The Impact Of Motivation On Performance Of Public Service In Nigeria
The study is aimed at determining the impact of motivation on employee’s job performance in the Nigeria public service. (A case study of NAFDAC). The purpose is to investigate and identify factors responsible for the current state of affairs and seek to find practical solution for lack of staff motivation and job performance. The research design is survey research design comprising of opinions, impressions and perceptions of the respondents. The sampling techniques were simple random sampling and proportionate stratified random sampling. In sampling opinion to collect data, the questionnaire was used. In all, a population of 30 staff of NAFDAC comprising top management, middle management and junior staff were administered to them but only 20 responded comprising 13 male and 7females. The result from the test of the hypothesis indicated that commensurate salaries and allowance paid to employee of NAFDAC would motivate them towards higher job performance.
1.1 Background to the Study
The success of any business or organization as a matter of fact depends largely on the motivation of the employees. Human resources are essential to the prosperity, productivity and performance of any company. Motivation is the key to creating an enabling environment where optimal performance is possible. This leads to the question how then do we ensure that the individual motivation is at its peak within the organization or workplace? (Chapman, 2004).
Every employee or worker has his or her own set of motivations and personal incentives that ginger him or her to work hard or not as the case may be. Some are motivated by recognition whilst others are motivated by cash incentives. Whatever, the form of employee motivation, the key to promoting that motivation as an employer, is understanding and incentives (Mc Coy, 2000).
Employee incentive programmes go a long way towards ensuring employees feel appreciated cared for and deemed worthwhile. This can go a long way to help with employee motivation across the board. The greatest thing about motivation is that it is individualized as such programs are tailored to suit the needs and wants of employees. Motivation does not only encourage productive performance but also show employees how much the company cares. Perhaps the most vital impact of employee motivation is that of increased productivity or performance. This according to literature on the subject is the central aim of adopting employee motivational programmes thus, if you can increase employee motivation, productivity inevitably will follow suit (Ryan, 2011).
Employee motivation promotes workplace harmony and increased employee performance. It is the key to long term benefits for the company. Motivated employees means staff retention and company loyalty, which in the short run will give birth to growth and development of business (Jishi, 2009).
In the nutshell, the above submission shows that employee motivation is very essential to the growth, development and success of any business entity be it small or big. In the business world or better still the workplace human resources are the most valued and cherished resources above all others. Motivated employees are productive, happy and highly committed to their job. The spin off this, result in reduced employee turnover, results driven employees, loyalty and harmony thus the research topic “an assessment of employee motivation and its impact on performance, with the focus on NAFDAC”.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
When you think about it, it can be realized that, the success of any facet of business or company can be traced back to motivated employees. From productivity and profitability to recruiting and retention, hardworking and happy employees lead to harmony and organizational triumph (Ryan, 2012).
Unfortunately, motivating people is far from an exact science in most businesses or organisations. Most organisations are still living in yesteryears of organizational management. A preliminary survey conducted by the researcher with thirty workers (30) NAFDAC revealed that the following factors cause dissatisfaction among workers and hence their underperformance; these factors were long working hours, unreasonable work load, feeling underpaid and inadequate appreciation.
Lack of proper motivation factors may result in losses which may eventually lead to low staff turnover, poor attitude towards work, low output level and low profitability. It is in the light of these that the study intends to look into the effect of motivation on the performance of the workers of NAFDAC.
1.3 Research Objectives
The main aim at this study was to assess motivation and its effect on performance at NAFDAC, a publicorganization in Nigeria. To be precise, the study would seek to fulfill the below enumerated objectives:
- To examine the concept of motivation and performance with regards to NAFDAC.
- To find out the motivational factors put in place by the organization to reward hard work.
- To find out the extent to which there is a relationship between employee motivation and performance.
- To find out the challenges that NAFDAC face in its attempt to motivate staff.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is NAFDAC’s understanding of motivation and performance?
- What motivational factors have been put in place by the organization to reward hard work?
- Is there a relationship between motivation and performance at NAFDAC?
- What challenges does NAFDAC faces in motivating its employees?
1.5 Scope of the Study
This study targeted only full- time workers within NAFDAC a public organization in Nigeria. The population of this study comprised as earlier indicated, full time workers, and have worked with the organization for two (2) years and above. In terms of content, the study focused on employee motivation and performance. Respondents were asked questions on issues related to forms of motivation, individual needs, and their perception on factors that increase performance and their general view on the relevance of motivation.
The reason why this study had its scope within NAFDAC and not all organizations is because the researcher works there and wishes to attempt to improve the situation.
1.6 Scope / Limitations of the Study
The limitation of the study concerns the instruments employed in undertaking the research. This study was limited to an interview and questionnaire administration methods with the hope of clarifying or explaining issues that cropped up during administration of questionnaires.
The sample size will also make it extremely difficult to generalise results of the study to cover all branches of the organization nationwide.
Due to workload and long hours of organization work, the researcher could not have all respondents responding to the questions asked especially staff.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The findings from this study will be beneficial not only to the workers of the organization but also the financial sector as a whole. In other words, this study will be useful at three levels thus, the individual level, institutional level and national level.
- At the individual level, the workers of the institution will be informed as to the incentive programmes available to them and how best to utilize them for personal development and improved performance.
