The Impact Of Local Government Administration And Rural Development In Imo State (A Case Study Of Owerri Municipal)
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This project work is dedicated to the Almighty God. And to my lovely parents pastor and Mrs. Christopher Ekewbelem for their parental care, moral, prayers and financial support.
I wish to acknowledge the contribution of individuals and groups who made the production of this work possible.
My sincere thanks and appreciation goes to my supervisors Mrs. Esiagu Lillian and my H.O.D Sir. S.C Njoku. Who helped and encouraged me, my friends and my loved ones and to my cousin sister Onyechege Ekene who have given me encouragement and their prayers to see that this work come to fulfillment.
More so, I want to thank my brothers and sisters, Mr. and Mrs. Anselem Ekwebelem, my Late Sister Mrs. Nneka Okiore, Mrs. Chika Uzoegbu, Mrs. Ogechukwu Ebikam, Mr. Kennedy, Mr. Chidiebere, Chukwudimma, Okwychukwu, Benjamin for their amiable support and assistance .
May God bless you all, Amen.
This research work was undertaken with a view to ascertaining the community development in Imo State Imo state of Nigeria with a focus on OWERRI MUNICIPAL Local government with in its area of jurisdiction. In doing this, the researcher based his study on the provision of the 1976 local government reform in Nigeria which made community development one of the explicit functions of the local government councils.
In carrying out the research primary and secondary data were used. Related literature were reviewed (secondary data chapter 2) and questionnaire were equally prepared and administered to local government functionaries (primary data chapter 4)
The technique use in analyzing the primary data is the chi-square (x2). The finding of the research was reached using the result of the tested hypothesis.
For the analysis, it was found that many factors act as stumbling blocks on the way of community development in OWERRI MUNICIPAL Local government area and the state general. Such factors include,
- Lack of adequate organization frame work and orientation.
- Lack of dedication and commitment on the part of the local government councils to the cause of community development.
- Misplacement of organization priorities and consequently, misdirection of funds.
- Lack of executive capacity from lack of adequate trained motivated and dedicated staff for effective and efficient implementation of councils.
- The Unhealthy political atmosphere existing in the local government councils.
- And finally the unreliable external funding and inability to generate revenue for development purpose.
From the above findings, the researcher concluded by making a sense of recommendations among which are the coordination of the development efforts of the various formal and informal organizations in all over, the community development programmes, and procurement of adequately trained personnel for the organizational and educational processes associated with community development.
Table Of Contents
- Title Page i
- Approval Page ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgement iv
- Abstract v
- Table of Contents vi
- 1.1 Background Of Study 1
- 1.2 Statement of Problems. 8
- 1.3 Objectives of the Study 9
- 1.4 Scope and Limitation of the Study 9
- 1.5 Significance of the Study 10
- 1.6 Theoretical Framework. 11
- 1.7 Scope of the Study 12
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study 12
- 1.9 Definition of Terms. 13
- 2.0 Literature Review 15
- 2.1 Concept and Definition of Community Development. 15
- 2.2 Historical Background of Community Development as Obtains in Nigeria. 18
- 2.3 Roles of Local Government Council in Community Development. 22
- 2.4 Major Constraints in OWERRI MUNICIPAL 24
- 2.5 Achievement of OWERRI MUNICIPAL 26
- 2.6 Implementation Strategies to Rural Development 28
- 2.7 Steps for Effective Rural Development 30
- 2.8 Other Organization Involved in Community Development. 31
- References. 33
- 3.0 Research Design and Methodology 36
- 3.1 Research Design 36
- 3.2 Area of Study. 37
- 3.3 Sample Size 37
- 3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique 37
- 3.5 Instrument for Data Conclusion 39
- 3.6 Validity of the Instrument 39
- 3.7 Reliability of the Instrument 40
- 3.8 Method of Data Collection 40
- 3.9 Method of Data Analysis. 40
- 4.0 Data Presentation And Analysis 41
- 4.1 Data Analysis 41
- 5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation 57
- 5.1 Summary 57
- 5.2 Recommendation. 59
- 5.3 Conclusion 61
- References 63
1.1 Background Of The Study
Local governments have and will continue to be of the prime mort of developments in different part of the world and their important and impact on the daily activities of citizens cannot be over emphasized.
