The Impact Of Motivation On Performance Of Civil Service In Nigeria

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

The Impact Of Motivation On Performance Of Civil Service In Nigeria


This research examined the Impact of Motivation on Performance of Civil Service in Nigeria with special reference to Lagos State Ministry of Education. The research adopted survey research design. Data were gathered through primary source with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire. Simple random sampling technique was adopted in the selection of sample, this was used to eliminate biasness in the selection process of the respondents.

Data garnered were presented on table using percentage and the formulated hypotheses were analysed with the used of Chi-square statistical method. The result of the analysis shows that Lack of motivation of employees has effect in low morale and high labour turnover. Also, Performance of civil service has significance relationship with the motivational performance.

Based on the conclusion of the analysis recommendations were proffered to the staff and management of Lagos State Ministry of Education.

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Motivation is defined in general terms as the act or process of providing power from within the person which insights him into action as termed from Weber’s third international dictionary (2011). Motivation is also defined as the process of stimulating the interest of somebody to do something.

Manager involves the creation and maintenance of environment for the performance of individuals working together in group towards the accomplishment of common objectives. Since the manager cannot do their job alone, he ought to know what motivates the people. So it is the duty of the manager to recognize motivating factors in designing an environment for performance.

It can be referred to the way urges, aspirations, drives and needs at humans direct or control or explain their behaviour. The public service in Nigeria traces its roots to British colonial administration. At the time of independence there was no major change in the structures of the service. Replacing the departing expatriates with the indigenous Nigerians under a policy referred to as Nigerianization. Over the years the public service has continued to render poor quality services to the people due to poor work performance by the employees. The source of the problems of poor work performance and service delivery in the public sector, began at the time of independence in 1960, and emanated particularly from Nigerianization policy (1999) (DPM, 2002). Ajulor (2002).

The main policy resulted in creation of direct employment of Nigerians, which eventually led to rapid expansion of the civil service and a high wage bill. Over the years the government has not been able to offer competitive remuneration to its employees because of this high wage bill. Although the cost of living continues to rise, the remuneration of the public sector workers has stagnated. To cope with the increasing cost of living, the public servants engage themselves in other economic activities to supplement their income. Most of the economic activities are undertaken during official working hours, leading to poor service delivery in the public sector (Aseka, 2002)

To curb the problems, in 1993 the government introduced reform programmes aimed at improving work performance and service delivery in the public sector. The first phase of the reform programme focused on staff reduction. During this phase the size of the civil service was significantly reduced by 37% through the following measures:

  1. Voluntary Early Retirement Scheme (VERS);
  2. Abolition of posts that had remained vacant for too long;
  3. Freezing of recruitment into the public service except in critical areas;
  4. Withdrawal of guaranteed employment to pre-trainees and graduates of tertiary educational institutions;
  5. Removal of 4500 “ghost” workers from the payroll as result of head count exercise;
  6. Strict enforcement of the mandatory retirement age of 55 years

The second phase of the reform programme focused on rationalization of the civil service to improve performance and productivity. During this phase the government introduced performance management strategies to enhance work performance in the public service. The strategies focused on improving service delivery in ministries/departments and creating a customer and results-oriented culture in the public service.

The third phase of the government reforms involved deepening ministerial/departmental rationalization initiatives in which government institutions reviewed their functions, structures and staffing with the aim of enhancing efficiency and productivity. As a result, the number of employees declined from 272,000 in 1991 to 193,000 in 2002. Ministry of Planning and National Development. Ani (2007)

The reform programmes were also aimed at eliminating corruption that had penetrated into the public sector, resulting in misappropriation of government resources and poor service delivery. To fight corruption and restore integrity in the service, the government of Nigeria in 2002 launched the Public Service Integrity Programme. The integrity programme was based on the fact that the Nigerian government recognized the importance of an efficient public sector as a means of enhancing economic growth and prosperity to the nation and to meet the challenges of improving the well being of its people (Directorate of Personnel Management/Anti Corruption Police Unit. Part of the government move to fight corruption targeted government departments including the Judiciary, where staff suspected to have been unproductive and involved in professional misconduct were suspended from duty. Ruto, (2003) notes that six of the total of the nine of the Court of Appeal judges, 17 of the 34 High Court judges and 82 of 254 magistrates were suspended, and acting judges appointed to take their positions.

The civil service in Nigeria has suffered setbacks which are largely attributed to ineffective and inefficient management. Performance management is a tool which focuses on managing the individual and work environment in such a manner that an individual/team can achieve set organizational goals. It is a relatively new concept in human resource management. The paper gives a perspective of the public sector in Nigeria and presents the performance management system as one such tool that can enhance the performance of the public executing agencies.

1.2 Statement of Problem

This research will analyze the problem and series of difficulties affecting every organization both private and public.

