The Impact Of Liquidity Problem On The Nigerian Banking Industry

Project and Seminar Topics with material for Banking and Finance

The Impact Of Liquidity Problem On The Nigerian Banking Industry


This research work is aimed at identifying the impact of liquidity problems on the Nigerian banking sector with regards to their profit and previous made by the Government and the Apex Authority in finding the solution the problem.

In carrying out his study, secondary Data was used extensively. This project work is divided into five chapters:

In chapter one, we have: Introduction, Background of the study, statement of problem, purpose / objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope and limitation and definition of terms.

In chapter two, we have literature review which is made up of liquidity versus profitability in Nigerian Bank, Equilibrium balance between profitability and liquidity ratio-which is further subdivided into; Signifance of liquidity ratio, computation of liquidity ratio, cash ratio, liquidity risks, liquidity preference, liquidity measurement, rational for liquidity ratio measurement. Furthermore, there is factors affecting liquidity of Nigerian banks, Federal Government steps towards solving the liquidity problems in Nigerian banks and finally guidelines for the development of liquidity management policies in Nigerian banks.

Chapter three deals with research design and methodology and also secondary data, it sources, location and method of collection.

Chapter four, deals with the research findings.

Chapter five deals with recommendation and conclusions.

Lastly, there is provision of bibliography.

Table of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of study
  • 1.4 Objective of study
  • 1.5 Research Questions
  • 1.6 Significance of study
  • 1.7 Scope and limitation of study
  • 1.8 Definition of terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Preview of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Liquidity versus profitability in Nigerian Banking
  • 2.2 Equilibrium balance between profitability and liquidity.
  • 2.3 Liquidity Ratio
  • 2.3.1 Significance of liquidity ratio
  • 2.3.2 Computation of liquidity ratio
  • 2.3.3 Cash ratio
  • 2.3.4 liquidity Risks
  • 2.3.5 Liquidity Preference
  • 2.3.6 Liquidity Measurement
  • 2.3.7 Rationale for liquidity ratio measurement
  • 2.3.7 Rationale for liquidity ratio measurement
  • 2.4 Factors affecting liquidity of Nigerian banks
  • 2.4 Federal government steps towards solving the liquidity problems in Nigerian banks
  • 2.5 Guidelines for the development of liquidity Management policies in Nigerian banks.

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Design and Methodology

  • 3.1 Secondary Data
  • 3.2 Source /location of secondary data
  • 3.3 Methods of Data collection

Chapter Four

4.0 Findings

Chapter Five

Recommendations and Conclusion

  • 5.1 Recommendations
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • Bibliography

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction:

Liquidity is crucial to the on-going viability of any bank as liquidity can have dramatic and rapid effects on even well capitalized banks.

When a crisis develops in a bank as a result of other problems such as deterioration in asset quality, the time available to the bank to address the problem will be determined by the liquidity therefore, the measurement and management of liquidity are amongst the most activities of banks.

1.1 Background of Study.

The term liquidity means the ease with which an asset can be turned to cash with certainty Orjih John (1996:152).

Liquidity in banks can be defined as the capacity of the bank to meet promptly its current obligations that is its customers demand.

A bank is considered to be liquid when it has sufficient cash and other short term financial instruments like treasure bill, treasury certificate and call money in its portfolio together with the ability to raise funds quickly from other sources to enable it meet its payment obligation and other financial commitments in a timely.

How much liquidity to hold and in what form constantly disturbs bank management. Banks are also required to comply with the cash reserve requirements (CRR) set by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN).

During periods of expanding economic activities banks are frequently faced with attractive loan situations, which can only be met if banks maintain adequate liquidity.

In Nigeria, Banking activities are registered strictly by the banking act of 1969 was amended under the control of the central bank of Nigeria. As a result of these regulations the banks required to hold specific assets equal to certain other liability in liquid form. This is known as the cash reserve requirement (CRR), liquidity ratio and stabilization securities issued by the central bank.

