The Impact Of Marital Satisfaction On The Psychological Well-Being Of Employees In Rivers State University

Project and Seminar Material for Psychology

The Impact Of Marital Satisfaction On The Psychological Well-Being Of Employees In Rivers State University


Abstract


This study will focus on the Impact Of Marital Satisfaction On The Psychological Well-Being Of Employees In Rivers State University, Rivers State University as case study. The study is was specifically focused on examining the factors affecting marital satisfaction among employees in rivers state university; examining the impact of marital satisfaction on the psychological well-being of employees in rivers state university and investigating the effect of marital instability on the psychological well-being of employees in rivers state university.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff of rivers state university.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Hypothesis of the Study
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organizations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Interpretation of Result

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The importance of marriage is as old as the (pre)recorded history of man, (Gen 2:18). And cultures the entire world over have testified to this importance as no culture exists which does not believe in man-woman relationship, no matter how inadequate this may seem. For example, divorce rates continue at an alarming rate; there was reported to be about 12, 000 number of divorce cases in Nigeria from 1975, (Almanac Book of Facts, 1977) and, also, there was report of domestic violence (Oladepo et.al., 2011), yet marriage continues to be an enduring sociocultural institution boasting of 48, 924, 317 numbers in 2006, (National Bureau of Statistics, 2010).

One of the most researched factors for continuous relevance of marriage is marital satisfaction. Either defined as the amount of contentment that a couple feels about their relationship, (Rowe, 2004) or as a subjective evaluation by an individual of the degree of happiness, pleasure, or fulfillment experienced within the marital relationship between spouse and self, (Rho, 1989), or in the definition of Gilford & Bengtson (1979) as spouses’ evaluation of their relationship on two general dimensions: positive interaction and negative feeling, or Hundson’s (1982) definition in the degree, severity or magnitude of problems one spouse or partner perceives to be having in the marital relationship with his or her partner and or Akanbi’s (2002) definition of marital satisfaction as an extent to which partners in marriage have a sense of accomplishment or fulfillment of the mutual needs, goals and expectation in marriage; its significance cannot be overlooked. There is confirmatory evidence of the difference between the way a man and a woman will fare on marital satisfaction, (Johnson & Lebow, 2000; Walker, 1999).

Essentially, marriage could be described as a relationship with benefits for men than women, because men are more satisfied in their marriages than women, (Clements & Swensen, 2000, Baslow, 1992; Heyn, 1997, Schumm, Webb, & Bollman, 1998) and women have more negative experiences than men, (Heaton & Blake, 1999), and this seems to be similar in cultures around the world, (Rhyne, 1981, Basat, 2004). Couples’ age can affect marital satisfaction either positively or negatively. Those who marry in their teen age experience worst of marital satisfaction because of some social threats to marriage, (Stanley & Markman, 1997), contrastively, 20 agers experience more marital satisfaction, (Tzeng, 1992).

Another factor contributing to marital satisfaction is communication pattern. Couple’s communication pattern has a rewarding significance to marital satisfaction. A communicating couple is in a marital satisfying relationship, (Kirchler, 1989, Rogge & Bradbury, 1999). This study was aimed at investigating the significant relationship of demographic variables (age and gender) and communication patterns between the spouses on marital satisfaction of married couples in River state University as personal observations of these researchers/authors have revealed that numbers of couples that come for couple’s therapy have increased in the last one year.

In addition to all these, it is also pertinent to understand that psychological well being is also a leading cause of divorces in most homes today (martins 2004). In most homes, when dissatisfaction arises in the marital process, it is usually a foreseen occurrence in families around the world today. When the husband or the wife is unable to bridge a perceived communication gap, or is limited in providing for essentials within the family, such as finances by the husband, emotional and physical support by the wife, then marital dissatisfaction can ensue resulting in one or both couples feeling sad, depressed, anxious and aggressive. All these can be described as psychological well being which can be quite visible in the marriage.

