Impact Of Motivation On Employee’s Job Performance In Nigeria Public Sector (A Case Of Plateau State Local Government Ministry Of Local Government And Chieftaincy Affairs From 2016-2021)

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Impact Of Motivation On Employee’s Job Performance In Nigeria Public Sector (A Case Of Plateau State Local Government Ministry Of Local Government And Chieftaincy Affairs From 2016-2021)


Abstract


This study was carried out on the impact of motivation on employee’s job performance in Nigeria public sector (a case of Plateau State Local Government Ministry of Local Government and Chieftaincy Affairs from 2016-2021). The study was carried out to assess the level of employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments, find out the extent employees’ in Plateau State Local Governments are being motivated, analyze other factors other than motivation affecting employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments, ascertain whether intrinsic motivational strategies can boost employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments and ascertain whether extrinsic motivational strategies can boost employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of employees in Plateau State Ministry Of Local Government And Chieftaincy Affairs. In determining the sample size, the researcher convenientlyselected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent employees in Plateau State Local Governments are being motivated from 2016-2021 is low. Furthermore, the study revealed that the other factors other than motivation affecting employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments between 2016-2021 includes: poor working environment, late payment of salaries, lack of job security and poor training/career development. Therefore, it is recommended that all relevant and managerial authorities in government organizations should reappraise and reevaluate the present salary structure of all civil servants with a view to increasing it. To mention but a few.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The impact of motivation on employees work performance in public organization has been developed throughout the world during the era of human resource management as a tool, which proposed to promote the organization’s efficiency and performance. Motivation plays a key role in employees’ job performance in any organization (Calder, 2006). The employee’s motivation has been a long concept in human resource management and has drawn more attentions as a central research topic for scholars and practitioners (Calder, 2006). As a result, a lot of theories and approaches have developed in order to explain the nature of employees’ motivation in the private and the public sector. However, most of the previous studies on the role of motivation on employees’ job performance descend little of practical application or offer it only for the private sector. The problem is that with the effects of the latest financial crisis and mismanagement in public sector governments need today, more than ever before, practical ways that can help motivate public employees to be productive and get “more for less” (Robbins, et al., 2007).

There is no way the Nigerian local government service can achieve its ostensible goals of service-delivery to the rural populace without a productive workforce. A good organizational structure does not by itself guarantee good performance. It has been argued by Drucker (2013) that human resource is the life of the existence, survival and development of an organization as food is to man. It has been also argued (Likert 2016) that of all the tasks of management, managing the human component is central and the most important task because all else depend on how well it is done. No doubt, therefore, that the ability of the Nigerian local government service to accomplish its primary task of service-delivery to the teeming rural populace is a function of a motivated and productive workforce. This was established by Orewa (2016) that: Local government is essentially a service-oriented institution. Once the roads and drains are constructed, the incinerators installed, the health centres constructed and equipped and stocked with drugs, school buildings constructed and furnished…all that is left to make the local government function effectively is manpower, to operate and maintain these institutions and facilities.

Local government in Nigeria is institutionalized as a third tier of government encumbered with the responsibility to provide public goods and services at the grassroots towards improving the living conditions of the local populace. As a component unit of development, Local governments in Nigeria are yet to impress the people in terms of their responsiveness to the yearnings and aspirations of the rural people. This existing abysmal performance of the Nigerian local government service has been largely linked to lack of a supported workforce and total neglect of many factors affecting job performance. Again, it has been aptly contended by Koontz, et al, (2007) that what people are willing to strive for is dulled or sharpened by the organizational climate in which they operate. At times, a climate may repress motivation and at other times, it may arouse them.

A great deal of issues of staff motivation, utilization, selection, recruitment, placement and development for higher productivity exists in Nigeria’s Local government service, year-in-year-out. This is symptomatic of the question of rural development in Nigeria. A number of scholars (Orewa and Adewumi 2017 and Nkala 2015) have pointed out the inadequacies of the foregoing stimulants of organizational productivity in the Nigerian local government service, severally and in a scorching manner. The resultant effect of this is that local government workers tend to be more idling and unproductive under the existing system of patronage rather than being active and productive in a merit-based and result-oriented system.