- At the institutional level, it will help the organization to change or review their employee motivational policies and strategies in vogue which will inevitably cause an increase in staff turnover or productivity which will also lead to growth and eventually development.
- At the national level, critical issues of motivation are of national concern as it will help in the retention of workers. So the study will be essential for all financial institution especially the organizations as it has come at the right time and at the right place to support national policies especially the policy to make the private sector the engine of growth of the economy.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This study is structured to provide a critical review of relevant information regarding employee motivation and performance. The study comprised five chapters and it is presented as follows:
- Chapter One: Dealt with the introduction, giving the background to the study along with the statement of the problem. The chapter also outlined the research objectives together with the research questions, research scope, limitations and significance of the study, and organisation of the study.
- Chapter Two: Reviewed related literature regarding many aspects of motivation and performance which included a definition on motivation and performance, the various theories and models of motivation, how motivation affects performance, factors affecting motivation and performance, relationship between motivation and performance and how employee motivation affect employee performance and types of rewards.
- Chapter Three: Presented the research methodology and focused on research design and methods as well as the justification of choices and uses. In addition, the study population and area, sampling and sample size determination, data collection activities and data analysis methods.
- Chapter Four: Presented the data, which was subsequently interpreted and analysed in relation to the research objectives and questions, and discussion of findings of the study;
- Chapter Five: Provided a summary to the entire study, drew conclusions and also recommendations made.
Conclusions and Recommendation
This section of the research report summarized the entire report bringing out the finding for each of the research questions in the same sequence as listed in chapter one. The next section dealt with conclusions drawn and recommendations for the study.
Worman (2008), writing on 20 ways to motivate your employees without raising their pay asserted that “it is costly mistake to get lost in the false theory that money equals happy employees”. Believe it or leave it cash will always be a major factor in motivating people and solid compensation plan is critical to attracting and keeping employees. But the issue is that additional cash is not always the answer to the problem, and in many cases not even the best option therefore the study concludes that;
Most of the staff of NAFDAC has served the organization for a substantial number of years giving them rich experience and the ability to deliberate on motivational issues concerning their work.
The level of trust, respect and high expectation from management and colleagues is not encouraging.
Staff development policies and strategies of the organization requires review to suit individual worker needs.
Bonuses as motivational factor for employees was in the right direction except it did not commensurate with work done and needs an upward adjustment.
Good and decent accommodation for staff was encouraging as, staff believed it was the best management could under the circumstance.
Car loan policies and progammes is the best as in a space of every two years there is a review and upward adjustment to cater for the current economic trend.
The individual of the staff of NAFDAC has undergone tremendous changes since the institution was established as their lot has improved in that sector.
The seemingly loss of one of the most cherished and envied hallmarks of employees recognition and appreciation appeared to have affected employee performance as it was low and in some cases nonexistent.
Salaries paid staff of NAFDAC was highly inadequate considering the current economic conditions, having a negative impact on their total performance.
Career advancement and promotion at NAFDAC was very positive and encouraging as over the years consistent and hardworking employees have risen through the ranks to their current positions.
Job security issues well catered for by management as the enabling environment has been created and employees who exhibit gross misconduct are fired based on that.
Interpersonal relationship among management and staff was very excellent.
Use of outside seminars as rewarding increased performance was nonexistent.
Additional responsibility to reward high performance is the nurturing stage and had not been that prominent.
The study disclosed that, motivation at NAFDAC has undergone serious and improved changes over the years. Issues of recognition, trust, respect, job security, salaries and bonuses which affect the morale of workers to maximise performance seem to be prevalent everywhere in Nigeria. Such uncomfortable condition does not encourage workers to give off their best hence low turnover.
- The study will entreat management to see the urgent need to take appropriate measures if employees of the organization are to achieve the set goals. Concrete, prudent and urgent measures be taken by management of NAFDAC to restore back hope and confidence in the system to boost the morale of staff. The commitment and dedication level of staff brings to the fore the need for the addition of employee incentive packages and other motivational strategies. In the light of the revelations of the research, measures are recommended to management to consider current and future actions to be taken in relation to motivation issues;
- The researcher will entreat management to sponsor employees who have served the organization for so many years to undertake a short course in employee motivation management to come improve the situation.
- Trust and respect should be accorded staff to create a harmonious relationship amongst them to foster collaboration.
- Staff development to enhance performance and promote self fulfilment and
actualisation should be encouraged as a matter of deliberate policy.
- Bonuses due workers should be paid on time to bring a relief to them in the face of untold hardships.
- Management should do well to adopt on the spot praise as a medium for recognition and appreciation for hard work for promptness equal effectiveness.
- Management should set career advancement paths within the organisation to promote from within rather look out for talent outside.
- Job security should be of top priority to management to ensure the retention of their hardworking and experience employees.
- There should be good interpersonal relationship between management and staff to facilitate communication and the lending of assistance to colleagues who may need on.
- Management should monitor closely the attitude, lifestyle and leadership qualities of employees in the organisation who for and can handle additional responsibilities be encouraged to promote increased performance and efficiency. In doing so should identify who they are and match responsibilities to their strengths and desires.
- The management should do everything within their capacity to create a better good working environment and conducive atmosphere that can promote efficiency and enhance performance.
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