Impact Of Mass Social Media On Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students In Oredo Local Government Edo State

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Impact Of Mass Social Media On Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students In Oredo Local Government Edo State


Abstract


The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of mass/social media on academic performance of secondary school students in Oredo Local Government of Edo State. Various control variables such as students’ exposure to social media, people students relate with on social media, time spent on social media, activities on social media, social media sites students use and others were investigated. A sample of 97 students from a population of 966 SS 2 students in the study area was used. The researcher obtained the sample through convenient sampling by estimating 10% of the population. The research design maximized by the researcher for this study was the Ex Post Facto research design. The data for this research were gathered through a well-structured questionnaire and achievement test administered by the researcher to the respondents. Research questions were answered by using percentage count and frequencies while the research hypothesis was tested at 95% level of significance by the student t-test via SPSS software. Findings of this study showed that SS 2 students in the study area were exposed to social media. It was revealed that students only had accounts with Facebook, Whatsapp, Google Talk and Twitter. Students were also found to have had more relationships among themselves on social medial than they did with any other category of persons. Results showed that majority of students spent a maximum of thirty minutes any time they visit social media sites. A greater number of students, results revealed, visit social media sites to keep company with their friends who were majorly their classmates. Students admitted that social media did distract them any time they attempted combining it with their studies. The result from the hypothesis testing showed that social media use does not affect SS 2 students’ performance in the study area. The study recommended that teachers should be deliberate to make friends with their students on social media as this will help them monitor their activities there. Also, students should be guided on how to maximize social media for their assignments and other academic endeavours.


Table of Content


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of Study
  • 1.8 Limitations of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.2 The Concept of Social Media
  • 2.2 Overview of Mass Media
  • 2.4 Positive Effects of Social Media on Students’ Academic Life
  • 2.5 Negative Effects of Social Media on Students’ Academic Life
  • 2.6 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.6.1 Media Equation Theory
  • 2.7 Empirical Review

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Study Area
  • 3.3 Target Population
  • 3.4 Sample Size and Technique
  • 3.5 Instruments for Data Collection
  • 3.6 Validity of Instrument
  • 3.7 Reliability of Instrument
  • 3.8 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.9 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The internet, since its inception in the early 1960s by the U.S Department of defense (Schneider, Evans and Pinard, 2006 in Wanajak, 2011), has hit the ground running. A greater percentage of the world’s activities and numerous facets of human endeavours have been (to a great extent) affected by the fast advancement of the internet technology and its programmes. Internet, according to Wikipedia dictionary is a global computer network providing a variety of information and communication facilities, consisting of interconnected networks using standardized communication protocols.

As mentioned in the above definition, one of the sectors of human endeavours greatly influenced by the internet is communication. Several commination facilities have been developed on the internet to facilitate easy communication. Social media, the focus of this study constitutes one of those communication facilities.

According to Apuke (2016), social media has emerged to be one of the most vital communication means as it exists to ease communication among people regardless of the expanse, making it open to people to easily share information, files, pictures and videos, create blogs and send messages and conduct real time conversations.
By definition, according to Adebayo(2012) as cited in Asemah and Okpanachi(2013), social networks (media) is a social structure made up of individuals or organizations called “nodes”, which are tied (connected) by one or more specific types of independency, such as friendship, kinship, common interest , financial exchange , dislike, sexual relationships or relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige. Social media sites include: Facebook, whatsApp, 2go, Instagram, Blackberry messenger (BBM), Twitter, Google talk etc.

Social media use cuts across almost all human age groups, social status, occupations and the likes including students of different institutional levels. The secondary school level which is the major focus in this research is not in any way exempted from amongst social media users. It is no news to see or hear secondary school students making calls, receiving messages and chatting with friends or associates in the class room when the class is ongoing. They spend late hours of the night on chatting through social media when you should have expected them to be reading their books or sleeping.

The emergence of social media as a result of advancement in technology and expansion in internet software has raised eye brows among academics on its (social media) impact on studies (Asemah, E., Okpanachi, A., 2013). Many researchers have argued as touching whether social media use has or has not any impact or influence on students’ academic achievement.

Giving the analysis on the tracks of mass failure in the National Examination Council (NECO) results, Dayo Adesulun of Vanguard expressed “It is sad to note that for five consecutive years, candidates writing the National Examination Council (NECO) examination have recorded mass failures. Apparently, the scenario is worrisome to education stakeholders as nobody knows at whose door-steps to place the blames, students or NECO” (Vanguard news, April 5, 2012). The analysis reported that in 2002 at NECO’s maiden edition, most candidates passed their registered subjects including Mathematics and English Language which led to the public accusing the body of awarding cheap results to students. However, after 2007 NECO November/December where 65% had credit pass in Mathematics, the analysis said, performances of candidates deteriorated every year, down to 11.3% in 2011/2012 result, a situation which the reporter said called for concern among stakeholders. During NECO June/July 2011 examination, the analysis reported that less than 25% of the 1,160,561 candidates had passes at credit level in subjects including Mathematics. This implies that more than 870,421 candidates failed Mathematics and other subjects. In a similar vein, as reported by the WAEC Head of National office, Yaba, Mr. Charles Eguridu, the result of May/June 2014 as was announced on Monday, 11 August 2014, witnessed a mass failure in Mathematics and English Language (published on August 11, 2014; retrieved from https://ynaija.com). He reported that 529,425 candidates representing 31.28% obtained credits in Mathematics and other four subjects. He noted that, comparing this result to the 2012/2013 May/June result, there was marginal decline in the performances of candidates. The report stated that in 2009, 25.99% obtained credits in Mathematics and English compare to 23.5% in 2008 among the Nigerian candidates.