The Nigerian local government service is fast becoming a breeding ground for ghost workers, absenteeism, over-employment, redundancy, and so on. Seemingly, the performance of local government workers has been shortchanged for over-politicization of the age-old bureaucratic values of local government administration. As a good example of the falling standard of the Nigerian local government service, the Plateau state local government service, since its creation, has been witnessing scores of anti-motivational trends. These include over-placement of subordinate officers to boss superior officers, high degree of nepotism by way of workers using their relations in government to forcefully occupy seemingly juicy positions in the service to the detriment of their superiors, continuous and countless adjustments of retirement dates, unwarranted accelerated promotions, politically-motivated transfers, appointment of unqualified persons into positions of high responsibility, and so on. This underscores the emerging work-shy attitude amongst local government staff and attendant low employee productivity in the Plateau state local government service over the years.

The contentious issue of employee motivation and the attendant question of productivity in the Nigerian local government service, therefore, constitute a major problem for political science inquiry. It is against this backdrop that this study examines the impact of motivation on employee’s job performance in Nigeria public sector between 2016 and 2021.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In order to achieve a maximum output or productivity, employers in any organization should, as a matter of policy and necessity, motivate their staff. Motivation of staff is a highly relative matter since it varies in degrees, dimensions and places of employment. Thus, the policies formulated in any organization cannot be enthusiastically and successfully implemented when the employees are very apathetic with the conditions prevailing in their workplace. Hence, lack of motivation of employees in any organization is sine qua non to the failures in the achievement of the desired or designed goals or objectives. Invariably, motivation is inextricably tied with job satisfaction and the employee’s realization of his competence as well as the opportunity to apply new ideas. These issues, therefore, constitute the primary assumptions in this study and hence become the preconditions in achieving the laid down organizational objectives. The condition of employment in Nigerian local governments is not fundamentally different from other organizations in the country. There should be comprehensive, attractive and tempting conditions of service, staff regulations and scheme of service in the local government system that are adequately comparable with relevant organizations in Nigeria, like job security and absence of all forms of job hazards. This is with a view to making the employees of the local governments not only motivated but also satisfied with the work they perform. Apart from these conditions, however, there should also exist workplace environmental requisites in forms of social amenities in the local governments to relatively attract, retain and amuse the employees. Transparent and transformational leadership in the local governments must be the strategic key in employee motivation and achievement of objectives.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The general aim of this study is to examine the impact of motivation on employee’s job performance in Nigeria public sector using Plateau State Local Government as a case study. The specific aims of this study are outlined below:

  1. Assess the level of employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments.
  2. Find out the extent employees’ in Plateau State Local Governments are being motivated.
  3. Analyze other factors other than motivation affecting employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments.
  4. Ascertain whether intrinsic motivational strategies can boost employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments
  5. Ascertain whether extrinsic motivational strategies can boost employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments.

1.4 Research Questions

The main focus of this research is to provide a valuable response to the questions below.

  1. What is the rate of employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments between 2016-2021?
  2. What is the extent employees’ in Plateau State Local Governments have been motivated between 2016-2021?
  3. What are the other factors other than motivation affecting employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments between 2016-2021?
  4. Can intrinsic motivational strategies boost employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments?
  5. Can extrinsic motivational strategies boost employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Ho1: Intrinsic motivational strategies will have no impact on employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments.

Ho2: Extrinsic motivational strategies will have no impact on employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments.


1.6 Significance of the Study

The study would provide an insight on how to improve employee performance and retain talent within the organizations. It would also help organizations to enhance their corporate image as good employers through promotion of good human resource practices. It would enable managers to identify, understand and implement strategies to motivate employees all year round in order to achieve optimal business results. The employees would be able to identify other factors that motivate them more once their financial needs are met. This would enhance their morale, their performance and ultimately their job satisfaction.

The study would sensitize the unions in their efforts to advocate for workers’ rights. It would provide them with a practical approach and guidelines in dealing with issues relating to motivation and alternatives to pay increases. It would enlighten the researcher and other future researchers on the importance and relevance of good management to individual employee performance and the overall organization performance.

