Impact Of Materials Management On Project Delivering In Nigeria
Waste Management is pertinent in achieving sustainable Development, which is fuelled by the growing concern for the effect of man’s activities on the environment. The management of Construction processes to reduce, reuse, recycle and effectively dispose of wastes has a serious bearing on the final cost, quality, time and impact of the project delivery. This research studied the impact of building materials management on project delivery in Nigeria. The study found out that effective waste management propel on-time project delivery. In the cause of the study questionnaire were issued staff of selected construction company within the study area. Most respondents displayed a poor understanding of waste management and most companies did not have a policy on Material Waste Management.
1.1 Background of the Study
The building or construction industry involves different processes and utilizes huge quantities of resources. These processes have severe impacts on the environment which according to Horsley (2003), occur over a variety of timescales from the extraction and processing of raw materials used in construction, through the duration of the construction process, the operation of the building, up to the eventual demolition of the structure at the end of its operative life. Construction activities have been known to generate large and diverse quantities of waste. According to the US Green Building Council, (2001), it accounts for up to 30% of total waste output in the United States alone, put at about 136 million tons per annum. As a result, construction and demolition waste management has become one of the major environmental problems in many municipalities (Faniran and Caban, 1988; Kibert, 1994; Ferguson et al., 1995; Graham and Smithers, 1996; Guthrie et al., 1999; Symonds, 1999; Lawson and Douglas, 2001, cited in Poon et al, 2004). In some more advanced countries, the concern for the effect of Man’s endeavours on the environment and rising project costs has increased the drive for the application of Construction Waste Management. There has been a strong drive to ‘do more with less’ by reducing waste at all stages of construction as identified by the ‘Rethinking Construction’ task force in the UK (DETR, 2000). There is also a need to improve material handling by contractors as the DETR also noted that about 13 million tones of the estimated 70 million tonnes of construction and demolition materials comprise of materials delivered to site and thrown away unused. Construction material waste can be defined as “any material, apart from earth materials, which need to be transported elsewhere from the construction site or used within the construction site itself for the purpose of landfilling, incineration, recycling, reusing or composting, other than the intended specific purpose of the project due to material damage, excess, non-use, or noncompliance with specification or being a by-product of the construction process.” (Ekanayake and Ofori, 2000). Materials contribute 70% of the total cost of a building project Seeley (1995). Approximately 136 Million tons of building related construction and demolition (C&D) debris is generated each year in the US Sandler and Swingle (2000), and in the UK 70 Million tons of C&D is generated DETR, (2000). Therefore, material management is an important element in project planning and control, and minimization of waste should be given adequate attention. One of the primary focuses of a contractor is to deliver a project safely while maximising profit. Contractors need to survive, and this is based on the profit realised as a result of their expertise. Poor materials management can also result in substantial, but avoidable costs during construction. This could result in contractor‟s use of insufficient materials and eventually nonconforming to specification, stemming from inadequate quantities of material usage for production. There are grave consequences that could result from poor materials management, which could result in insufficiency of material for production on site, forcing contractors to produce non-conforming products. Firstly, the use of insufficient quantities of materials could lead to the partial or entire collapse of a structure. Weak spots on a structure are liable to collapse, because of inadequate strength to withstand both the dead and imposed loads. Secondly, it could lead to lack of patronage of the contractor, implying that the contractor cannot secure contracts, and ultimately result in liquidation. This means that both the contractor and his or her employees will be non-operational and unemployed. Thirdly, it is a measure of a contractor’s competence. A collapsed building, which is attributable to inadequate strength of components of a building, could either be as a result of lack of construction knowledge on the part of the contractor, or the contractor use of less quantity of materials for production. Fourthly, it exposes the level of competence of professionals in the industry at the instance of collapse of building, and that the industry is not safe. It must be understood that the infrastructure and development of a nation largely on the construction industry, and then mainly the building sector thereof. Therefore, it is of paramount importance that materials are well managed on site to minimize wastage and its associated problems
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is obvious that man basic needs are clothe food shelter water and health care, the importance of shelter to man cannot be over emphasis. Of recent it is very correct to say that the cost of accommodation (either rent-age or building a new house) is on the high side coupled with the inflation rate in the economy. With an estimated inflation rate of 18.7% the cost of building ,material has sky rocket. It is on this backdrop that the researcher intends to investigate the impact of building material management on project delivery in Nigeria.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of the study is to investigate the impact of building materials management on project delivery in Nigeria. But for the successful completion of the study the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objectives:
- To investigate the impact of building material management on project delivery
- To ascertain the role of material management in project delivery
- To investigate the relationship between material management and project completion
- To ascertain the effect material management on the quality of building
1.4 Research Hypotheses
For the successful completion of the study, the following hypotheses were formulated
- H0: building material management has no significant impact on project delivery
- H1: building material management has a significant impact on project delivery
- H01: material management does not play any role in project completion.
