The Impact Of Modern Technology On The Training Of Secretaries In Institutions Of Higher Learning

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The Impact Of Modern Technology On The Training Of Secretaries In Institutions Of Higher Learning


Abstract


The main objective of the study is to ascertain the impact of modern technology on the training of secretaries in institutions of higher learning. The population comprised all the lecturers and the students in HND11 and ND11 studying secretarial studies. The questionnaire was the main instrument for data collection. The mean was used for data analysis. The result of data analyzed showed that most modern machines used to teaching secretaries were not available in the institution.

The available ones were not functional and adequate. The study therefore concluded that office technology would pose a problem to prospective secretaries if they are not versatile to using these modern machines in the institution. The uses and operations of these modern machines will help them to face the challengers of present day offices. It was recommended that training institutions of secretarial studies should provide them with modern machines


Table of Contents


  • Title page
  • Declaration
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope and Limitation of the study
  • 1.7 Definition of terms
  • 1.8 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.0 Introduction
  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Framework

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 sources of data collection
  • 3.3 Population of the study
  • 3.4 Sampling and sampling distribution
  • 3.5 Validation of research instrument
  • 3.6 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation

  • 4.1 Introductions
  • 4.2 Data analysis

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendations
  • Bibliography or References

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

In the past decades several changes have taken place in private and public offices regarding the roles and functions of the secretary due to fast technological advancement in all phases of human life especially in the office environment. Most offices in today’s business world, be it government, industry or other human endeavours, require facts and accurate information for quick decision-making. The office worker, including the secretary, expects certain support from the organization that he/she is employed. This support can be technological (machines and equipment) and human. In the past, manager’s dictated memos and letters and secretaries typed them in various offices. Most recently, institutions have developed word processing centers and relied on personal computers and even electronic mail in an effort to lessen the need for secretarial support and make the secretary very productive (Ezoem, 1995; Osuala, 2004). The type of machines and gadgets that were used to produce, duplicate and store information has undergone a great transformation to cope with the growing world technology, as a result, the role of secretaries in the business set up has changed tremendously from that of typewriting, shorthand dictation, answering of telephone calls and processing of mails to the usage of computers and other modern gadgets (Mumuni& Sam 2014).

Teaching and learning have been made easy with the introduction of technologies. Students now have more friendly ways to source for knowledge and even interact with knowledge-givers. Teachers, lecturers and other educational facilitators now have their work made a lot easier as educational resources can be easily gotten and delivered to students. The communication process between the learner and teacher is now shortened as students can reach their teachers via non-personal means such as e-mails, chats, blogs etc. More so, business educators can also deliver their lecturers with ease by using slides and projectors instead of chalk and board as was the case in times gone by.
Different electronic devices now play important roles in aiding both students and lecturers in the learning and teaching process. Okereke in Bupo and Ndinechi (2015) posited that electronic mail, real time text conferencing, and online tutorials have been used in the teaching and learning process for several years. Other devices include computers (desktops, laptops, notebooks etc), projectors, Digital Versatile Discs (DVD), Compact discs (CDs), Closed Circuit Television (cctv), mobile phones with applications that run on the internet etc. (Nwazor, 2014; Ukor, Agwazie and Ayemhenre, 2014). Secretarial Education is an option in the business education programme that has as its main aim the raising of proficient secretaries and secretarial educators that will be self-reliant. At the end of the programme, graduates should become secretarial educators, proficient “typist, computer operators, shorthand-typist or stenographers, confidential secretaries and personal secretaries”, (Agboola, Ademiluyi and Ademiluyi, 2014). With the advancement of technology and its role in the present day business world, secretaries are expected to be up to date with the trends. This necessitated the inclusion of the course, Software Application, in the curriculum of the Business Education (Secretarial Option) programme.

However, Spencer (1981) defined automation as the process of replacing human work with work done by machines or system designed to perform a specific combination of action automatically or repeatedly. However, in recent times, the secretary’s routine work has reached an advanced stage due to the invention of automated office equipment. Most of the traditional and routine tasks are performed by automated office equipment such as computers, telephone, etc.

The efficiency and effectiveness of the secretary in every business organization depends on the availability of office technologies as well as the skills and competencies of the secretary (Ordu&Akpomi 2009). Modern organizations have come to appreciate the role and importance of the secretary as well as the need to provide the requisite and necessary office machines and equipment for the efficiency of the secretarial functions. This study was conducted and guided by the following objectives: to assess the impact of modern office technology on the performance of secretaries in some selected business organizations; to ascertain the kind of modern office equipment available at these selected business organizations; to examine the secretary’s knowledge and the usage of technology / equipment; and to assess the contribution of those technological facilities to the performance of secretaries. The pertinent questions emanating from those objectives which the study sought answers to included the following: how does modern technology/equipment impact the performance of secretaries in the organization?; What type of office equipment is available and in use in the organizations concerned?; how does the secretary’s knowledge in the operation of the equipment affect the usage of the equipment concerned?; and how does the usage of modern office technology/equipment contribute to the secretary’s performance and productivity?