1.2 Statement of Problem.

The most profitable activity of a commercial banks is the lending of money by loan or overdraft but every time a bank increases its advances to customers it increases at the same time the amount that are likely to be withdrawn in cash. Most borrowers simply wish to be able to draw cheques up to the amount of their overdraft but some of them may want cash and in general a certain proportion of loans will be taken in cash. This banker is torn between two conflicting motives: On the one hand he would like to expand his loans in order to make more profit and on the other hand, he is anxious to hold sufficient cash so that he can at all times fulfill his obligations to pay cash on demand J.L Hanson (1970:37).

1.3 Purpose of the Study.

The impact of liquidity problem:- This is the purpose of this study to look at problems encountered by bank managers responsible for liquidity management.

It will also focus on guidelines set by the CBN and other regulatory body for the development of liquidity management in Nigeria banks.

Finally, the impact of liquidity problems will be looked at on how it affects profitability, loans and advances to customers of commercial banks and the Nigerian economy.

1.4 Objectives of the Study.

The objective of this study on the impact of liquidity problem is to find out.

  1. If the CBN has enough policies or guidelines put in place to help the banks fight this problem.
  2. To find our banks for the correction of this problem.
  3. The overall impact of liquidity problems on loans and advances to customers of the commercial banks.
  4. To find out the liquidity problems in relation to customers deposit.
  5. The profitability of commercial banks in Nigeria.

1.5 Research Questions.

1. What is the impact of liquidity problems in the Nigerian banking industry?

By this we main how the effect of excess cash holding by banks in their vault affect their progress and equally how the non-holding of cash affect their transportation too. This effect could be negative in that making banks to give out loans and banks.

2. How important is liquidity management?

Liquidity management is very essential in that liquidity transcends the individual bank, as a liquidity short fall in a single institution can have system-wide repercussions. Consequently, the analysis of liquidity requires bank managements to measure, not only liquidity positions of their banks, on an ongoing basis, like also to examine how finding requirements are likely to evolve under crisis scenarios.

3. What is the relationship between liquidity and profitability in the Nigerian banking industry?

Both are interwoven in a particularly way in that in providing for liquidity one has to also check out ways of being profitable.

Liquidity is maintained by banks for the primary purpose of meeting depositors demand which will help this banks to have a good standing and reputation with the public. On the other hand banks are set up to make profit and their profitability portion is an index of measuring the performance of the bank. Which will also help them to meet up with their own financial obligations. Orjih John (1996:152-154).

1.6 Significance of the Study.

The significance of this research work is aimed at getting relevant information and solutions to liquidity problems facing the banking sector in Nigeria.

The researcher hopes it will be of immense benefit to the following sectors.

  1. The banking sector in Nigeria especially bank managers involved in liquidity management.
  2. The government sector.
  3. The monetary and fiscal policy department of the central bank of Nigeria.
  4. Finally for countries facing similar problems.

1.8 Definition of Terms


This is the ability of a bank to meet promptly, its current obligations. This simply means the capacity of the bank to meet its customers demand as and when due liquidity problem.

In this case a bank may be suffering from shortage of cash in its vault to meet its current obligations liquidity ratio:

It is the cash requirement held by banks as directed by CBN. It is the ratio above which banks may not raise its loans and advances relative to its liquid assets.

This is cash deposited by the customer to the bank, which can be withdrawn at anytime.

Loans and Advances:

These are by far the largest assets of the commercial banks. The lending system of the commercial banks can be in the form of loans and overdraft facilities. This is one of the major ways profit is made.


This is the amount of notes and coins held in the strong room of all the head offices of banks and in other branches to meet customer’s demands for cash withdrawals. Cash reserve does not yield income. It is the most liquid of all the assets.

Call Money:

Money at all is the shortest maturity instrument and it is the next liquid item after cash. It is an arrangement whereby banks borrow money from one another on overnight basis.

