fulfillment. While teacher motivation is fundamental to the teaching and learning process, several teachers are not highly motivated. This observation should be taken seriously and an investigation into the factors influencing teacher motivation is therefore necessary to achieve the educational goals in every learning institution.

Compared with other professions, teachers across various countries, school contexts, and subject fields exhibit higher levels of emotional symptoms. According to Dai and Sternberg (2004), high levels of job dissatisfaction, stress, and burnout can negatively influence motivation and job performance. According to Gorham and Millete, (1997) teachers who report low levels of motivation tend to perceive their students motivation levels as low.
Teachers are arguably the most important group of professionals for our nation‘s future. Michaelowa (2002) in her study on analysis of the key determinants of teacher motivation in the developing country context, found that large class size, double-shifting, rural location, high educational attainment and active parental involvement negatively correlated with teacher job satisfaction in these countries. She further found that the level of communication between teachers and school managers had no statistically significant impact on teacher job satisfaction.

All round development of the child has been the desired goal of education, the issue of high standards and quality in our secondary schools cannot be completed without considering the quality of teacher (teachers) since, human resource is considered the most important factor of production. The teacher is a vital component of school administration. He stands at the most important point in educational process. The federal government of Nigeria made it clear in National Policy of Education (FRN, 2004) that the purpose of teacher education should be to produce highly motivated, conscientious, and efficient classroom teachers. The Federal Government of Nigeria has introduced training programs, workshops, seminars that will Promote the motivation of teacher. Teacher in this context refers to teachers, the oil that lubricates factors of academic performance and educational enterprise as a whole. Teachers as human beings need some level of motivation (material and non-material) to elicit good and expected work behaviour from them. Motivation is therefore the willingness to exert high level of impact on the organizational goals.

Motivation may be seen as the perceptions, methods, and experience, teaching and individual activities used by the educational administrators for the purpose of providing a climate that is conducive to the satisfaction of various needs of the teachers so that they may become satisfied, dedicated and effective task performers. Motivation is important in getting long experienced and short experienced teachers absorbed in the task of teaching as well as empowering them to give high quality output and avoid wastages in terms of dropouts, carryover, and failures.
Motivation is an embracing factor in teacher’s development to accomplish personal as well as school goals. Motivation should be both intrinsic and extrinsic to ensure teacher efficiency and effectiveness. Ogunu (2000) opined that, there are two types of motivation, namely: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation refers to the self-generated factors that influence people to behave in a particular direction. These factors include responsibility, freedom to act, scope to use and develop skills and abilities, interesting and challenging work and opportunities for advancement. Extrinsic motivation can be defined as what is done to or for people to motivate them; these include rewards like increased pay, praise or promotion. Extrinsic motivation can have powerful effect but do not last long. But intrinsic motivation concerned with quality of working life, are likely to have a deeper and longer term effect since they are inherent in individuals and not imposed from outside

Therefore, motivation is the key to performance improvement. According to Ogbonnaya (2005), education is the bedrock of all developments. As such the importance of education to a nation’s development cannot be overemphasized so also the importance of teachers who are pillars in the stability and sustainability of education. The contemporary teachers keep on complaining of poor conditions of service and lack of status in the society. „Poor teacher‟ is a very common phrase among many Nigerians; this is no surprising since status is measured in terms of wealth acquired.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

National development is a principal agenda stated in the national education system. This is due to the fact that good education system will result in progress of the nation. There are a lot of quality problems in the education world such as the qualities of graduates, teaching methods, teachers’ counseling and training, professionalism and teachers’ performances. Such qualities are related to the administration of educational leaders, limitation of budget, accessibility, media, school climate, school environment, and support from various responsible parties. All quality limitations of the education components lead to the lower quality of graduates.

Over the years, the performance of school teachers has been dwindling. This has been affecting the academic achievement of secondary school students. Poor performance of teachers have been attributed to a number of factors, which include lack of proper motivation, low pay, poor condition of service in teaching profession which manifest itself in-poor performance, pre-mature departure from teaching, attracting the least qualified and lack of commitments to the job. Some of the teachers had sought for greener pastures in oil companies, banking and production industries where salaries, fringe benefits and general conditions are far better. Inadequate salary, poor working conditions and lack of societal recognition among others were crucial factors responsible for frustration and eventual decline in professional standard of Nigerian school system. The implication of all these is that poor motivation of teachers has led to so many other problems within the secondary school administrative system ranging from wide spread and high rate of examination malpractices to poor learning achievement, high rate of teacher’s indiscipline, low teacher’s morale and student’s poor attitude to studies to mention but a few.


1.3 Objectives of the study

The aim of the study is to assess the research impact of motivation on teacher effectiveness in Nigeria a study of brass LGA Bayelsa state.

More specifically objectives were formulated;

  1. To determine the contribution of motivation to teacher’s productivity.
  2. To examine the extent of teacher motivation in Brass education zone.
  3. To ascertain the effect of teachers’ motivation on the performance of students.

1.4 Research Question

Based on the issues raised in the statement of problem, the researcher will seek to answer the following questions,

  1. To what extent does teachers’ motivation impacted on the performance of students?
  2. To what extent does motivation contributed to teachers’ productivity?
  3. What is the extent to teachers’ motivation in brass educational zone?

1.5 Significance of the Study

Given the important role played by education in human development, a research in this area is very important. This study will benefit the following group of persons: Ministry of education officials, teachers, policy makers, and post primary educational board and development experts.

Ministry of Education

Firstly, the Ministries of Education officials, Post Primary School Management Board (PPSMB) and Zonal Education Board will find this work useful as at it will provide them with information on ways of making teachers more productive. Hence as the agency saddled with the responsibility of managing educational standards, the knowledge gained here serves as a guide towards the improvement of the efficiency of teachers.

