Impact Of Lesson Plan On Chemistry Students’ Academic Achievement In Senior Secondary Schools In Minna Metropolis

Project and Seminar Material for Chemistry Education

Impact Of Lesson Plan On Chemistry Students’ Academic Achievement In Senior Secondary Schools In Minna Metropolis


Abstract


This research investigated the impact of lesson plan on chemistry students’ academic achievement in senior secondary schools in Minna Metropolis, Niger state. This research identified the significant difference in student achievement as a result of lesson planning. The study employed a descriptive research design method. The population for this study consisted of all the secondary schools in Minna Metropolis, in session 2019-2020. The sample for the study comprised of 50 teachers and 10 students from selected school. A self-structured questionnaire was used by the researcher to collect information related to effects lesson plans on students’ achievement. The research found that most of the teachers used planned lessons and they agree that planning makes their lesson more efficient and effective for students. The researcher found a positive connection between lesson planning and students’ results. The research after concluding all results, recommended that teachers need to plan their lessons adequately. The creation of all around planned lessons is a powerful method for make ideas of students clear.

 


Table of Contents


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Question
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition Of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisation of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Approaches to Lesson Planning
  • 2.3 Standards-Based Lesson Planning
  • 2.4 The Four Stages of Lesson Planning
  • 2.5 Characteristics of Lesson Plans
  • 2.5.1 Adaptability:
  • 2.5.2 Cognitive Enactment:
  • 2.5.3 Coherence:
  • 2.6 Basic Components of a Good Lesson Plan
  • 2.6.1 Instructing Goals:
  • 2.6.2 Heating up Movement:
  • 2.6.3 Systems and Strategies:
  • 2.6.4 Appraisal:

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Population
  • 3.4 Sample
  • 3.5 Research Instrument
  • 3.6 Reliability
  • 3.7 Validity
  • 3.8 Data Collection
  • 3.9 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Result
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Lesson study is a systematic investigation of classroom pedagogy conducted collectively by a group of teachers rather than by individuals, with the aim of improving the quality of teaching and learning (Tsui& Law, 2017). Lesson Study is an approach for improving students’ learning through collaborative development of lessons and is commonly used by teachers in Japan (Cajkler& Wood, 2013). No wonder that the Japanese students outperformed their counterparts from other countries in Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). According to Lewis (2012), several essential features characterize Japanese lesson study: curriculum goals, lesson development, and reflection. The teachers participating in lesson study begin by purposefully choosing a broad, long-term goal such as for students to learn science with the desire of becoming better problem solvers. Lesson study attends to learning of a particular content area in which students’ learning and development is the focus. Lesson study requires repeated teaching and knowledgeable others’ involvements (Huang & Han, 2015), and classically includes recurring phases of setting a goal, selecting a topic, planning a research lesson, teaching and observing the research lesson, debriefing, and revising the lesson.

During lesson study teachers with a shared focus meet and plan lessons together. These lessons focus on building skills or understanding, and are identified as “research lessons”, which are taught by one, and observed by not only all of the teachers who are doing the planning, but also by observers who, at one end of the spectrum, may come only from the teachers’ own school, or from other places (Lewis &Tsuchida, 1998). A debriefing session follows the lesson, where the lesson is discussed at some length, with modifications suggested by the observers and an invited academic or “the knowledgeable other”.

The progress and success of any educational system is based on proper planning, efficient administration and adequate financing. The administration includes organization and structure of school system, proprietorship and control, inspection and supervision by the inspectorial board. Like all other human activities, teaching is not just a mere routine, it requires the ability to adapt boldly, to invent, to create procedures and learning situation.

Therefore, we can refer teaching as series of interrelated activities designed by the teacher using materials/resources drawn from the learner’s experimental background in order to enable the learner to concretize knowledge. Planning is a necessary task because it enables the teacher to predict the course of events during instruction (Izuagba, 2012).

Lesson plan is a reflection of the level of preparedness as well as the effort the teacher made in gathering information for the lesson. So, a poorly written lesson plan not only indicates the quality of the teacher, but also the level of commitment to his primary task of teaching.

Lesson plans generally mean plans for a single day or period. In preparing a lesson plan for Economics, there should be a provision for enquiry, incentive to find out, to probe and also to investigate and get result. Planning is an intellectual activity that is designed to guide the teacher to carry out teaching for a successful plan, the teacher should analyse the teaching situation, study the behaviour of individuals in the class and then make effective plans based on the analysis and study. From there he should feel some degree of confidence and then develop appropriate learning experiences for the class (Lasbery, 2006).