In addition, research has shown that the older a couple are, the less marital dissatisfaction they will likely experience (Bookwala & Jacobs, 2004; Henry, Berg, Smith, & Florsheim, 2007). This is probably because they tend to argue less often, and with the children preparing to leave the home, there may be little or no disputes about child raising strategies and issues, in addition to decreased financial burden which could be a major stressor in the family.
With all these in mind, an empirical investigation into how satisfaction within the marriage and family relations are related to psychological well being. Also, due to the dearth of research in this part of the world on the aforementioned topic, it has been deemed necessary to carry out this research for the furtherance of empirical knowledge and also to provide insight on contemporary issues on family life and how both spouses can contribute to psychological stability of the other and what ensues forth where this isn’t observed. As seen in the preceding paragraphs, it is a problem that deserves the scientific community’s attention as proper address of the problem could lead to prevention and cure of psychological well being among Nigerian couples.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In typical Nigerian homes, it is rather difficult to pinpoint where the cause of psychological well being emanates from. Some may attribute it to spiritual problems, external factors such as financial strain, or strained relationship with other family members. Current research however, has pointed to marital satisfaction among the leading causes of psychological well being among married couples in many parts of the world (Horwitz et al 1998, Mamun, A., Clavarino, A., Najman, J., Williams, G., O’ Callaghan, J, Bor, W., 2009). In addition, younger couples are seen to experience lesser marital satisfaction compared to their older counterparts, with many indicators being pinpointed as leading causes.

Therefore the problem which will be given much consideration is to understand the intricate relationship between marital satisfaction, family relations and psychological well being, and to understand the influence of age of the couple or spouse on ability to reports either higher or lower levels of marital satisfaction. In the world today, women are generally assumed to be the “weaker vessel” and are more susceptible to stress, while the men are seen as strong and being able to withstand any discomfort that come their way and provide assurance and solace for the woman in time of need whenever, wherever and however that may be. This study will try to investigate and find out just how different men are from women in the way they handle psychological stress. Also the way married couples relate to one another is also seen as a predictor of distress, as little or no cordial relations between parents and their children, has been shown to increase the likelihood of psychological well being for one or both couples
As there are different forms and contexts in which psychological well being can be diagnosed, these will also be looked into to give better insight into which forms are peculiar to the marriage setting and which ones are not and also to determine if gender differences on susceptibility to psychological well being really exists as supported by literature.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of the study is to examine the impact of marital satisfaction on the psychological well-being of employees in rivers state university. Specifically, the study aim;

  1. Examine the factors affecting marital satisfaction among employees in rivers state university
  2. Examine the impact of marital satisfaction on the psychological well-being of employees in rivers state university
  3. To investigate the effect of marital instability on the psychological well-being of employees in rivers state university

1.4 Research Question

The study aims to answer the following research questions;

  1. What are the factors affecting marital satisfaction among employees in rivers state university ?
  2. Does marital satisfaction affect the psychological well-being of employees in rivers state university ?
  3. Does marital instability have any effect on the psychological well-being of employees in rivers state university?

1.5 Hypothesis of the Study

The study formulated and tested the following hypothesis

  • Ho: marital satisfaction have no significant impact on the psychological well-being of employees in rivers state university
  • Hi: marital satisfaction have a significant on the psychological well-being of employees in rivers state university

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will contribute significantly in the following ways

i. To the married individual

A better understanding of marriage and its dynamics and how they can adversely affect an individual if ignored. A better understanding of the marriage partner and how to have cordial relations with such ones is also a significant contribution of the study

ii. To the family

Members of the family will be able to appreciate family dynamics better and to have a clearer view of various psychological problems that could arise as a result of negative relations with family members. Findings will be beneficial to aid everyone realize just how the family relationship can help to create a positive atmosphere outside the home.

iii. To the society

Ignorance of psychological issues is a bane in our society that has done a lot of damage as a result of misguided information, and groundless suspicion. With the aid of this study, it is hoped that members of the society will understand that there are different reasons for psychological distress, with family relations and marital satisfaction probably contributing more than originally thought


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study will focus on the impact of marital satisfaction on the psychological well-being of employees in rivers state university. It will gather responses from employees of River state University


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Finance, inadequate materials and time constraint were the challenges the researchers encountered during the course of the study.