Some of the problems this project will address at the end of completion are:-

  1. Lack of adequate provision for employees efforts,
  2. Inadequate welfare of the employees,
  3. Lack of workshop training to motivate employees productivity,
  4. Inadequate income that will absorbs the rising cost of living standard, and
  5. More leisure time in which to enjoy motivation.

1.3 Objectives of Study

The objective of this project is to analyze the effect of motivation in the public sector most especially at Lagos State Ministry of Education:

  1. To assess the motivation of employees performance in low moral and high labour turnover
  2. To determine the extent which civil service performance affect motivational performance of ministry of education?
  3. To examine good job commendation in the ministry of education
  4. To identify employees motivation and the success of their service.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions are drawn to guide the study

  1. To what extent motivation of employees has no effect in low moral and high labour turnover?
  2. How does civil service performance affect motivational performance of ministry of education?
  3. Does job commendation serves as an incentive for good job performance in the ministry of education?
  4. To what extent are the employees appreciated in the success of their service?

1.5 Statement of Hypothesis

This is a preposition, which can be put to test to determine its validity, it should be stated relate to problem under investigation.

Examples are these:-

After series of hypothesis, the result are stated as below:-

  1. H0: Lack of motivation of employees has no effect in low morale and high labour turnover.
    H0: Lack of motivation of employees has effect in low morale and high labour turnover.
  2. Ho: Performance of civil service has no significance relationship with the motivational performance.
    Hi: Performance of civil service has significance relationship with the motivational performance.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This project will be useful for whoever wants to know much about how to motivate employees for higher performance. It will also provide the opportunity for the development of skill of report writing, facts, finding and presentation of data with recommendations for others to read and understand. It will also help to know more facts about the historical background on the project topic and its relevance in operations of the organization and also provides the opportunity to see into problems encountered in the organization as it affects the employees performance due to lack of motivation of employees which can hinder the successfulness of an organization in achieving their set objectives. Dutton (2001)

1.7 Scope and Limitation of Study

Attention will be focused on the impact of motivation on employees’ job performance. This project is a work that requires a wide scope of research that is to cover various organizations both private and public in order to determine its validity as a pre- determined of employees performance but this is limited to Lagos State Ministry of Education manly because of limited time and money.

1.8 Definition of Terms

(a) Motivation

For the purpose of this study, motivation would be looked at from managerial viewpoint. The managerial definition of motivation is a statement of the application of general motivation theory in an organizational setting and managerial context. Motivation, in the traditional sense among management writers, means stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals.

The managerial motivational job really is one of aligning organizational and individual objectives in order for them to be mutually reinforcing.

(b) Morale:

Inspite of difference of opinion, there is consideration support for the position that the term “morale” is an attitude of satisfaction with, desire to continue in, and willingness to strive for the goals of a particular organization.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.3 Conclusions

Essentially the need to perform exists in all places, but then it is important to perform for the purpose of achieving set goals. Not only set goals of just any kind but that which is related to the specific goals of the organization.
The management of ministry of education s from the findings of the research has not been able to meet the motivational demands of the workers in the sense that, it does not give cognizance to staff welfare in these Local Government Councils.

From observation the researcher found out that motivation boosts worker’s morale and enhance productivity and performance in any organization. However, the motivational strategies employed in Surulere and Ojuelegba Local Governemnet Council have not achieved any great success in these Local Government Councils.

Generally, it was clearly discovered in the course of the research that the dominant needs deprivation of the workers in ministry of education s, this include the needs for salary increment, prompt promotions, provision of motivational incentives for job satisfaction, better conditions of service, involvement of personal initiatives at work for growth and development oftheworkersintheseorganizations,andpaymentofotherfringebenefits,theseneeds not only become basic and fundamental but also paramount to facing the prevailing socio- economic reality in Lagos State and Nigeria at large.

It can therefore, be concluded that, for a positive change toward staff attitudes, it is paramount for these Local Government Councils to address staff dominant needs for better condition of service achievement, growth and development to ensure high performance and optimum productivity.

It is also concluded that, an organization with good Motivation schemes will experience tremendous success in increasing organizational productivity and at the same time boost the morale its employees who in turn affect the level of productivity.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the followings recommendations are offered.