Educational Sector and Policy Maker

Also, stakeholders in the educational sector, policy makers and teachers will in like manner benefit from this research as they will understand how every of their action or inaction impacts on the performance students of in brass educational zone.

Government

More so, the government of Nigeria at all level will find this very relevant as a solution to the incessant problems in the education sector in Nigeria. As such, the right policy will be fashioned from the knowledge gained from this research for positive performance of students.

Researcher

Finally, this research will serve as a reference point for further research. It will also add to existing body of knowledge in this area.


1.6 Scope of the Study

Area of interest in this research impact of motivation on teacher effectiveness in Nigeria a study of brass Lga Bayelsa state. Hence the study covered teachers’ motivation, and effectiveness in brass local government secondary schools and their productivity level. This study also looked into the concept and some theories of motivation, principles of motivation and ways through which teachers can be motivated. Educational implication of motivation is discussed in this work.


1.7 Definition of terms

Motivation:

Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. Motivation is what causes you to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge. Motivation is the word derived from the word ‘motive’ which means needs, desires, wants or drives within the individuals. It is the process of stimulating people to actions to accomplish the goals.

Teacher:

A teacher is a person who helps people to learn. A teacher often works in a classroom. There are many different kinds of teachers. Some teachers teach young children in kindergarten or primary schools. Others teach older children in middle, junior high and high schools.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Summary

5.1 Summary

Lack of proper motivation of teachers is what leads to almost all the vices that are being encountered in the delivery of services in education sector especially in secondary schools. The result of the findings in table 1 showed that secondary school teachers agreed that the items on the table are strategies that would enhance motivation of teachers towards better performance. These strategies include increase, regular and prompt payment of teacher’s salaries; teachers are appreciated and rewarded accordingly, given free hand to coordinate their activities freely, provision of free medical- care, provision of fringe benefits, and provision of comfortable offices. Other strategies include provision of modern instructional material, giving allowances for administrative works done by teachers, good prospects of promotion in the teaching profession, involving the teachers in education matters, provision of fringe benefits, increment of salary as and at when due. Among these strategies, prompt and regular payment of salaries, and opportunities for advancement in the teaching profession were rated highest among urban rural teachers respectively. This is an indication that money and pay are very necessary to motivate employees in an organization. Ifinedo (2003) found that across almost the demographic array pay (salary) was consistently cited as a major need of Nigerian worker including even the well-educated and highly placed professionals, Teachers do not perform their duties in secondary school as a result of the fact that they are not properly motivated to work. The result of the research question 11 as presented in table 11I indicated that the respondents agreed that the items on the table 11I are measures that will enhance performance of Teacher.

An adage says “to whom much is given, much is expected” but in this case, little is given to teachers and much is expected of them. Onwuasoanya (2005) linked the low moral to issues manifested in forms of poor salary structure, late payment of salaries, and denial of allowances which officers in other sectors enjoy. Teachers need to be recognized as important personalities in the society. The job itself should be enriched for vertical growth of teachers. This involves sponsoring them for conferences, seminars and workshops. These measures if categorized fall into different levels to match Maslow‟s hierarchy of needs and Herzberg‟s two- factors theory of motivation and job satisfaction. These goes to show that school is made up of teachers who require different but similar measures to ensure that they stay motivated to their work. This also goes to show that teachers no longer want their reward only in heaven but also here on earth, and neither do they function at the lower level of seeking maintenance factor alone or seek something lower now but really want to make their position clearly known. The realization of this fact is necessary to enable the government know how best to channel their efforts towards improving teachers, the teaching profession and the nation as well. A careful look at our school system reveals that some teachers work harder than others. This is so because of motivation. Therefore, it is the task of the educational administrator to be able to know what motivates his teachers for the purpose of achieving school goals. The government ministry of education and school administrators for it provides them with relevant information on teachers performance in school and the need to intensify teachers motivation to work. The second implication is that it has created awareness in the minds of the administrators of schools that lack of proper motivation of teachers is what lead to almost all the vices that are being encountered in the delivery of services in education sector especially in secondary schools.


5.2 Recommendations

Based on the discussion and implications of this study, the following recommendations were made:

  1. The government should promptly pay teachers their salaries, allowances and promote them as and when it is due.
  2. Workshops and seminars should be organized for teachers in different subject areas at least once in a term.
  3. The government, school administrators and communities should device means of rewarding the best teacher of the term and the year as the case may be and also assure that job security exist for teachers by not dismissing teachers anyhow. Fair and equal treatment should be given to then irrespective of their gender.

5.3 Conclusion

The purpose of the study was to examine Teacher motivation as a tool for effective secondary school administration in Brass education zone of Bayelsa State. To carry out this study an instrument titled: Questionnaire on Teacher motivation (SM) was developed by the researcher.

The instrument contained 24 items that focused on Teacher motivation. The items were sent to 5 experts who embellished them in terms of face and content validations.

The reliability of the instrument was determined using trial testing method of determining internal consistency. The 24 items were pilot- tested on a sample of 20 teachers. The data obtained were computed to be 0.86 and 0.96 respectively using Cronbach Alpha method. The respondents used for the study was 400 teachers drawn from the 20 secondary school in the zone.

Mean scores, standard deviation and t- test statistics were used to answer the two research questions and the two null hypotheses.

The study proved that location has no differential effect on teachers in urban and rural secondary schools in Brass education zone of Bayelsa sate.

Finally the study proved that motivation energizes people to contribute their best in service. It improves the working contributions which make teachers to be productive, committed, creative, successful and impactful. These teachers are motivated so as to be job satisfied which may eventually lead to improvement in their outstanding performance.


Impact Of Motivation On Teacher Effectiveness In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Brass LGA Bayelsa State)


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