Whether or not social media use influences academic achievement of students is a question that remains to be answered. Therefore the problem this research investigates is the influence of mass/social media use on academic performance of secondary school students in Oredo Local Government of Edo State Nigeria.


1.2 Statement of Problem

The internet is today the most important source of information and the growing dimensions of the use of social media by students cannot be underestimated. It has been observed that students devote more attention and time to social media than they do for their studies and they cannot pass their examinations well if they do not learn (Osharive, 2015). Also, the study conducted by Maya (2015), revealed that media use contribute to lower academic performance, low self- perceptions and less interest in college oriented carriers. Academic excellence plays an important role in an individual’s life; be it in the family, at social gatherings, at workplace, in an institution or even among peers. Much emphasis is placed on academic excellence because of the role it plays in an individual’s life as far as a successful life and respect is concerned in every part of the world. Due to this, many people are concerned with the ways that they can improve their academic performance (Kyoshaba, 2009). Studies have also revealed that social media affects students’ use of English. They tend to use short- handwriting to chat with friends and get used to it thereby replicating the same errors during examinations (Obi, Bulus, Adamu and Sala’at, 2012).

Today students at all levels especially tertiary level have been engaged in the use of social networking sites (SNSs). The decline in the academic achievement among secondary school students in Nigeria, especially in mathematics, is crystal–clear to anyone who has followed the trend of events in this level of learning over the past few years. This degradation is evident in many ways, including students poor grammatical construction, poor averages in their terminal examinations, failure in external examinations such as the West African Examination Council (WAEC), National Examination Council (NECO) and of course entrance examinations such as the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination(UTME).The struggles for academic success experienced by many students newly admitted into the university, especially in their first year of study, is highly traceable to their secondary school foundation. The success of any student in the tertiary institution is directly a function of his/her success in the secondary school in the same subject.

Many factors have been identified to be responsible for this high rate of educational decay among the Nigerian secondary schools. One of these factors that have caught the attention of the public as regards students’ poor academic performance among the secondary schools is the advent of mass/social media. As mentioned earlier, this research investigates the place of mass/social media use on academic performance of secondary school students in Oredo Local Government of Edo State Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of mass/social media on academic performance of secondary school students in Oredo Local Government of Edo State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of this study are:

  1. To determine which mass/social media secondary school students are exposed to in Oredo Local Government of Edo State
  2. To determine whether gender difference influences mass/social media exposure in Oredo Local Government of Edo State
  3. To examine what secondary school students use mass/social media for in Oredo Local Government of Edo State
  4. To examine the influence of mass/social media use on students’ academic performance in Oredo Local Government of Edo State
  5. To proffer a possible solution to the \ underachievement by secondary school students in Oredo Local Government of Edo State

1.4 Research Questions

The researcher formulated the following research questions based on the research objectives:

  1. Which mass/social media are secondary school students exposed to in Oredo Local Government of Edo State?
  2. Does gender difference influence mass/social media exposure in Oredo Local Government of Edo State?
  3. What do secondary school students use mass/social media for in Oredo Local Government of Edo State?
  4. What is the influence of mass/social media use on students’ academic performance in Oredo Local Government of Edo State?
  5. What is a possible solution to the underachievement by secondary school students in Oredo Local Government of Edo State?

1.5 Hypothesis

  • HO1: There is no significant impact of mass/social media on academic performance of secondary school students in Oredo Local Government of Edo State, Nigeria
  • HA1: There is a significant impact of mass/social media on academic performance of secondary school students in Oredo Local Government of Edo State, Nigeria

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be of great importance to both students, teachers, parents and the entire society as it will open their eyes to the subtle damage associated with inappropriate use of the social media. Students will learn how to balance their academic work – reading, assignment and so on and social media involvement. In so doing, they will become more productive academically, morally, socially and otherwise not only to themselves but to the entire society. It will be an eye opener to unsuspecting teachers and head teachers who might have taken things for granted regarding the place of social media in students’ academic achievement. This will help them define deliberate bounds on social media usage for students especially during school hours. The study will also help parents to watch their children/wards more closely, helping them at home to spend their time reasonably in reading their books and other noble courses rather than misappropriating them on the internet. It will also help them (parents) to monitor what activities their children/wards engage in on social media especially at home. This study will also help the entire academic society, especially curriculum planners, to include strategic contents that will help students maximize social media positively for academic purposes. The study will also be relevant as a source or ground for further studies. Lastly, this study will contribute to future research in related areas of study.


