The Impact Of Mass Media Message On Family Planning (A Case Study Of Umumbiri Oparanadim)
This project is a survey on the impact of mass media message on family planning, as it concerns its adoption by the families in umumbiri Oparaihedu. The importance of family planning in national development cannot be over stressed as many developing nations around the world have been able to link directly with their planning in all phases of development.
In the sense that population growth must be taken into account for economic, educational, agricultural development of a nation, the survey method was used for collecting through the questionnaire distribution to married couple in umumbiri Oparaihedu. Simple random system was employed in selection of 150 families 15 from each of the 3 villages, NDIAMA ,OGORINAAGWUIBE and ANYELE.
The research dwelt on ascertaining the effect of mass media or the impact of mass media on family planning on this basis of how well so far. Simple percentage was applied in presenting and analyzing the data which was the parameter used in validating your hypothesis given which proved inter alia that mass media campaign on family significant effect on birth control. Secondly, that people with education are more susceptible to family planning option.
Thirdly, that high percentage of people ran to family planning adoption due to the present economic crunch. Fourthly, that people of high economic status responded more to family planning message.
Table Of Contents
- Title Page
- Approval page
- Table of Contents
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Significance of the Study
- 1.5 Research question and Hypothesis
- 1.6 Definition of Terms
- 1.7 Limitation of Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Theoretical Frame Work
- 2.2 The Review
- 2.3 Factors Intercepting the Campaign (Media campaign)
- 2.4 The hypothesis of Agenda setting
- 2.5 Media effects on people (audience)
- 2.6 Summary of Literature Review
3.0 Research Methodology
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Area of the Study
- 3.3 Population of the Study
- 3.4 Sample and Sampling Procedure
- 3.5 Sources of Data
- 3.6 Instrument of Data Collection
- 3.7 Validity and Reliability of Instrument
- 3.8 Administration of Instrument
- 3.9 Method of Data Analysis
4.1 Presentation of Data and Analysis
- 4.2 Significant effects of Mass Media Campaign –
- 4.3 Level of education and Adoption on family Planning
- 4.4 Motivation to adopt Family Planning
- 4.5 Economic Status and Adoption of Family Planning
- 4.6 Result
5.0 Summary of Finding, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary of Finding
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background Of The Study
The impact of mass media in shaping the attitudes and behaviors of individuals has been the subject of considerable debate. This is because media influence is modified by many factors and intervening variables. Research also shows us that the images and words these media carry determine within limitations posed by intervening factors.
The media can provide for audience members a definition of situation on a variety of issues by emphasizing certain topics, stressing particular interpretations and project specific themes.
Simply by their presence, the media have the nature of societal communication norms. Large audiences have been created, that expect the media to provide continuous flow of news, entertainment, political commentary, and other types of messages. The people depend on the media for various forms of gratification based on content.
If denied such communication, they will feel deprived (Berelson 1950:889). Even in relatively underdeveloped societies, population quickly develops media related habits, once mass communication becomes available in a form they understand.
In this line, it is believed that extensive coverage and true information on the gains of family planning will reach and perhaps affect people’s attitude and belief about family planning.
Family planning as a concept of world social order is as old as man himself. It has been predicted in several reasons. It could be said to be a means of population control other than by disease, war or other natural and man made disasters.
The term family planning was only applied to this ageless phenomenon when social effects, abandoned babies, material mortality due to especially illegal abortions and also problems of oversized poor families began to seriously bother the minds of sociologist and health workers.
Family has received media coverage around the world since inception in 1916. Initially, the reaction of people was nothing but antagonistic. This is perhaps due to misconception and ignorance of aims and values of family , but as issues develop, it clears the people eyes and their perception more enlightened.
Initially, the United Nations Organization (UNO) through its agency the World Health Organization (WHO) has championed the publicity and propaganda campaign for the introduction and acceptance of the modern agitations and clamoring against it.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Although it is truism that the term “family planning” is not unknown to many Nigerians, there is still need to clearly define the concept. So the problems this project sets out to study will focus on:
- Family planning is not just for stopping child bearing.
- Evidence shows that family is understood as limiting child bearing.
- They believe it is sinful to interfere with injunction to go ahead and procreate.
- To determine the effects of exposure to family planning campaign on parents.
- Proper identification on a problem determines the direction of the study.
- Knowing that Nigeria’s population growth is at alarming rate of 3.4 percent per anum.
- The government evidently considers family planning indispensable.
1.3 Objective Of The Study
The primary aims of this study are:
- To examine the extent to which media coverage of family planning campaign is effected.
- To know the ability of the family planning message carried by the media.
- To induce parents to change their behavior to family size.
- To help them know more about family planning and suggest ways of it practice.
- The study is interested in the audiences that are parents.
- To find out if they are really getting information (exposure) at their level of education.