The terms local government refers to a political authority set up by a nation or state as a subordinate authority for the purpose of dispensing or decentralizing political power. In the English sense, it means local self government.
Local government is a political sub division of a national government or in federal system, a sub-division of regional government in fact, local government administration is so intentioned with community development that any discussions on one out of necessity involves en essence was created solidly to bring development to the communities at the grass root. Community development is not a new ideology.
It is defined as a process by which the efforts of the people themselves are lives with those of government authorities to improve the economics, social and cultural conditions of the communities, to integrate into the life of the action and to noble them to fully contribute to the national progress.
Also the role of local government in the promotion of development at the local level is clearly recognized as one of the underlying basis of the 1976 local government reforms which emphasis that none of the principal objectives of local government is to mobiles human and material resources though the involvement
Members of the public in the promotion of local government. Many communities had built schools, constructed roads and bridges and organized higher education, scholarship schemes for their children etc. Community development as we recognize today is based on and has grown out of experience of the past.
What is new is that these principles are now becoming more widely recognized than ever before. The principles of community development are not new, but it is the emphasis which makes almost a revolutionary. The concept of community development is based on the faith. In the ability of people to learn to help themselves attain an improved standard of living building better communities taking one step at a time.
Rural development has thus remained one of the priority items of the programmes of one administration. In drawing up the blue print for rural development, government of Imo state aims primary at sensitizing and mobilizing the people at the grass root level and deliberately ad actively involving them in effective community development, encouraging integrated and multi-dimension approach community development for the government to achieve the grass roots development, it must get closer to the people.
Community development groups and local government should work very closely, because for instance, a service project such as maternity dispensary or school which is built without the full support of the relevant local government, has very lean chances of survival, since the running and main tenancy expenses of such services are usually too heavy to be borne unaided to such community.
Organization Of Owerri Municpal Local Government
There is a flow chart here in the MS-word version of this material, you will get the complete material before the end of this page.
OWERRI MUNICIPAL council was created in 1991 by the then Military President ,Gen Babangida. The local government was caved out from main/former Owerri local government area.
The council consists of six (6) major department’s personnel, health, works, financials, agriculture and education and development. The council is made up of two sets of staff. The executive and the carrier officers. At the Zenith of the organization, the chairman is the chief executive and the controller of both men and materials including finances. Below him is the chairman who assists and co-ordinates the activities delegated to him from time to time. Below their levels are the four line supervisors charged of agriculture, health, education, community development and works respectively. Both the chairman and the supervisors are the policy maker as far as the council is concerned.
On the other hand, the local government service commission is the employer of all carrier officers’ civil servants under this local government system. At the zenith of the carrier officers is the secretary director of personnel who is in charge of the day to day administration. Below him is a deputy secretary who co-ordinates the activities of both senior and the junior staff including other functions in his schedule.
The internal auditor occupies a central position midway between the carrier officers and the executive chairman. He is the alarm clock of the council especially when the envisages that anything goes wrong with the expenditure of government fund. He may raise an audit alarm. Below this levels are the line carrier staff known as heads of department. Each occupying specific department such as agriculture, 1-6 above.
Each HOD maintains discipline within his area, check the attendant and roll call and distribute functions amongst the rank and file senior and junior staff under him.
Statutory / Committee
In local government there are some operative statutory committee charged with specific functions.
- The junior staff management committee with a chairman and secretary. This organ is charged with discipline, promotion, transfer and conversion of junior staff under grade level 01-06.
- F and A This is an organ responsible for monetary approval and expenditure above to 500, 000.00 to 1 million.
The executive chairman acts as the chairman while the local government secretary acts as the secretary.
Community development is a department solely charged with co-ordination development activities in various communities between the councils area of jurisdiction.
However, the department cannot carryout or execute its functions department or units within the council for example, community development as a department needs fund which must be raised and released by the finance department from its internally generated revenue sources.
In addition, for a community project to be implemented the survey and planning department must be carried out his own specific duties in town planning and market designs, building of markets, as well as agricultural development cannot succeed without the works department engineers and agric officers. Health is one of the major premises of community development functions.
