The Impact Of Motivation And Employee Performance In Public Sector (A Case Study Of Federal Ministry Of Education Owerri, Imo State)

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration


Sambo also looked at motivation at the label for everything that determine how an individual decides to initiate efforts on task, how he decides on the level of effort to exert on that task. This view of motivation is obviously very embracing and effecting motivation therefore is spaced demanding task on management.

He suggested that management determines the needs of its staff and the situational variables that determine a person’s behaviour. It must also determine how motivators are processed motivating a person according to him is as complex a task as the complexity of an individual needs.


Table Of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Certification Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table Of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background Of The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of Problem
  • 1.3 Purpose Of The Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Scope Of The Study
  • 1.6 Significance Of The Study
  • 1.7 Definition Of Terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Review Of Literature

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Motivation Organization
  • 2.3 The Civil Servant Condition Of Service During Colonial Era
  • 2.4 Motivation – A Theoretical Discourse
  • 2.5 Abraham Maslow Hierarchy Of Need Theory
  • 2.6 Fredrick Herzbrg’s Two Factor Theory
  • 2.7 Douglas Mcgregor’s Theory X And Theory Y
  • 2.8 Concept Of Productivity
  • 2.9 Other Concepts That Lead To Motivation Of Workers Positive Reinforcement
  • 2.10 Theoretical Deduction From Literature
  • 2.11Different Motivational Theories
  • 2.12 Some Factors That Cause Staff Demotivation
  • 2.13 Summary Of The Literature Reviewed
  • References

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Description Of The Study
  • 3.3 Area Of The Study
  • 3.4 Population Of The Study
  • 3.5 Sample And Sampling Procedure
  • 3.6 Validity And Reliability Of The Instrument
  • 3.7 Method Of Data Collection
  • 3.8 Method Of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Data Presentation And Analysis

  • 4.1 Discussion Of The Findings:
  • 4.2 Implication Of The Study

Chapter Five

5.0 Discussion, Implication And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Discussion Of Results
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • 5.3 Limitation Of The Study
  • 5.4 Suggestions For Further Research
  • 5.5 Conclusion
  • 5.6 Summary Of Findings
  • References

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Ideally, the task of administration is to develop the taste for good working condition and for government to develop workers who are able to tailor and utilize the resources in the working society to their own needs by K.P. Cross.

Motivations will always need the timeliness, sensitivity and vision that any effective relationship with human growth and individuality demands. A logical and seductive assumption is that if working itself is well planned and efficient, motivation for what is being done should neatly and nicely come alone as well (Deci 1980). Vargas (1977) noted that when workers feel a strong need for what they are doing and the programme is well planned and stimulating with adequate informational feed-back the easier the motivation to work increase. If this were not so, motivation would not be the epidemic concern it is for managers. Industry, and business are filled with well designed, efficient programmes that are not very motivative part of the problem, is efficiency itself motivation takes people to people skills and time. Like a good conversation, it cannot be rushed. The best way to see a motivational strategy is as an investment. It pays dividends but often not immediately. Also because what motivates people is often beyond the inherent structure of the knowledge or skill they are performing, it means managers have to plan for motivation in its own right it cannot be taken for granted (Johnson Johnson, 1982).

The time continues model of motivation is an organizational aid for motivation planning. It is a systematic structure for introducing or applying motivation strategies through working sequence (sounders, 1981) sand described motivation as an organizational aid and motivation planning is designing and organizing instruction so that the development and enhancement of work motivation is an essential part of it. He also stressed that the time continue model of motivation helps managers to programmatically strategies from the beginning to the end of the work or project sequence so that a network of motivational influences in formulated. According to Wloodkwowskit (11989) the main Criterion for successful motivation planning, no matter what the instructional plan may be, is that each time phase (beginning, during, and ending) of the sequence of instruction for the particular project object includes significant positive motivational influence on the workers. He further listed out six basics question for motivation planning as follows:

  1. What can I do to establish a positive working attitude for this programme?
  2. How do I best meet the needs of my workers throughout this working sequence?
  3. What about this working conditions that will stimulate my workers?
  4. How does this working pattern increase or affect workers feeling of competence P
  5. How this working pattern does provide for my workers?

Knoveles (1980) contented that when a worker is motivated to worker, they work hardens, Learn, More have source of enjoyment and achievement, and want to continuing working.
A manager working with motivated worker finds instruction more successful, achieves greater satisfaction and avoids burnout.