1.9 Operational Definitions of Variables

Marital Satisfaction

Marital satisfaction is a mental state that reflects the perceived benefits and costs of marriage to a particular person (Bradley, 2000) . As a direct result, the more costs a marriage partner inflicts on a person, the less satisfied one generally is with the marriage and with the marriage partner. Similarly, the greater the perceived benefits are, the more satisfied one is with the marriage and with the marriage partner.

Psychological Distress

Psychological distress is a general term that is used to describe unpleasant feelings and emotions that impact an individual’s level of functioning. In other words, it is psychological discomfort that interferes with an individual’s activities of daily living. This can result in negative views of the environment, others, and the self. Manifestations of psychological distress include sadness, anxiety, distraction, and some symptoms of mental illness.

It can also be simply defined as a state of emotional suffering characterized by symptoms of depression (Mirowsky & Ross 2002). As a result, no two people can experience one event exactly the same way. This is because psychological distress is a subjective experience, and is dependent upon the situation and how one perceives it. Causes of psychological distress include traumatic experiences such as the death of loved ones, job constraints and marital dissatisfaction (Bookwala & Jacobs, 2004).

Major life transitions such as moving to a new area or graduating from the university can be sources of psychological stress if one is unable to cope with the demands such transitions place on you or inability to adjust to the situation.

Family Relation

As used in this context, family relations can be used to describe the way each member of the family relates to the other in the perspective of one member of the family. The family is seen as the primary agent of socialization and also the “home” from which charity begins. Therefore it Is increasingly important to understand how each member of the family relates with the other and how this can have an impact of the married couple. A research on parental strain and psychological distress showed that the way children and parents relate with one another plays a very big role in how stress is managed (Borowski 2003.). when the mother of father relates well with the kids, it helps to alleviate the day to day stress encountered by them, but if otherwise is the case, where one has truant and unruly children, and the other spouse is not helping matters, psychological stress may occur and this will have a negative impact upon the family regardless of which person in the marriage has the problem.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.

The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on The Impact Of Marital Satisfaction On The Psychological Well-Being Of Employees In Rivers State University, Rivers State University as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on The Impact Of Marital Satisfaction On The Psychological Well-Being Of Employees In Rivers State University, Rivers State University as case study. The study is was specifically focused on examining the factors affecting marital satisfaction among employees in rivers state university; examining the impact of marital satisfaction on the psychological well-being of employees in rivers state university and investigating the

effect of marital instability on the psychological well-being of employees in rivers state university.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff of rivers state university.


5.3 Conclusions

With respect to the analysis and the findings of this study, the following conclusions emerged;
We also found that personality attributes depicted in the five-factor model can be one of the great factors influencing marital satisfaction. We believe that personal health and marital satisfaction can have a bilateral effect on each other. Those with higher personal health are likely to perceive greater marital satisfaction. The results showed that various factors are an influence in creating marital satisfaction in a couple, which is why paying attention to them can play a significant role in married life. Family counselors and therapists can benefit from these results to obtain a deeper perception of the foundations of married life and, eventually, to help decrease the high divorce rate. Thus, conducting research on marital satisfaction is crucial and indispensable with regard to providing evidence for effecting a management strategy as well as providing recommendation. Despite the issues raised in this review, other situations such as pregnancy, infertility, addiction,depression, accidents, and loss of loved ones can also directly or indirectly have a temporary or permanent impact on the level of marital satisfaction.


5.4 Recommendation

Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;

  1. Married teachers should be encouraged by the Counselors involved in marital counselling to pursue habits and attitudes that promote marital satisfaction through periodic seminars and counseling sessions.
  2. The school management in in partnership with the school Guidance Counsellors should organize seminars, conference, workshops and enlightenment programmes for both intended and married teachers focusing on building emotional intelligence and self-efficacy of the couples for satisfactory marital union.

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