1.2 Statements Of Problems
Our understanding in this study is to investigate and appraise to what extent the local government council as represented by OWERRI MUNICIPAL local government area of Imo state, has been and to mobilize human and material resources for development of its area of authority. In line with the 1976 local government reforms.
The researcher will also in this course of this study to find answers to the following problems.
- To what extent has the rural development objectives of the present local government system bee realized in OWERRI MUNICIPAL local government area.
- To what extent has the local government approach to rural development facilitated the realization of the reforms including the present government rural development objectives?
- Is there not a better alternative to the local government councils current altitude to community development?
The above questions are closely interlinked and will be my guide to conduct this appraisal work and suggest some possible solutions where necessary.
1.3 Objective Of The Study
The essence of local government is to bring about the following:
- About sustained development at the grass root level.
- To find effective ways of stimulating teaching and helping people to adopt new methods and to learn new skills.
- To ensure the preservative of the community spirit.
- To find out if there are wider political representation.
- To determine if there are cheaper service.
- Establishing a good base for the collecting for economic planning
1.4 Scope And Limitation Of Study
As a result of the numerous of local government area that is OWERRI MUNICIPAL local government area of Imo state. The emphasis therefore, should be the role of local government in community development.
Lots of constraints were encountered in the course of this project, ranging from time financial constraints, scarcity of material and ignorance on the part of the respondents. But by the grace of God, I was able to assemble to the best of my ability the key information that will form a picture of what the study demands and hope that these constraints will pave a way in subsequent studies to make for enhancement where necessary.
1.5 Significance Of The Study
This study is geared towards correcting the misconception some people have as regards the value of local government. It will go a long way in detecting the idea that local government is an extension through which federal government and those in the authority in particular share government money or wealth to politician or their supporters.
This write up will expose the usefulness of local government to the citizenry, it will also ginger the society towards community development. It will help those working in the local government (Chairman and Councilors) to understand why they are there and these aspiring to be there to know why they should be there.
1.6 Theoretical Framework
This study is based on David Easton systems theory that says the idea of politics as a system has gained considerable currency in political science. The notion of system implies that there is a disgrace of interrelatedness is assumed to operate within the system which consist of mutually constraining or conditioning units and the system operates in and environment of some sort from which it s distinguishable.
A major condition there of a system together distinct from the environment must be maintained if the system is meant to run down and merge with the environment. Within the system energy is exchanged between units such that is one unit be affected all the others will be affected in a varying degree depending on the linkage within the system and the loss of energy in the process of transmission. Energy is also lost in the process of maintaining the study as an entity within its environment and it must some how is gained.
As in this case, local government as a third tier of government activity is regarded as a component part of the system. It is a unit of the activities that go on in political system of government. It has interrelationship with both the state and federal government. To make sure that there is effective development in the system local government created and effective is local government brings about effect rural and community development. So through local government, federal and state government helps in the development of the rural areas.
1.7 Scope Of The Study
This research work is aimed at studying of the impacts of local government administration and rural development in Imo state.
1.8 Limitation Of The Study
It is therefore, pertinent to print out that because of time, space or distance and financial constraints; the study is limited only to OWERRI MUNICIPAL local government area.
This scope is justified by the fact that it is practically impossible for the researcher to take into this study all efforts made towards community development in the country. The difficulties that were over come during the process of this research work are:
Time constraints, the problem of time was not to the advantage of the researcher and this did not allow for more comprehensive study of this piece.
1.9 Definition Of Terms
The key terms in this work are the local government role community development.
Nworji (2004) Local government is an organ of the state put in place to peddle the developmental activities of a particular place or district with the view of making the impact of government being felt at the grassroots level. Also Eyiyere (1999) see local government as the smallest government body created to take care of all local interest that requires government attention.
The Oxford advanced dictionary role means the function that a person is expected to have or the function a person has.
According to Oxford dictionary, community means the people living in one place, district or country, considered as a whole.
It means a programme change gear towards the equipment and sustainability of the value of life. Development entails change that is continuously taking in man and his physical environment.
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How to nail it on the head during your project / seminar defence
You are through with writing that project / seminar. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
- I hope I will do well enough to get an A.