1.2 Statement of Problem

The main problem of this study was to determine the lesson plan and its effect on students’ academic achievement in secondary schools in Onicha LGA of Ebonyi State. Specifically, some teachers in Onicha LGA of Ebonyi State secondary schools do not prepare and use lesson planning in their classroom teachings, which come as a result of most of the teachers not being knowledgeable in the current ways or patterns of writing lesson plans; some teachers who have the knowledge of lesson planning feel too big and lousy to make use of it in the classroom; Education Board made it mandatory to ensure good teaching and learning but fail to visit the schools from time to time to ascertain how well they are doing.

There are undesirable situations which makes lesson plan not to be used effectively. These dissatisfying situations include: not using lesson plan sequentially, laizze-faire attitude of the school system, lack of infrastructural facilities, non-supervision by the educational Board. All these have contributed as a hindrance towards the failure of teaching and learning of economics in secondary schools, especially in Onicha LGA of Ebonyi State.

In this investigation, it was expected to audit the lesson plan practices and its belongings. Normally executed lesson plan rehearses incorporate the idea or goals to be instructed, time square, methods to be utilized, required materials, questions, free practice, and assessment.


1.3 Research Objectives

The main objective of the study is to assess the impact of lesson plan on chemistry students’ academic achievement in senior secondary schools in Minna Metropolis, Niger state.

Specifically, this study focused on the following objectives:

  1. To identify the significant difference in student achievement in Chemistry as a result of lesson planning.
  2. To examine the effects of lesson planning on content education in the classroom.
  3. To compare the teaching practice with planned lessons with traditional teaching without planning.

1.4 Research Questions

This research study will investigate:

  1. Do planned lessons advance a huge distinction in students’ academic accomplishment in Chemistry?
  2. Will lesson planning techniques emphatically influence content education in the classroom?
  3. Do students in a planned lesson condition perform well when contrasted with the understudies in a classroom where no planning is utilized?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • HO1 There is no significant impact of lesson plan on Chemistry students’ academic achievement in senior secondary schools in Minna Metropolis, Niger state
  • HA1 There is a significant impact of lesson plan on Chemistry students’ academic achievement in senior secondary schools in Minna Metropolis, Niger state

1.6 Significance of the Study

The result of this research work will go a long way in assessing the role of lesson plans in effective teaching and learning of economics. The result of this study is of great importance to principals, teachers, government, and ministry of education officials, curriculum planners, policy makers, students, all stakeholders and researchers.

The findings of the study will sensitize the principals and teachers on the need to adopt result-oriented lesson planning methods. This study will also enable government, ministry of education officials, curriculum planners, and policy makers to know the modalities for effective management of lesson plans and notes and device ways of improving on them.

The students will also benefit from this study. This is because they will know the advantages of using proper modalities for the planning and of lessons as well as notes when preparing for teaching practice as a pre-requisite for their qualification in the teaching profession.

The study is significant to the Teachers, Students, education Board, Parents and the society as a whole. The study will enable the teacher to be aware of the potential difficulties and problems encountered from not using lesson plan or not using it sequentially and this will help the teacher to teach confidently. The outcome of this study will enrich the student’s knowledge in that it will enable the students to identify when a good prepared lesson plan is used for teaching.

With this study, educational board will know how important it is to supervise schools from time to time. As well look at their lesson plan and note and how often they make use of it.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study was carried out to assess the impact of lesson plan on chemistry students’ academic achievement in senior secondary schools in Minna Metropolis, Niger state. The study was limited to Chemistry teachers and students learning at selected senior secondary schools. Also, data collection included data from the 2019-2019 school session.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

The real impediment of the study was that, the study was constrained itself to Minna Metropolis, Niger state. This territory is considered as one of the retrogressive in the Local Government Area, this may not give an image of the entire district thus discoveries will be summed up to different zones with alert.

Also, it was difficult for the researcher to ensure that the respondents accurately expressed their feelings while filling in the questionnaire. Thus, the researcher explained to the respondents how to respond to the question.The researcher could not retrieve the entire questionnaire from the respondents. Some respondents lost the questionnaire administered on them while some returned them very late.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Lesson Plan:

A lesson plan is a teacher’s detailed description of the course of instruction or “learning trajectory” for a lesson. A daily lesson plan is developed by a teacher to guide class learning. Details will vary depending on the preference of the teacher, subject being covered, and the needs of the students.

Chemistry:

The branch of science concerned with the substances of which matter is composed, the investigation of their properties and reactions, and the use of such reactions to form new substances.