Based on the above, it is difficult to understand whether federal ministry of education Enugu is achieving its objective or not. Moreover, issue of threats of retrenchment of workers has kept workers in fear and the position of the ministry among the top ones in the country has fallen. Liquidity experience, encountered, this indicate some strength and weakness, efficiency and different hence even salaries are delayed

Brief Historical Background Of (Federal Ministry Of Education)

We cannot talk about motivation of staff in the civil service without talking about the ministries that integrated to form the civil service federal ministry of education among other ministries, could be said to be exceptional in the sense that it is purely associated with acquiring and imparting know ledge and skills be it formal, non-formal or informal. It formal, non –formal or informal. It could be said to be the bedrock of other ministries in so far as other employees and employers in other ministry have passed through its one over or another in the course of acquiring knowledge, so it is a pivot on which other ministries revolves.
Education ministry as old as civilization. This is because civilization started with exhibiting extra knowledge to better conditions of living. Narrowed down to Nigeria, “the federal ministry of education Enugu could be seen to be as old as the advert of the Europeans or colonial masters” (Fafunwa A.B. 1974). They brought the idea of acquiring and imparting-knowledge formally and established a ministry to be solely in charge. It came to line light when the country was operating under the regional system, where we had Directorate of Education to three and later four regions of the country. This later metamorphosed to ministries in 1967 with 12 states in the country.

1.2 Statement Of Problems

  1. It appears that the resources for serious operation for motivation of employee in federal ministry of education are inadequate.
  2. There is the problem of motivating planning that liquidity and late payment of salaries occur.
  3. There is problem of threat for retrenchment of workers.
  4. The problem of running the ministry by the management consultants.

1.3 Purpose Of The Study

  1. To ascertain to what extent human and non-human resources are adequate for serious operation of the ministry
  2. To determine how problem of motivate planning leads to liquidity and late payment of salaries.
  3. To find out the courses of threats of retrenchment to workers.
  4. To determine the problem of running the ministry with team of management consultants.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. To what extent are the resources adequate for federal ministry of education management effectiveness?
  2. To what extent are the problems of motivations planning affect the profits and payment of salaries to workers?
  3. What is the cause of threat of retrenchment to workers?
  4. What are the problems of running the ministry with the same government?

1.5 Scope Of The Study

This scope of this study is federal ministry of education, Enugu made up of twelve department.

1.6 Significance Of The Study

Having seen the dimension of the work, it is believed that suggestion from this study would help in many ways.

  1. It would have help to search for the solutions to the problems facing the civil servants in Nigeria
  2. It would enable the researchers to find ways and means.
  3. It would enable the researcher to determine the effect of these motivating factors on performance or productivity.
  4. With the findings it will help us to make projections and predictions with greater precision concerning the attitude of civil servants to their work.
  5. Management, administrators, directors and policy formulators will gain a lot if they are aware of those factors that spur or inhibit their workers or employees to or from greater performance ad productivities.

1.7 Limitations Of The Study

Although, this study has accomplished the purpose which is et out to do, one of its limitations is that the validity of the result of findings is dependent on the honesty of the respondents in providing the needed information.

Also finance which is a core area in research located some problems on traveling and consultation to the researcher. Another problem is the unnecessary secrecy purported to prevent the organization from the exposure or probe from members of the society.

Despite these limitations, however, this study was deemed successful because the purpose for which it was designed has been achieved.

1.8 Definition Of Terms


There are workers that are being employed by the employed on which certain duties will be allocated to them to discharge it efficiently and effectively so that the employer will through them accomplish the goals and objectives of the organization.


It is an energizing force that induces and compels the behaviour of employees


To meet up the needs and want of a particular regrets


Is a process of planning organizing directing and controlling to activities of the organization in order to reach its goals and objectives.


They are the head of an organization are in charge of the managerial functions.


This describes a state of individual’s attitudes, judgement and feeling about work company or supervisor. A man’s moral to an event can be high or low and moral can be influence by needs.

Chapter Five

5.0 Discussion, Implication And Recommendation

This chapter presents the discussion of the results of the study, conclusions, implications of the research findings, recommendations, suggestions for further research and limitation of the study.

5.1 Discussion Of Results

Here the result of the investigation analyzed in preceding section of this chapter are discussed and interpreted. Information obtained through interviews, documents and records as well as form personal observation supplement the information obtained through questionnaire.

An organisation may have a sound motivational strategies aimed at enhancing workers productivity, but extraneous factors, coupled with economic condition of a country and workers preference prevent such motivators from working. Motivation is an indispensable element in an organisation whether profit or non-profit oriented organisation like Enugu Stat University of Science and Technology, in recognition of this fact. Enugu State University of Science and Technology adopted as one of its strategies the payment of Harmonized Tertiary Institution Salary Structure (HATISS) to motivate its employees. Interestedly, data collected on the effect of high salary on the employees revealed that 46.06% of the respondents confirmed that high salary motivates that to high performance.