1.7 Scope of Study

This study was specifically set to evaluate the impact of mass/social media on academic performance of secondary school students in Oredo Local Government of Edo State. Oredo is one of the local governments of Edo state and has its headquarters in Benin City. An unbiased sample of all secondary schools in the area was used for this study. Few control variables among others were examined. The study examined the proportion of students’ exposure to social media, which social media they are mostly exposed to, the time they spend on social media, the people they relate with on social media, influence of gender difference on social media exposure and the possible solution offered for checking low academic achievements among secondary school students which may be possibly traceable to inappropriate social media use. These control variables were to help investigate the impact social media places on secondary school academic performance in mathematics as earlier mentioned.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

It was in the interest of the researcher to study the influence of social media on students’ academic achievement in mathematics across all secondary schools in Nigeria since social media use and poor academic achievement of students are not only witnessed in one isolated state or local government in the country. However, due to limited resources paramount to the research, the researcher limited the study to Oredo Local Government of Edo State.
It is worthy of note, the fact that, the findings of this study may not be applicable to other parts of the country or the globe. This is because different locations in Nigeria and in facts, the world over have various cultural practices and social norms that may influence students’ behaviour with regard to mass/social media.The researcher also worked on the assumption that the responses of all the respondents were correct and sincere. If otherwise, then the findings of this study may not be considered authentic following the same assumption.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Social Media:

Social media is a computer-based technology that facilitates the sharing of ideas, thoughts, and information through the building of virtual networks and communities. There are more than 4.5 billion social media users around the world. Social media typically features user-generated content and personalized profiles.

Mass Media:

Mass media refers to a diverse array of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication. Print media transmit information via physical objects, such as books, comics, magazines, newspapers, or pamphlets. Event organizing and public speaking can also be considered forms of mass media.

Academic Performance:

Is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor’s degrees represent academic achievement.


1.10 Organisation of the Study

This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one included the background of the study, research problem, research objectives and questions as well as limitation of the study. Chapter two contains the literature review. Chapter three includes the methodology and study area. Chapter Four contains the results and discussion of key findings of the study. Chapter Five finally looks at the summary, conclusions, and recommendations based on the findings.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary of the Study

The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of mass/social media on academic performance of secondary school students in Oredo Local Government of Edo State. Various control variables such as students’ exposure to social media, people students relate with on social media, time spent on social media, activities on social media, social media sites students use and others were investigated.The media equation theory was adopted in the theoretical frame work of this study and several empirical studies of scholars relating to the topic were reviewed. A sample of 97 students from a population of 966 SS 2 students in the study area was used. The researcher obtained the sample through convenient sampling by estimating 10% of the population.

The research design maximized by the researcher for this study was the Ex Post Facto research design. The data for this research were gathered through a well-structured questionnaire and achievement test administered by the researcher to the respondents. These instruments were validated by scrutiny and adjustments by the project supervisor and one other expert as well a secondary school teacher from one of the schools where they were administered. Research questions were answered by using percentage count and frequencies while the research hypothesis was tested at 95% level of significance by the student t-test via SPSS software.

Findings of this study showed that SS 2 students in the study area were exposed to social media. It was revealed that students only had accounts with Facebook, Whatsapp, Google Talk and Twitter. Students were also found to have had more relationships among themselves on social medial than they did with any other category of persons. Results showed that majority of students spent a maximum of thirty minutes any time they visit social media sites. A greater number of students, results revealed, visit social media sites to keep company with their friends who were majorly their classmates. Students admitted that social media did distract them any time they attempted combining it with their studies. The result from the hypothesis testing showed that social media use does not affect SS 2 students’ performance in the study area.


5.2 Conclusion

By all the available proofs from the findings of this research, it is justifiable to conclude that Secondary School Students, in the study area, are exposed to social media. Students in the study area are aware of the negative impacts of social media on their academics and hence took measures to curb them as it could be seen they spend a maximum of thirty minutes on social media when they visit.In the overall analysis, social media use does not influence the academic achievement of students in the study area. This also is obvious from the results of this study. Students were economical with their time as not to engage it unwisely on social media. This obviously spared their academics. This result implies that poor academic performance of students would not be attributed to mass/social media but to something else.


5.3 Recommendations

The following recommendations were made based on the findings of the study;

  1. Teachers should be deliberate to make friends with their students on social media as this will help them monitor their activities there.
  2. Students should be guided on how to maximize social media for their assignments and other academic endeavours.
  3. Both the positive and negative sides of social media should be spelled to students by teachers and guardians so they will not be ignorant of the advantages and disadvantages of the same.
  4. Similar studies should be conducted in different States of Nigeria and among different categories of students so as to help them on how best to engage the social media for academic productivity. Studies should also be carried out using other variables, other than social media, which may be deemed responsible for academic deterioration in the country.

Impact Of Mass Social Media On Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students In Oredo Local Government Edo State


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