Academic Achievement:

Academic achievement is the extent to which a student or institution has achieved either short or long term educational goals. Achievement may be measured through students’ grade point average, whereas for institutions, achievement may be measured through graduation rates.

Secondary School:

A school intermediate between elementary school and college and usually offering general, technical, vocational, or college-preparatory courses.


1.10 Organisation of the Study

This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one included the background of the study, research problem, research objectives and questions as well as limitation of the study. Chapter two contains the literature review. Chapter three includes the methodology and study area. Chapter Four contains the results and discussion of key findings of the study. Chapter Five finally looks at the summary, conclusions, and recommendations based on the findings.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

The present research endeavored to examine whether instructor readiness of their lessons affects the student’s scholarly execution and whether they know about the significance of lesson planning on upgrading students’ learning, and on the off chance that they utilize some uncommon powerful procedures of arrangement to get their students increasingly drew in and intrigued. This research was conducted for investigating the efficiency of planned lesson on academic achievement of students at elementary level. This research will identify the significant difference in student achievement as a result of lesson planning. It also examines the effects of lesson planning on content literacy in the classroom. This study will encourage teachers to use lesson planning in teaching. Thus, the teaching procedure will be simple for the teachers and the students, and that will make the class progressively powerful, intriguing and charming. The population for this study consisted of all the secondary schools in Onicha L.G.A, in session 2019-2020. The sample for the study comprised of 10 teachers and 50 students from selected school. A self designed questionnaire is used by the researcher to collect information related to effects lesson plans on students’ achievement. The research found that most of the teachers used planned lessons and they agree that planning makes their lesson more efficient and effective for students. The researcher found a positive connection between lesson planning and students’ results. The research after concluding all results, recommends that teachers need to plan their lessons adequately. The creation of all around planned lessons is a powerful method for make ideas of students clear.All through the investigation of the teachers and students’ polls, the accompanying discoveries were concluded:

  1. Most of teachers plan their lessons.
  2. Teachers know about the significance of lesson planning for the two teachers and students.
  3. Lesson planning may influence students’ adapting decidedly or contrarily relying upon how well it is structured.
  4. Interruption and weariness in the classroom can be decreased by the planning of lesson.
  5. There is a solid connection between lesson planning and students’ results.
  6. Students have an inspirational demeanor toward their teachers lesson planning.
  7. Teachers utilize a couple of exercises for making students intrigued by their classrooms.

5.2 Conclusion

The lesson planning process empowers educators to evaluate their very own knowledge as for the substance to be taught (Reed and Michaud, 2010). Lesson plan is the best bent for the two educators as an ordered system to instruct and understudies as a point by point manual for learn. All of the instructors either experienced or student one should give more thought with respect to develop a dealt with study hall condition. If instructors center considerably more around preparing and planning lessons, it will help the understudies a great deal in extending their elevating outlook towards learning, and this lead toward time the load up in the class.

There are different preferences to making a lesson plan. Regardless, lesson planning produces progressively bound together lessons (Jensen, 2001). It offers educators the opportunity to contemplate their choice of lesson focuses on, the sorts of activities that will meet these goals, the progression of those activities, the materials required, to what degree each development may take, and how understudies should be accumulated.

Instructors can consider the associations between one activity and the accompanying, the association between the present lesson and any past or future lessons, and the connection between’s learning activities and assessment practices. Since the teacher has considered these affiliations and would now have the option to make the affiliations express to understudies, the lesson will be progressively essential to them.


5.3 Recommendations

The research after concluding all results, recommends that:

  1. Teachers need to plan their lessons adequately.
  2. The creation of all around planned lessons is a powerful method for make ideas of students clear.
  3. Viable educating and learning couldn’t occur in a problematic domain; the teachers’ job here is to apply some classroom the executives’ techniques as a major aspect of his/her lesson plans.
  4. Weariness and absence of inspiration and premium are a couple of reasons, among numerous behind students’ low outcomes, thus the educator as a compelling planner should plan successful lessons that consider all the recently referenced reasons of classroom learning issues.
  5. Having goals for each lesson is critical for the instructor to recognize what to do and for the students to realize what they should do.
  6. Students’ needs and contrasts ought to be considered by the educator in such a case that they are ignored, the students may respond contrarily particularly on the off chance that they are youthful.
  7. Planning lessons must be set up by the teachers to encourage showing learning process.
  8. Compelling educating can be the establishment of viable lesson plan.
  9. Educator’s lesson plan can build up an all around oversaw classroom in which it enables them to sort out their classrooms.
  10. Understudy’s prerequisites and premiums must be known by the educator to make them into thought particularly when they have to build up students’ enthusiasm towards learning.

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