However, Herzberg in his two factor model “Motivator-hygiene factor” classified salary as a hygiene factor which does not build strong motivation but merely helps to avoid dissatisfaction.

It should be remembered that Herzbery conducted his research in a developed nation among accountants and engineers who were believed to be at the top of the hierarchy of need (see Herzberg two factor theory). One the contrary, Nigeria is a developing nation, and the nature of the trade union primary objective of wage regulation according to Agwu Akpala (1982: 160) suggests that employees in Nigeria have sanctuary for salary and wages, in effect, therefore, it was not surprising that Enugu State University of Science and Technology employees agreed that they would be motivated and infact are motivated by high salary. This suggest that some of the employees are stilling in the botton of Maslows hierarchy of need.

However, the institution’s guarantee for high salary party through the payment of HATISS and other allowances peculiar to universities is to ensure that workers put more efforts towards the accomplishment of the university’s objective. Ultimately, to maintain the workers drive towards increased productivity via high salary, it should be emphasized that the high should be directly tied to productivity, otherwise. It will lose its stand a motivation.
Awful enough, the successive administration of Enugu State have performed poorly in making p

Prompt payment of ESUT and the current HATISS. The university workers have severally embarked on industrial unrest owing to non-or-late payment of salaries and fringe benefits.

The institution also offers some fringe benefits aimed at satisfying the basic needs of the workers. These benefits include housing allowances, transport allowances, meal subsidy, skeletal medical services and academic allowances for academic staff. This study revealed that 53.94% of the respondents perceived the effect of these benefits as motivational. Thus, this is another area that this study is in conflict with Herzberg’s theory because Herzbery classified fringe benefits as hygiene factors.

Nevertheless, the divided opinion all the respondents regarding the effect of these benefits on worker would mean that Herzbery classification may be totally in applicable in Nigeria. All the same, as majority of the respondents whole believed that these benefit are a source of motivation in Enugu State University of Science and Technology. And if it is taken that only relatively financially buoyant organisation provided adequate fringe benefits, hen that might be a reason why workers in other organisations are attracted to Enugu State University and as long as these benefits are continuously enjoyed by the employees especially now that the country is facing economic predicament.

The basis for promotion in the institution was in doubt. A small percentage respondents during the oral interview admitted that promotion is based on merit and hard work, larger percentage of the respondents fraved at the basis of the promotion in the institution which they variously described as being based on man know man, favouritism, luck and others bases which they could not describe. Meanwhile only few people had so far been promote since about three years now. However, low promotion rate is believed be as a result of the financial predicament and management problem the institution currently undergoing, for instance changing of the V.C. and Registrar almost in every two years.

Most of the employees in the institution had at one time or the other increased their performance, in this organisation in anticipation of promotion, it was gathered from literature of expectancy model that motivation depends on the preference and expectations of the individual.

Thus, the increase in the performance of the institution’s employees in anticipation for promotion indicated that promotion is really a motivator to them. The expectancy model in addition emphasizes the need for organisation to relate rewards directly to performance and to ensure that rewards provided are desired by the recipients.

The percentage of the respondents showed that they desire promotion installment for increased performance and even though that the opportunity for promotion is rare in the institution now, the employees would still be motivated if, convened that the very few opportunities that occasionally existed were really based on merit in terms of performance.

Furthermore, the information obtained from the institution with regard it training its employees have cleared the doubts as to whether training is motivating or not. The oral interview conducted reveals that a great percentage of the respondents were of the view that employee are motivated by training. Because of the increased skill acquired in training, job security and improved workers performance are highlighted, perhaps, the driving force hidden in training might be that skill acquired even remains with the employee, an invaluable intangible resource which is in itself satisfying. Maslow’s basic assumption that an unsatisfied need is a motivator of behaviour hold in this case. The respondents believed that they need adequate training to improve their performance and that the prior increase in their performance was in part as result of training previously undergone. The connotation ESUT should as far as possible expand its training programmed proportion fo the workers are trained.

The workers described the apart exulted by management to promote staff that obtained a degree or diploma through the mature students programme, unair and other related programmes.

There are generally cordial relationship was the maintenance of industrial, peace and existence of the workers, union which maintained peaceful and mutual understanding with the management of the school. This suggests the management of the institution is adopting Douglas Mcgregor’s theory in its leadership approach.