The outcome of this research would be a working tool for managers of the local governments to use it to ensure that employees were well motivated to stay in the local government to enhance efficiency and effectiveness. Distinctive local governments value their human capital because without them, it would be difficult to achieve the vision of the school to beat its competitors.

The research work would serve as a policy shaping document for the institution and other public sectors set up to improve its human resource related problems, since organizations are battling over appropriate ways of encouraging workers to improve work output.

This research would also bring to light factors or untoward conditions that demotivate workers from putting up their best in the fulfilment of the institution’s objectives.

The study would also extend the literature on human resource management and thus contribute to the growth of management as a discipline. Finally, the study intended to investigate the importance of factors that motivated employees in the Plateau state local governments.

The research would also benefit the future researchers who would carry out research about the same topic of motivation and employee performance and may learn more about motivation practices, factors affecting employee performance, the relationship between motivation and employee performance among others.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study is generally narrowed to the impact of motivation on employee’s job performance in Nigeria public sector using Plateau State Local Government. However, the scope of the study extends to but is limited to the level of employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments, the extent employees’ in Plateau State Local Governments are being motivated, other factors other than motivation affecting employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments, and ascertaining whether intrinsic and extrinsic motivational strategies can boost employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments. The respondents for this study will be obtained from Plateau State Ministry Of Local Government And Chieftaincy Affairs. The study will also cover the period of 5year from 2016-2021.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Motivation:

According to Shedd, (2010) motivation is defined as “a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behaviour or a drive that is arrived at a goal or incentive”. According to Abdulkadir et al. (2015), “motivation is the inducement of a desired behavior with in subordinates”. It is the inducement of a desired behaviour within subordinates.

Extrinsic Motivation:

According to Mertler (2012), “extrinsic motivation results from the attainment of externally administered rewards, including pay, material possessions, prestige, and positive evaluations from others”. In this study, extrinsic motivation of teachers included externally administered rewards like salary, free accommodation, free meals, weekly duty and extra teaching allowances, advance payments in case of financial problems, leave of absence and free medical care among others.

Intrinsic Motivation:

Intrinsic motivation is an inducement derived from within the person or from the activity itself and, positively affects behavior, performance, and wellbeing (Mertler, 2012).

Performance:

Employee performance is defined as the measure of the quality of human capital held by the organization.

Employee Motivation:

Employee motivation is one of the policies of managers to increase effectual job management amongst employees in organizations (Shadare et al, 2019).


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of motivation on employee’s job performance in Nigeria public sector (a case of Plateau State Local Government Ministry of Local Government and Chieftaincy Affairs from 2016-2021). The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the impact of motivation on employee’s job performance in Nigeria public sector (a case of Plateau State Local Government Ministry of Local Government and Chieftaincy Affairs from 2016-2021).The study specifically was aimed at to assess the level of employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments, find out the extent employees’ in Plateau State Local Governments are being motivated, analyze other factors other than motivation affecting employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments, ascertain whether intrinsic motivational strategies can boost employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments and ascertain whether extrinsic motivational strategies can boost employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondentswere employees in Plateau State Ministry Of Local Government And Chieftaincy Affairs.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The level of employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments is low.
  2. The extent employees’ in Plateau State Local Governments are being motivated between 2016-2021 is low.
  3. The other factors other than motivation affecting employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments between 2016-2021 includes: poor working environment, late payment of salaries, lack of job security and poor training/career development.
  4. Intrinsic motivational strategies boost employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments.
  5. Extrinsic motivational strategies boost employees’ performance in Plateau State Local Governments.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. All relevant and managerial authorities in Government organizations should reappraise and reevaluate the present salary structure of all civil servants with a view to increasing it.
  2. Adequate fringe benefit such as overtime payment, leave allowance and compensation payments should be given to workers to compensate their light scheme.
  3. There is also need for adequate provision of updated equipment for effective workflow for government workers.
  4. The government should strive to encourage their workers by improving factors influence their performance in motivating them.
  5. Experts’ counsel should be sought and utilized from time to time to put in place a functional employee motivation strategy in the Nigerian local government service.

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