Impact Of Management Policies On Performance Of Teachers In Public Secondary Schools
The study examined the impact of management policies on performance of teachers in public secondary schools in Rivers State. A descriptive survey research design was used for the study. The total population of the study comprised of all principals and teachers in public senior secondary schools in Rivers State. A sample of 290 of the population of principals and the population of teachers was used for the study. The disproportionate stratified random sampling technique was adopted in obtaining the sample size of 290. A self-structured questionnaire titled “impact of management policies on performance of teachers in public secondary schools Questionnaire was used for data collection. The face and content validities of the questionnaire were assessed by experts in Educational Management and Measurement and Evaluation. The reliability of the instrument was determined through test–retest technique. The responses were correlated and analyzed, using Pearson Product Moment correlation statistics that yielded reliability co-efficient of 0.84. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while z-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed among others that staff training/development, promotion and prompt payment of staff are good staff management strategies that influence staff job performance. It was therefore recommended that Rivers State government should ensure that training/retraining, promotion and prompt payment of salaries of secondary school teachers as to spur them for better job performance.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
- 4.5 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
Institutions in Nigeria are facing difficulties that are dire and sometimes in danger of extinction due to bad performance; this is common amongst public institutions. The economy continues to be unstable due to low production and general poor performance of institutions both public and private. This can be attributed to poor or total lack of training and development programs of staff that could have built their capacity to sustain their various organizations and the nation’s economy. According to Nassazi (2013) employees are major assets of any organization and the active role they play towards an organization’s success cannot be underestimated. Organizations are facing increased competition due to globalization, changes in technology, political and economic environments (Evans, Pucik & Barsoux, 2012) and therefore training and developing employees by these organizations are the sure way to guaranteeing competitive advantage.
Training and development is an aspect of human resource practices that help in enhancing employees’ skills, knowledge and competence capable of improving employees’ ability to perform more effectively. Training and development play a vital role in the effectiveness of an organization. It is one of the most pervasive techniques for improving job performance, enhancing organization productivity in the work place (Gupta & Bostrom, 2006).
Training is a learning activity directed towards the acquisition of specific knowledge and skills for the purpose of an occupation or task; while development implies creating and sustaining change (Ampomah, 2016). Earlier, Obasi and Asodike (2007) asserted that when teachers are properly trained, they get more developed through competence exposure to impact better on the students and get them equally exposed and more knowledgeable. The survival of any organization in the competitive society lies in its ability to train its staff to be creative, innovative, inventive, which will invariably enhance staff job performance and increase competitive advantage.
Job performance refers to the quantity of work that is done by each employee in an organization. It is an act of accomplishing or executing task over specified period of time. Thus, job performance of teachers, according to Pepple (2016) is measured in terms of teacher job performance and job attitudes which includes job commitment, feeling of job challenge, job meaningfulness and job responsibility. The job performance of teachers entails all tasks relating to the teaching profession that the teacher carries out judiciously. This is achievable when the teacher is given the right kind of training and other welfare packages as promotion and prompt payment of salaries.
Promotion is a concept that relates to a move to a more important job or rank in a company or an organization (Hornby, 2010). It is the advancement of an employee to a higher position or level. If someone is given promotion in his job, such a person is given a more important job or rank may be in terms of greater responsibilities, more prestige or status, greater skill and especially increase rate of pay. According to Adeyemi (2009) promotion is one of the ways to increase teachers’ job performance. Muhammad, Rizuwan and Yasin (2012) opined that different organizations or institutions use promotion as a reward for high productivity of their workers which accelerate their efforts. Promotion is a positive reward system; when a teacher is promoted as at when due with corresponding entitlement, such teacher tends to be motivated to brace up with the new challenges and put in the best effort in the job.
The prompt payment of salaries involves the due payment of employees as at the right time without any form of delay. The payment of salary promptly has a way of boosting the morale of the teachers (Nzewi, 2015). Trends in Nigeria have shown that teachers are the most owed workers by successive government’s particularly state governments. It was based on this that Agburu (2012) argued that salary should not only be adequate but also prompt and show some element of equity; this is particularly true from the point of the employees. Employees require adequate attention in order to perform effectively in the job. Their welfare in terms of training/development, promotion and prompt payment of salaries is an aspect of staff management that should not be taken for granted.
Staff management entails the activities surrounding the effective utilization of human resources for the achievement of organizational goals. The greatest asset of any organization is its human resources that ensure the achievement of the company’s goals and objectives. Human Resource Management is becoming more and more important in the strategy of a company and is seen as extremely vital for strategic success (Ulrich, 2011). Human Resource Management is the function within an organization that focused on recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in the organization. It is also strategic and comprehensive approach of managing people and the work place culture and environment (Randall & Susan, 2012).
Effective Human Resource Management enables employees to contribute effectively and productivity to the overall company direction and the accomplishment of the organization’s goals and objectives. Human resource management is administrative activities associated with human resources planning, recruitment, selection, orientation, training, appraisal, motivation and also a functions within an organization that focuses on people.