The message being put across in this theory is that, it is the management responsibility to formulate employee commitment, self direction and motivation to achieve organisation goals under managerial leadership.

5.2 Recommendation

The following recommendation have been made in light of the findings the discussion of the finding that followed as well as the implications which have been highlighted managers, supervisors and employers of ministry should plan for resources that would motivate staff commitment such as employment and professional, offering accommodations, transport services and office equipment need for operational efficiency.

To avoid fraud or ligmolty, motivational model planning such as attitude, appreciation stimulation affection and reinforcement have to bee taken very serious because of their obvious effect on management efficiency and workers motivation.

Managers and employers should about retrenchment. Threats and the effects such as disunity: fear, under estimation, untimely resignation: fear, under estimation, untimely resignation eye service, victimization as well as understanding of workers needs and expectations.

Managers, supervisors and employers of federal ministry of education should learn to use intern terms of management consultants to ensure relevant application with commitment of expertise, enthusicsion, empathy, clarity and to save huge expenditure to the ministry if management efficiency is to be achieved.

Through the results of this study retrenchment threat brought a lot of problems such as discurity and untrust, unnecessary fear and under estimation of fellow man sudden resignation of appointment unrealistic understanding of workers need and expectation and unconcern for workers perspective. The implication is that unless motivation needed is given the staff in place of threat of retrenchment, commitment to duty as to achieve management efficiency is to say the least miracle.

Moreover, the use of external team management consultants though with expertise has a problem of lack of enthusiasm: clarity, commitment and less of huge expenditure to the organization. The implication is that money and profitability cannot be achieved where all these deficiencies and weakness occur. Hence, these need to be addressed if management efficiency still remain the objective of the organization.

In general corruption, fraud, disunity are the core earning of financial institutions which has culminated into lack of trust by the most of the member of the public

5.3 Limitation Of The Study:

Although, this study has accomplished the purpose which is set out to do, one of its limitation is that the validity of the results of findings is dependent on the honesty of the respondents in providing the needed information.

Also finance which is a core area in research located some problems on travelling and consultation to the researcher. Another problem is the unnecessary secrecy purported to prevent the organization from exposure or probe from the members of the society. Despite these limitations, however, this study was deemed successful because the purpose for which it was designed has been achieved.

5.4 Suggestions For Further Research:

Following the results of this study suggestion for further research bases mainly on the scope and issue on the case study of the motivational model effect on management efficiency are hereby made:

  1. The role of ethical validity in the operation of financial based institution.
  2. The role of communication proves in creation of awareness on the mass on how the importance of Education
  3. Effect of management principles on the growth and development of education.
  4. The effect of using external team of management consultants in federal ministry of education.

5.5 Conclusion:

The following conditions have been done from the major findings of this study.

Managers of federal ministry of education need to consider resources such as adequate transport services for the purpose of advising management efficiency.

More effort need to be made to ensure steady attitude that encourages staff to works with interest to avoid liquidity and delay in payment of salarize need to be addressed with utmost vigour.

Retrenchment threats need to be reverted to motivational plans for staff to promote desire and remove the associated voices.

Managers need to envolve, experts – enthusiasm, empathy clarity commitment to avoid waste of huge resources – essential for good practice of the job control.

5.6 Summary Of Findings:

  1. Majority of the respondent agreed that these are adequate well trained staff available for effective management.
  2. Vast majority on the respondents accepted the adequately of residential accommodation for them.
  3. Vast majority of staff said that they have sufficient funds for effective management.
  4. The entire respondents saw transport service as in adequate for their effective management.
  5. Also the whole respondents were of the view that they have adequate office equipment in their ministry.
  6. Majority views of the respondents show that management attitude encourages staff to work.
  7. Vast majority opinion showed that management does not appreciate the needs and expectation of the staff as to promote desire.
  8. Majority view indicate that managers practice stimulation that maintains attention to duty.
  9. Vat majority indicated that managers have affection that motivate staff to work.
  10. Majority of the respondents claim that managers reinforces staff with promotion prizes and money.
  11. Vast majority views show that retrenchment threats affect the workers. Performance.
  12. It was found that retrenchment threats create fear and under estimation of fellow staff.
  13. Majority view show that retrenchment threats heads to sudden resignation of appointment.
  14. It was also unanimously agreed that retrenchment leads eye service to avoid victimization.
  15. Vas majority in cheats that managers do not have the realistic understanding of workers, needs and expectation.
  16. It was discovered that the manager do not direct within the experience and skills of the workers.
  17. Managers do not consider regularly workers perspectives.
  18. Majority opinion has it that the team of external management consultants are export.

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