You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being assessable?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.
Structure of a Seminar Paper
I feel like there is a lot of stress out there among grad students about writing seminar papers, especially when we’re told that our goal should be to make an original contribution to the field. That idea can be quite intimidating when we’re just starting out. It feels like you’ve asked us to jump off the deep end of the pool and we don’t know how to swim.
I think part of the problem is that we’re still working out how to structure seminar papers.** Each paper we write is another step closer to a successful, effective, and effective paper; however, we’re still flailing our arms (and other miscellaneous body parts) around because we’re uncertain of exactly how to go about it. I realize, of course, that there is no one right answer. However, below is my suggestion at sticking your toes in the water.
Section #1 — Introduction
Provide a little bit (or a lot) of motivation for the reader to read your entire paper. Failing that, your reader should know what the paper is going to be about by reading your introduction.
Paragraph #1 — Get some attention.
- Provide a context by citing a recent text in the field — the point that is cited may or may not be the main point of the text — it is what jumped out at you.
- Set-up broader context of what you’re going to do
Paragraph #2-?? — Define issue and the gap.
- Define issue and any key terms
- Limit scope as necessary
- Establish significance of issue
- State problem by defining the gap
- Explain how present research attempts to fill the gap
- Outline contributions (readers will see lit review for more detail.)
- End with thesis and preview organization of the rest of the paper
Section #2 — Literature Review
Give some credit where credit is due.
- Indicate the current state of the issue/problem/topic
- Define or qualify terms
- Engage sources in conversation with each other (don’t just copy in annotated bib)
Section #3 — Argument / Discussion
As stated in the Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing:wallow in those complexities!!
- Examine issue
- Argue how issue can be mitigated, mediated, or mashed
- Provide evidence and support
- Make some lively commentary along the way
Section #4 — Conclusion
We’re almost done. Don’t quit now.
- Summarize research question
- Qualify argument/discussion if you need to
- Explain where we go now
- End well
Section #5 — Works Cited
Is everything listed on the works cited?
Tips: it’s ok to use sub-headings to keep yourself organized.
Tips On How To Know What Your Supervisor Is Looking Out For In Your Project
Apparently all schools/colleges ask their undergraduates especially the final students to write their final year project before they are certified to be graduates. These projects are mostly discovery activities geared towards problems solving or basically to make new discoveries or better still have a better understanding of a problem with the aim of proffering better solutions.
With this assigned task an undergraduate will need an advisor, a counselor or a supervisor to guide and direct this activity for a desired result and a successful ending and of course, in return the supervisor have factors to look out for in a student project, so that the aim of the project writing will not be defeated.
As a final year student planning to write your final year project, there are some factors you need to consider when trying to have a good working relationship with your supervisor and you must have the below tips at your fingertips to know what your supervisor look at for in your project.
Selecting the right topic or title:
The supervisor would want to know how knowledgeable one is, in a chosen topic and how far one can go with the topic by asking one diverse questions which could be simple or a bit tough. So one thing is to choose a right topic and another thing is to be knowledgeable about the said topic.
The relevancy of the project topic to the degree course:
This is one of the important things a supervisor looks out for in a project. A final year project must have a purpose and objectives and most importantly be problem solving and must be related to the course of study. So a project topic should be relevant and interesting.
The realistic plan for the project:
A project supervisor will always look at how realistic a project topic is. Will the project aims be achieved and at the specified time. If it will outlived the specified time such topic might be dropped and a new topic adopted to run the set time and fulfill its purpose.
Quality of research materials available:
Another factor a supervisor will consider in project writing by a student is the quality of the materials available for research on the chosen project topic, can materials and information be readily available and are those materials of high standard and convincing not just bogus and fictitious analysis but materials that research has be carried out by scholars related to course of study. So a source of materials used for a project is very important and most supervisors look out for this.
The funding channels:
Almost all project writing needs a good amount of funding to achieved the desired aim, A supervisor would always want to find out how the project will be funded, so as not to have hitches when the project is on. So to have a smooth working relationship with ones project supervisor, the funding of the project must be considered and revisited from time to time. Because a supervisor will look out for this aspect too.