It is generally acknowledged that technological advancement has affected many professionals both in the public and private organizations, and the role of the secretary is no exception. The secretary is the pivot of any efficient and dynamic organization and their effective performance depend upon the office equipment, knowledge and skills of the professional secretary (Mumuni& Sam 2014).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Today’s secretaries are exposed to office technology including the internet that make work much easier and knowledge more accessible (Edwin, 2008). It is now easier to send messages by telex, electronic mails (e-mails), fax and telephones. Other office gadgets available to the secretary are photo-copy machines, duplicating machines, dictating machines, printers, among others. Secretaries now have many technologically advanced office gadgets to ease their jobs and enhance proficiency and productivity leading to improved access to goods and services globally (Akpomi, 2003). Technological changes have altered the procedures and techniques for office functions to include the computers, electronic mail, voice mail, and the internet. It is on this premise that this study is set out to examine the impact of modern technology on the training of secretaries in institutions of higher learning


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The study has the following aims and objectives:

  1. To determine if secretaries in the higher institutions have access to modern office technologies.
  2. To determine how whether secretaries in higher institutions receive trainings on how to maximize the dividends of modern technologies.
  3. To recommend possible effective ways of acquiring and using modern technologies for an effective secretarial productivity.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

The study formulated and developed for testing the following hypotheses:

  1. H0: There is no visible modern technologies for effective secretarial functions in institutions of higher learning.
    H1: There is no visible modern technologies for effective secretarial functions in institutions of higher learning.
  2. H0: Secretaries of higher institutions are not being trained on the use of modern technology for an effective and efficient secretarial function.
    H1: Secretaries of higher institutions are being trained on the use of modern technology for an effective and efficient secretarial function.

1.5 Significance of the Study

Many of the major problems that organizations have faced in the past have been that they are in awe of technology, they failed to recognize the need to use technology as a competitive weapon against their rivals, they expected technology to be difficult to use and also the unwillingness to address the compelling human issues which has been the major cause of low productivity. This study will help secretaries to full understand how their career will change as a result of the introduction of modern technologies in their offices. This study will be beneficial to students, secretaries and the general public. It will also serve as a reference to other researcher that will embark on this topic


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of the study covers the impact of modern technology on the training of secretaries in the institutions of higher learning. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Organizational Privacy:

Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Computer System:

An executive assistance who processes a mastery of office work and skills and demonstrates the ability to assume responsibility without direct supervision, who exercise initiative and judgments and who make decision within the scope of assigned authority. Also a person who deals with correspondence or arranges venues, date and time for meetings

Performance:

A computer is a device capable of accepting information, applying prescribed processes to the information and supplying the result of these processes.

Secretary:

An executive assistance who processes a mastery of office work and skills and demonstrates the ability to assume responsibility without direct supervision, who exercise initiative and judgments and who make decision within the scope of assigned authority.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows;

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

It is important to reiterate that the objective of this study was to examine the impact of modern technology on the training of secretaries in the institutions of higher learning.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in examining the impact of modern technology on the training of secretaries in the institutions of higher learning.


5.2 Summary

This study was undertaken to examine the impact of modern technology on the training of secretaries in the institutions of higher learning. The study opened with chapter one where the statement of the problem was clearly defined. The study objectives and research hypotheses were defined and formulated respectively. The study reviewed related and relevant literatures. The chapter two gave the conceptual framework, empirical and theoretical studies. The third chapter described the methodology employed by the researcher in collecting both the primary and the secondary data. The research method employed here is the descriptive survey method. The study analyzed and presented the data collected in tables and tested the hypotheses using the chi-square statistical tool. While the fifth chapter gives the study summary and conclusion.


5.3 Conclusion and Recommendation

Having observed and from the relevant data at the disposal of the researcher through the tool of the questionnaire and physical observation of immediate environment and as well as the views expressed by some authors as highlighted in the literature review, it is pertinent to report here that secretaries of higher institutions of learning do not comply with the current trend in technology and innovation when compared with their counterparts in some developing and developed countries. The difference is not in the country location rather the difference is in the management of these institutions. While, the management of institutions in some developed and developing countries have discovered the need for solid secretarial functions, the institutions’ management in the country have identified such but is not taking correspondent action to bring the desirable change needed in the higher institutions. These inactions has resulted in the slow delivery service rendered by these secretaries. It has also resulted in delay and inefficient service. On the part of the secretaries, it has helped them to remain redundant and incompetent as they cannot compete with their counterparts in other countries. This situation has also robbed off on the students. This is because students of secretarial studies understand little or nothing about what they are being taught as such cannot compete for favorable jobs with their mates in the other institutions. It is also balanced to state here that although our present institution lacks the basic technology gadgets, others institutions in the country can boost of reasonable and well-equipped technology laboratories. We conclude thus; that modern technologies are absents in the higher institutions and there is a need to address this matter by the management procuring the necessary and relevant technology needed for effective secretarial functions and also consider the training of these secretaries to meet up with the contemporary trend in technology. The government also should help in the funding of these institutions and an implementation committee should be stirred up to ensure that these actions are being implemented and upheld.


The Impact Of Modern Technology On The Training Of Secretaries In Institutions Of Higher Learning


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Frequently Asked Questions


How has the role of secretarial technology changed over time?

The basic abilities required for secretarial work with continue to change as sophisticated equipment are introduced into the office. The impact brought about by invention of new office equipment cannot be over emphasized. Most of these office equipment out-perform secretaries due to their speed, and as well saving of time.

Is the Secretary left out in the digital transformation of offices?

The secretary as one of those who work in offices is not left out in the impact made by technological transformation of offices.

What technology is used in the work of Professional Secretary?

With this advancement of technology, the use of the computer and software programmes facilitates the work of. the professional secretary. These include the use of machines such as printer, fax, pen drive, cell phones, photo. copier, telex and internet.

What is the difference between traditional secretary and modern Secretary?

The skill level and functioning of the traditional secretary involve greater physical and mental ability. The introduction of modern technologies and programmes has lessened the onerous tasks for the modern secretary. These range from production, reproduction, storage and retrieval among others. 

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