1.4 Significance Of The Study
It is envisaged (imagined) that the outcome of this study will alert the parents’ population on dangers inherent in large family size and equally contribute to existing write-ups (literature) in the area of media effects.
Also, the study will help the ministry of health in Nigeria to determine which media to employ in dissemination of family planning information. Above all, it is hoped that the study will further equip media practioners, communication experts and researchers to come up with a more concrete approach to covering all manners of campaigns without much ado (delay) in Nigeria.
1.5 Research Question And Hypothesis
- Q1: Has mass media campaign on family planning been carried effectively by the mass media in Imo State in rural areas?
Ho: Mass media campaign on family planning has been effectively used to educate people in the rural areas.
H1: Mass media campaign on family planning has been effectively used to educate people in the rural areas.
- Q2: DO Parents in the rural areas in Imo State understand what family planning is?
Ho: Parents in Imo State rural areas have not understood what family planning is.
H1: Parents in Imo State rural areas have understood what family planning is.
- Q3: Have parents in Imo State rural areas adopted family planning method?
Ho: Parents in Imo State rural areas have not adopted family planning method.
H1: Parents in Imo State rural areas have adopted family planning method.
1.6 Definition Of Terms
There are terms in this study which are of interest and therefore need to be defined for better appraisal of the study; both conceptual and operational definitions are given.
In this context means various communication channel (especially radio, television, newspaper) through which information regarding family planning is communicated to families of UMUMBIRI.
This is the reportage of family planning message through television, radio, newspaper (media).
Process of controlling the number of children a family will have in UMUMBIRI
People living in UMUMBIRI both indigenes and non-indigenes alike.
Channel of communicating information to wide and heterogeneous audience.
Range of news, the media can deal with.
The process of regulating child birth in a family.
A person living in a particular area in a given time.
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
Collecting information about this particular study has not been an easy task. The most frustrating among others are;
- Accessibility to people’s residential houses; in the average situation of things, an average young man is viewed by some parents with suspicious and skepticism.
- This makes it near impossible for the researcher to get at peoples homes when he wanted to.
- Finance has been seen to be a major set back the researchers encountered.
- Enough time was not available for the researches.
5.0 Summary Of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendations
5.1 Summary Of Findings
The media are performing their role in public enlightenment or awareness in adoption of family planning by members of the public. A lot more could be done on improving this family planning awareness in Umumbiri Community especially among the poor semi-literate members of the population. There is already a lot of literature campaign being done by the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria (PPFN) for all family planning clinics in the area. However, such campaign are almost limited to those who visit the clinic which are very few in the rural area because of inherent difficulties in using the electronic media, the change agents should focus on community assembly out reach, enhanced by a well planned and executed interpersonal communication strategy. This will help to reach people in the remotest part of the state. During the interview, most of the respondents in places like Umuhu and Umuelagwa are over populated. There are families of six to ten (6-10) living in a two-bedroom which is a very unhealthy living condition for any human being.
We thank God for the on-going family support program which is likely to generate fund to make it possible to reach the poor masses that constitute the bulk in the population. This will enable the media campaign on family planning to be adequately followed up with the provision of family planning clinics especially in the remote part of the urban and rural areas. These clinics should be well equipped with trained personnel and staff. One of the respondents in this research told the researcher that she had heard enough about family planning but cannot find any use for family planning. Mean while, she is carrying her sixth pregnancy under 9 years of marriage. They are all living in one bedroom apartment with her husband.
Another respondent complained that her husband is not just interested in family planning and that she does not know what to do. In other wards the media still has a lot of role to play in order to reach people who explain certain facts to them in their own understanding about what is involved in family planning. It should be noted that Nigeria’s population of 150 million in age structure and its implication for over whelming dependence and research demand for special facilities. For instance a combination of (10-15 years) and the old (65+) constitute 50% of the bulk of people we are concerned with. On this note, the authorities should therefore ensure that efforts for a realistic provision of family planning materials and personnel are persuaded with ultimate vigor.
This research work has evaluated the effect of mass media on family planning reference to Umumbiri. With the result of the information that the media serve as a major catalyst to family planning. It was also established that inadequate or insufficient media message is one of the most important problem facing family planning in Nigeria.
- A study should be carried out on men on the adoption of family planning because most women complain that men are the main constraints to family planning adoptions in many homes. If it is true actions should be taken on how to reserve the trend.
- A study should be done on rural community where there is no elasticity, where posters are used as a means of family planning information dissemination.
- Family planning clinics should be forced but people should not be persuaded to visit. The posters should be pasted tothe clinics and family planning adoption should be measured seven months after the commencement of the poster campaign.
- The rest should be compared with the study. Study should be on lowest income earners living in the rural communities. The focus should be on media use, considering that most of them own television and radio set. Their attitude towards government development policies, messages and family planning should be the main focus of study.
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