Huds, (2010 as cited in Uchechukwu & Uche, 2015, p. 126 ), stated that an effective human resources management involve maintaining and improving all aspects of a company’s practices that affect its employee from the day of his recruitment to the day he leaves the company; it involves hiring, firing, review, welfare and legal aspects. All the activities of organizations are initiated and determined by the people who make up the institution, plant, offices, of all the task of management, Uchechukwu and Uche (2015),opined that human resource is the most important influential and impactful asset of an organization. Thus, for the survival of any organization, available human resources should be effectively managed.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Human Resource Management enables employees to contribute effectively to the overall institutional direction and to achieving the organization’s goals and objectives. Effective Staff Management will ensure adequate training/development, promotion and prompt payment of salaries which is likely to motivate the people towards achieving organizational goals.
Undoubtedly, observations show that the Human Resources in most of the organizations today are not up to expectation and available staff seems not to be effectively managed; this accounts for poor performance amongst public schools. The lack of promotion and its attendant consequences have lowered the standard of living as well as job performance of the average Rivers State worker, particularly teachers (Amaewhule, 2006). Also, this is evidenced by the extent to which public servants (teachers) engage in other activities like petty trading even during official hours in search for extra income to augment the official salaries.The frequent alleged lopsided recruitments, promotions, appointments, delay in salary payment, staff development and retirement in the public sector have always raised public concern. Thus, the researcher investigated how staff management variables such as teachers’ training/development, promotion and prompt payment of salary may influence the job performance of teachers in senior secondary schools in Rivers State.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main purpose of this work was to examine the impact of management policies on performance of teachers in public secondary schools in Rivers state. Specifically, it sought to determine how:
- Staff training/development influences job performance of teachers in senior secondary schools in Rivers State.
- Staff promotion influences job performance of teachers in senior secondary schools in Rivers State.
- Prompt payment of salary influences job performance of teachers in senior secondary schools in Rivers State.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study:
- What is the influence of staff training/development on job performance of teachers in senior secondary schools in Rivers State?
- What is the influence of staff promotion on job performance of teachers in senior secondary schools in Rivers State?
- What is the influence of prompt payment of salary on job performance of teachers in senior secondary schools in Rivers State?
1.5 Hypotheses of the Study
The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance:
- Ho1. There is no significant difference between the perception of principals and teachers on the influence of staff training/development on job performance of teachers in senior secondary schools in Rivers State.
- Ho2. There is no significant difference between the perception of principals and teachers on the influence of staff promotion on job performance of teachers in senior secondary schools in Rivers State.
- Ho3. There is no significant difference between the perception of principals and teachers on the influence of prompt payment of salary on job performance of teachers in senior secondary schools in Rivers State.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of the study may shed light on management policies which can bring about greater job performance among the teachers for better academic achievements of the students in secondary schools in Rivers State. The findings of the study may be found useful by the Education Board, especially their human resource department in determining the administrative factors influencing teachers‟ job performance. The Nigeria Union of Teachers (NUT) may also benefit from the findings of the study by being enlightened on how job performance of the teachers may be enhanced at the school level. On the basis of the findings of the study, the NUT may induct the school administrators on the most effective ways of discharging their mandate in such a way as to boost the level of job performance of the teachers working under them. On the other hand, the Ministry of Education may obtain insights from the findings of this study on how the school infrastructure and working conditions may be improved to enhance the job performance among the teachers with an overall goal of boosting the academic performance of students.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study will analyze the impact of management policies on performance of teachers in public secondary schools in River State. The study is limited to some selected Secondary Schools in the area. Hence, the respondents for this study will be obtained from and among secondary school students in the study area.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
It refers to the factors and conditions put in place by the school administration to effectively provide leadership in the institution.
It refers to something that makes teachers want to do something or to work harder, for example, gifts.
It refers to the feeling of contentment that a teacher has with his or her work as evidenced by their job performance and low job turnover.
This is the feeling by the employee towards the job they do with regard to conditions of work, importance and the rewards accrued.
Work Environment Factors:
This is the school environment in which teachers teach which includes physical and social; settings.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of management policies on performance of teachers in public secondary schools in River State as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the impact of management policies on performance of teachers in public secondary schools in River State as case study. The study is was specifically focused on examining the Staff training/development influences job performance of teachers in senior secondary schools in Rivers State; Staff promotion influences job performance of teachers in senior secondary schools in Rivers State and Prompt payment of salary influences job performance of teachers in senior secondary schools in Rivers State.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 259 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff of senior secondary schools in Rivers State.
With respect to the analysis and the findings of this study, the following conclusions emerged;
Human Resources Management is a strategic plan put together by institutions to effectively manage their workforce and get the best out of staff in terms of achieving organizational goals. Amongst such staff management strategies employed are staff promotion, training and development of staff, and prompt payment of staff salaries. These when employed go a long way to influence the job performance of employees as been observed amongst teachers of senior secondary schools in Rivers State.
Based on the findings the researcher recommends that;
- The Rivers State government should ensure that secondary school teachers are trained and retained to acquire modern teaching skills for the enhancement of teacher’s job performance.
- The Rivers State government, educational planners and administrators of secondary schools should put in place functional promotion strategies in order to ensure teachers’ performance of stipulated duties.
- Rivers State government should ensure the prompt payment of teachers’ salaries in order to put in their best in the teaching–learning process.
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