The Impact Of Modern Material Handling Equipment On Productivity
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I dedicate this project to Almighty God who in his infinite mercy guidance and protection has become paramount in my life and on whose spiritual empowerment came to the successful understanding and completion of this project.
My special gratitude goes to the almighty God, for his mercies and guidance towards achieving this project
I wish to acknowledge and express profound gratitude to my supervisor on whose financial and moral support has been the root of my academic and who made available time, wealth of experience and vast knowledge to me.
I also wish to acknowledge in a special way my parent, my beloved brothers Nobert Duru and Casmir Sis. Chidera Duru for their support towards my programme.
This project should be seen in a glare gradually by appreciating the impact of modern materials handling equipment on productivity. It has been chosen in order to bring into focus the explicit importance of materials handling in any business environment and contribution, it make to organization profitability.
The effectively movements of materials is being seen as a business in its own right materials handling is a feature of most modern industries although it has for many years been explore areas.
In recent times, this has been many changes and which continues to change. Now equipment and machine are appearing on the market and most industries now operate complex system for efficient movement.
This research project is desired to open up some of the basic elements and aspects of the subject. It is also an attempt to relate materials handling equipment employed to operate to the reset of the organization.
The essence of this project is to put together in one thought as many of all facts of materials handling equipment on productivity and its management as possible.
Table Of Contents
- Title — — — — i
- Approval — — — ii
- Dedication — — — — iii
- Acknowledgement — — — iv
- Table of Content — — — vi
- 1.0 Introduction — — — 1
- 1.1 Background of the Study — — 2
- 1.2 Statement of Problem — — 7
- 1.3 Objectives of Study — — 8
- 1.4 Significance of the Study — — 9
- 1.5 Scope the Study — — — 10
- 1.6 Limitation of the Study — — 11
- 1.7 Definitions of Terms — — 12
- 2.0 Literature Review — — 14
- 2.1 Stages of Material Handling — — 15
- 2.2 Basic Consideration in Handling Materials 16
- 2.3 Importance of Materials Handling — 22
- 2.4 Efficiency in Materials Handling — 24
- 2.5 Types of Materials Handling Equipment — 26
- 2.6 Rules for Materials Handling — 36
- 3.0 Research Design and Methodology — 38
- 3.1 Introduction — — — 38
- 3.2 Research Design — — — 38
- 3.3 Sources of Data — — — 39
- 3.4 Population and Sample Size — — 40
- 3.5 Sample Techniques — — 41
- 3.6 Data Analysis Techniques — — 43
- 4.0 Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation — — — 45
- 4.1 Introduction — — — 45
- 4.2 Data Presentation– — — 45
- 4.3 Analysis of Data — — — 47
- 4.4 Interpretation of Data — — 48
- 5.0 Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion 50
- 5.1 Introduction — — — 50
- 5.2 Summary — — — 50
- 5.3 Conclusion — — — 51
- 5.4 Recommendations — — 52
- References — — — 55
- Appendix — — — 57
- Questionnaire — — — 59
The flow of materials and finished goods is being seen as a business in its rights. It is also seen as the means of minimizing the market.
As development in material handling progresses, companies are engaged in sophisticated methods of material handling for storage and distribution.
It has been noted that manufacturers spends thousands of money on stores, warehouse and production areas. These raw materials are such as maize, corn, sorghum, semi-manufactured materials and finished products, parts and finished goods through the production chain comes increasingly under a total materials management philosophy simultaneously, which are major changes.
Most organizations maintain some handling equipment that are varying in size, complexity and ranging from simple wheelbarrows to forklifts, cranes to computerized and integrate handling system.
1.1 Background Of The Study
It is not an overstatement to say that materials handling has an important role in the effective performance of operational activities of material oriented company or service company even government establishment. As the recognition is so accordance the functions in materials oriented companies that are becoming even more popular in the materials handling such as Government establishment.
Materials as it sound is money and these materials should properly handled and if these materials are not properly handled and adequate care must be taken.
The intended need for which they were purchased would be defeated which in long will affect the operations of any establishment. Material handling is paramount not only in the storehouse and warehouse but throughout the production process and it is responsible for materials from the moment a product is conceived.