  1. Ministry of education s should try and improve in their attitude towards meeting the welfares of the staff, which would boost the morale of the staff in their area of responsibility.
  2. The Local Government service Board of Lagos State, and the Local Government councils, should amend the criteria for staff promotion/advancement as significant number of the respondents said the present criteria is unfavourable to them. And promotion/advancement is the Local Government Councils should strictly be on merits and not on spoils system. Staff should be promoted or advanced as at when due, because lack of prompt promotion of these staff in the Local Government has negatively affected their performance and productivity.
  3. The research recommend that, Lagos State Government should increase the salary and other allowances of the Local Government Council to commensurate with the kind of job they do, that would move them for high performance and productivity in the service. It was discovered during investigation that, the dominant needs and the major source of motivation for higher performance to the Local Governments’ staff is salary increment. This is not only basic but fundamental, going by the prevailing socio- economic reality in the country. The staffs are unpaid compare with their job value. The salary can neither meet basic physiological needs, nor cushion the socio- economics ends and pressures by dependents and extended family. The capacity of the Local Government staff to meet their socio- economic ends has damaging effects, not only to their psychological (as they cannot buy the goods and services) necessary to survive or advance in status and be respected by their fellow men in other public sector. If their salary and other allowances are increase, the staff will not lack the finance, to procure or fulfill deprived needs necessary to meet their value expectation. And that will not move them to divert their value, energy, time, and commitment to such ventures that can provide them with additional income elsewhere to meet the socio-economic shortcoming of their present employers. This of course is to the detriment of the workers primary responsibility, the job attitude of the workers will be negative as morale will be affected, absenteeism will increase, and tardiness, self-withdrawal and labour turnover will be the order if this recommendation is turndown by the Local Government service Board and these Local Government Councils in the State.
  4. The research recommends that Lagos State Government and the management of these need, to improve the staff incentive and allowances, such as leave grants, transport, Housing, meal subsidy e.t.c, provided to the staff of these Local Government Councils. Since the study proved that, staff performance and productivity in these Local Government depends on the kind of motivational incentive provided by the Local Government Councils
  5. Local Government needs to improve the staff incentives, and allowances, such as leave grants, transport, Housing, meal subsidy etc, provided to the staff of these Local Government Councils. Since the study prove that, staff performance and productivity in these Local Governments depends on the kind of motivational incentives provided by the Local Government Councils.
  6. The study recommends that the political office holders in the Local Government Councils should not interfere with the personnel functions in these Local Governments, i.e. all political leaders in the Local Government Councils (non career civil servant) should not interfere with civil servants functions, because the politicization of the Local system will bastardize the effectiveness of the personnel functions.
  7. The Local Government Service Board or Commission should encourage the Local Government councils in the state, to adopt socio-technical system, in that both the humans and materials resources should be effectively harnessed, efficiently integrated and adequately developed for productive purpose to ensure workers and organizational self-growth and development. The management of these Local Government councils should provide the staff with necessary operational tools, up-to date office or working implements, materials and other facilities to ensure effective potentials development. This is the surest way to job satisfaction, enhance motivation for higher performance, and optimum productivity.
  8. The research further recommends Lagos State Government and the management of Surulere and Ojuelegba Local Government to strive and meets the workers needs, expectation and also determines the capacity to express their potentials to achieve, ensure self growth and development. As the research findings indicated that, these factors are not only highly importance sources of job satisfaction but also as the major inhibiting factors to the staff efficient performance and productivity. When the right/qualified staff is put in place, the job intrinsically enriched to fit and ensure job satisfaction and cover with beautiful incentives package, but when the necessary operational tools to discharge the assigned responsibility is not there, of course the organization can neither realized it set goals nor can the individual staff achieve, grow or develop his potential. The staff will be ideal to point of frustration or think and act contrary to the interest of the organization.
  9. The research recommends ministry of education s to device more sources of funds to the Local Government councils and not to depend solidly on the Federal Government and State Government monthly grants or subversions. As the study observed that the inability of these Local Government to meets the welfare of the staff as they ought to have is due to poor funding. Funding has served as the major problem affecting the smooth running and successful achievement these Local Government Councils. Therefore, these councils should look inward, device effective means of raising revenue and enhance it financial accrual and lessen its reliance on grants from the State and Federal Government but should create avenues to self-sustain and fund it operations and consequently meet the yearning desire of the workers that would spur them for optimum performance and productivity.
  10. The study recommends the management of these Local Councils to delegate administrative responsibility with commensurate authority to the staff to enable them to perform these organizations. This will in effect eliminates workers frustration as a result of frictions and dissatisfaction at work.
  11. The research further recommends the management of ministry of education s to vigorously implement it present training and retraining policy, through workshops, seminars and in house training of the staff. As the research findings revealed that majority of the respondent said, that continuous training and development of the staff will induces them for higher performance in the Local Government service
  12. Finally, the research recommends Lagos State Government through the Ministry for Local Government service commission and the Local Government councils to constantly re-enforce research on workers motivation, performance and productivity. That it is proper, maximization of the relationship between motivation and performance that should often be investigated. This is to ensure effective motivation, for higher performance and optimum productivity in the Local Government service, to safe guard against the effects of negative job attitude. Therefore, if all the above recommendations are adequately adopted or implemented, the issue of workers low performance, absenteeism and labour turnover will not only be surmounted but would greatly reduce to some extent, and that will not only gives the staff in ministry of education s the sense of dedication, commitment and industrious, but would also ensure their job satisfaction and motivation for higher performance and productivity in the Local Government service of Lagos State.

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