Treasury Bill:

These are short-term instruments issued by the central bank of Nigeria to raise finance for the federal government, its maturity is usually for 91 days.

Treasury Certificate:

These are short-term instruments issued by the government with maturity period of one to two years.

Monetary Policy:

Defined by the CBN as the combination of measure designed to regulate the value, supply of money in an economy in consonance with the expected level of economics activity.

Fiscal Policy:

Fiscal involves the use of government income and expenditure instruments to regulate the economy.

Cash Reserve Requirements;

This is the proportion of banks total deposits liabilities (Demand, Savings and Time Deposit), Certificate of deposit, promissory notes and other items held in cash balance with CBN.

Chapter Five

Recommendations and Conclusion

5.1 Recommendations.

Monetary policy is a tool, which the central bank of Nigeria (CBN) uses to maintain price and exchange rate stability. Through the persuit of non-accommodating monetary policy, the apex banks seeks to achieve a single digit inflation and balance of payment viability.

In broad terms, successful monetary policy should be able to achieve low and stable interest rates as well as ensuring exchange rate stability. Such environment is deemed to be conducive to growth of the real sector of the economy.

It should stimulate growth in output, raise employment levels and compete effectively for foreign capital.

The central bank of Nigeria has a lot of role of play being the apex bank and the monetary authority in the economy.

The central bank should impose tight monetary policy when it sees the economy is overcharged with increased money supply (inflation) and vice-versa. This measure should be introduced at the beginning of any fiscal year and not haphazardly. The CBN should not only provide this restrictive policies but should also closely monitor and supervise banks to see that they follows the policies.s

The current RE-CAPITALIZATION of banks (N25B) by the CBN should be enforced but meanwhile the CBN should cut down on the CRR to a level that is favourable for banks because the CRR that is high for banks due to the decline in deposit mobilization in the banking system as a result of the on-going consolidation in the banking industry.
Finally, on CBN matters based on liquidity issue the monetary authority should be able to cartien the federal government on monetary matters. The CBN are trying to control inflation by this is one sided. In that “While the CBN are mopping more funds from the system, the government is busy doing something else that is not in line with the objectives of the monetary policy”.

Secondly, the Nigerian banks on its side should adopt all efforts to attract more deposit on their banks. They should in the bid to achieve this adjust their requirement in order to encourage opening of mere accounts. The conditions for reference and minimum earnings level should be minimized or totally eliminated as these discourage prospective depositors.

Moreover, banks should be able to maintain customers by meeting their demands on time, treating customers with utmost respect and having a conducive arena for customers to stay and do business.

On liquidity issue the banks should follow the guidelines set out for the development of liquidity management, in Nigerian banks the following recommendations by Mr. Samuel Kolawole-CIBN President and colleagues:

  • Proper liquidity management by banks and strict compliance with terms of settlement agreements with counterparts.
  • Rendition of accurate returns to the CBN to assist in deriving realistic cash reserve and liquidity ratio requirement.
  • Banks facing liquidity problems should avail themselves of the CBN discount windows and also seek financial assistance from the National Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC).

Finally, all policies, strategies and guidelines set up by the monetary authority (CBN) should be fully adhered to by Nigerian banks in order to achieve the desired economic goal. And if there is a problem they should make their demands known to the CBN and together they can work it out. All this is in order for the desired economic stability to be achieved.

5.2 Conclusion.

The importance of the banking system to economic stability and development cannot be over emphasized. This objective is achieved by effectively administering banking laws and regulations which will serve as operation restraints on the banks, because monetary policy of the CBN reflects on the economy in that such laws and banking practices affect the behviour of a nations money supply.

Finally, the importance of liquidity transcends the individual bank, as a liquidity shortfall in a single institution can have system-wide repercussions. Consequently the analysis of liquidity requires bank managements to measure, not only the liquidity positions of their banks, on a ongoing basis, but also the examine how funding requirements are likely to evolve under crisis scenarios.

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