Customers order is received until the moment the material reaches production shop floor and there again; from the time, the finished leaves the production pipeline and is delivered to the ultimate consumer. It therefore covers an activity that goes in the storage place, i.e. warehouse or at the construction site of project where materials and equipment are pickup and moved. This equally applied to raw materials and suppliers in the process, inventories, maintenance, repair and operations materials and equipment and finished goods.
According to the British institute of material handling, he said that materials handling could be sub-divided into two separate but closely interlinked disciplines – material handling management and materials handling technology and engineering. The former is applied to system covering such matters as productions manage and control by storage and distribution.
The second applies to the technological aspects for example, technical and mechanical means of handling and movement of the commodity be it either in solid, liquid or gaseous form.
It has been variously estimated that about 20 – 50% of the labour cost and 40 – 60% of the distribution cost are associated and storage industries, today, are using many types of materials handling equipment on productivity.
Therefore, it is not uncommon that a great deal of time and energy as well as money is spent in studying the material handling problems, in other to find out suitable techniques. As a result, combinations of materials handling equipment on productivity are extensively used since every operation involves picking up, moving, lowering and sorting of materials.
In modern mechanized industry, the design of plants and machinery depend on methods by which materials are supplied and moved away. A handling system organized on improved quality, reduces costs and increase materials productivity. However, the servicing of materials has grown faster due to competition, quick physical distribution and advertisement.
More and more companies are therefore, systematically, trying to cope with thus complex phenomenon of controlling and managing materials from original source through production and distribution so that the total cost of production and final distribution may be kept to the minimum.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
The problem of material handling equipment on productivity is complexity of the manufacturing process. This has been an age long problem. The layout of the building in which the system is installed is to be examined as well as the maximum leads carried.
Another problem is that of designing an organization structure suitable for the materials handling equipment. This difference is simply because each industry is somewhat unique in terms of its specific problem. Consequently, some industries do not include all of the materials handling equipment on productivity in the material handling department.
Lack of coordination is another problem of materials handling equipment in which this project work is based include.
- The determination of materials handling equipment needed
- The problem of cost reduction, which involves the design, manufacture, installation, commissioning and servicing of the material handling equipment.
- The problem of determining production process accordingly.
- The problem of moving materials between different point or destination of delivery or storage or use or delivery to customers.
1.3 Objectives Of Study
The objective of study is to prove that materials handling equipment is highly profitable in productivity and it also has the following objectives.
- It analyzes the extent to which the manufacturing firms have succeeded in keeping the cost of products low.
- It also recommends measures for effective material handling in productivity.
- It also evaluates the impact of materials amendment in productivity.
- It also examines the effect of good, materials handling in the production.
1.4 Significance Of The Study
The study will be beneficial to a number of stakeholders in the productivity process who have the opportunity to assessing the extent in which they have performed their materials handling roles.
Potential investors/entrepreneurs will also find this study as a useful guide in the business endeavours.
1.5 Scope The Study
This research work will be restricted to the impact of materials handling in productivity. It covers such areas the role of a purchasing manager, storage (warehouse), distribution, buying or procurement as well as expediting and distribution of finished goods. Hence, the scope of this research work is restricted to productivity.
1.6 Limitation Of The Study
A study of this nature needs a relatively long time duration which information for accurate references could be drawn but if the period of the study is short, then the time pose as a constraints to the researcher.
The researcher would extend the survey to other areas at the empirical level but limitation to here includes cost of transportation to source for materials and the cost of typesetting the complete work.
Since questionnaire method of data collection is relied upon a major source of data collection and in view of an average Nigeria negative attitude towards questionnaire matters, the ills of this method constitute serious limitations of the study.
1.7 Definitions Of Terms
This research has a definition terms which differential different terms into meaning.
1. Modern materials handling equipment:
Confederacy of traditional materials activities bound by a common idea.
Commodities used directly or intently in producing a products or services.
Driving down the cost of doing the job of materials handling.
The management of materials whole that are in storage.
A crane is power driver and it can be operated independently without movement of the chassis.
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
- I hope I will do well enough to get an A.
You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being assessable?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.