- H2: material management plays a vital role in project completion
1.5 Significance of the Study
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the contractors and constructions companies in developing effective strategy to ensure material management as it has effect on their turn over. The findings will also be of great benefit to the owners of the contract as effective material, management will reduced contract cost, and cost of building. The findings will also be of great benefit to researchers who wish to embark on research on similar topic as the findings will serve as a part finder. Finally the findings will be of great importance to academia as the findings will add to the pool of knowledge
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of the study covers the impact of building materials management on projects delivery in Nigeria. However, in the course of the study, the researcher encounters some limitation to the scope of the study.
(a) Availability of research material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
1.7 Definition of Terms
A building or edifice is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes, shapes and functions, and have been adapted throughout history for a wide number of factors, from building materials available, to weather conditions, to land prices, ground conditions, specific uses and aesthetic reasons. To better understand the term building compare the list of no building structures.
Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and wood, even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic. The manufacture of building materials is an established industry in many countries and the use of these materials is typically segmented into specific specialty trades, such as carpentry, insulation, plumbing, and roofing work. They provide the make-up of habitats and structures including homes.
In contemporary business and science, a project is an individual or collaborative enterprise, possibly involving research or design, that is carefully planned, usually by the project assigned team, to achieve a particular aim One can also define a project as a set of interrelated tasks to be executed over a fixed period and within certain cost and other limitations.
Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it be a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the efforts of its employees or volunteers to accomplish its objectives through the application of available resources, such as financial, natural, technological, and human resources. The term “management” may also refer to the people who manage an organization
Is the acquisition of goods, services or works from an external source
A person or firm originally from that country that has been awarded a contract for the construction and completion of a building.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the impact of building materials management on project delivery in Nigeria.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of material management on project delivery on building sites in Nigeria.
Building material management problems are usually the result of using poor processes and practices or no use of support systems. The materials management process is much more complex than the uninitiated understand. Only a sophisticated tracking system does not improve the bottom line, important is how to use the information that the system provides. It can be summarized that the issue of materials management is quite a complex problem because of the interweaved process into the organization. Gito itself is very well organized concerning the materials procurement but internal not the same ‘language’ is spoken. This language is about the used information but also about the used programs what means that the management tools are used on an incorrect and/or inefficient manner. The different functions concerning materials management described in the theory are also part of Gito’s organization. The different functions are accommodated in different departments. The main departments involved in the materials procurement are: Design, Engineering, Budget, Purchase, Accounting and Administration. The departments are having their own responsibilities and every department has its responsible person for that responsibility. So the functions of materials management are divided into departments but there is no single manager responsibility and authority for all functions concerning with the flow of materials. This single manager responsibility and authority is however an important detail of materials management. This missing detail of materials management is one of the most important causes why the different departments do not speak the same ‘language’. All the departments are using different programs for their own responsibility but also different information. By having specific goals per department, sub‐ optimization is being operative. The main thrust of the materials management concept is to avoid sub‐ optimization; to look for system efficiency and effectiveness; and to help ensure the achievement of common objectives rather than those which apply to elements within the system, which may be competing one with another.
Haven successfully completed the study, the researcher therefore concludes that the use of security measures on site, recording of use and inventory of materials during construction and the preparation and monitoring of material schedule were the major material management approaches used on site in Lagos state. The causes of time overrun were the combination of owner finance-related problems, material management, labour-related problem, contractor-related problems, variation order and weather.
The more the number of material management approach employed on site, the more the reduction in the time overrun, which points out that material management has effect on project completion time.
It is recommended that the existing material management approach in use should be improved so as to prevent shortage of materials on site or the non-availability of material as and when required on site and this can be achieved if:
The site manager or project manger prepare and monitor material schedule on all projects.
The site manger makes it compulsory for the store keeper to record the use and inventory of material on daily basis during the construction process, to enable him or her alert or inform the necessary authority if there is shortage of any material, for prompt ordering.
Most sites should employ personnel to secure the material on site during the day and at night to ensure that all materials are protected from theft or pilfering.
Construction companies should make use of more than one material management technique on construction projects so as to reduce the variation in scheduled completion time
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