The Impact Of Legislation And Implementation Of Educational Policies On Tertiary Institutions (A Case Study Of Lagos State)

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The Impact Of Legislation And Implementation Of Educational Policies On Tertiary Institutions (A Case Study Of Lagos State)


Abstract


This study is on the impact of legislation and implementation of educational policies on tertiary. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected tertiary institution. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up heads of department, senior lecturers, junior lecturers and graduate assistants were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the study

A policy consists of a plan by some agents to do something in particular, for some purposes whenever a particular condition occurs or is obtained. Educational policy is the thinking at a high level of abstraction which expresses educational goals and the means of achieving them. It is the basis of day-to-day administration and serves as a guide to administrators when deciding the lines along which the educational system should be conducted. Educational policy is public policy. Who can be the real agent of public policy? Individual or a group of people or ministry or the President may initiate a bill to the parliament, the parliament passes the bill and the President signs the bill to make it become a law. Then a Ministry oversees the implementation or even implements it. The agents of non-personal policies can be grouped into two. These are authorizing agent and an implementing agent. An implementing agent of a policy can be any person or persons, ministries or agents rightfully acting for and on behalf of the authorizing agent but also has the power to initiative a bill e.g. Ministry of Education, etc. An authorizing agent is the one who has power to make such policies; it is always the person or body who has been assigned within the structure or constitution of the organization or nation the task of making such policies. On this, Edem (1982) commented that “unequivocally, this responsibility belongs to the government which is the lawful custodian of the society’s heritage and the body specifically charged with the responsibility of directing, planning and controlling its aspirations”. A democratic policy requires working with people to derive the policy, in order to make it desirable and justified. However in a totalitarian government, the government may just choose to work for result without consulting the people in working out or formulating the policy. A policy must always have a purpose whether stated or implied. Most educational purposes are stated while some are implied. According to Owolabi (2005) the practice of education becomes largely unsystematic when it is not guided by any policy. If a society shows no interest in the systematic conduct of education, the society does not need any education policy. Educational policies are policies made inside or outside educational institution for guiding the conduct of educational activities. These policies may be on curricular activities, pedagogical policies, resource policies or distributional policies. Educational policies are formulated at two distinct levels to guide the systematic conduct of education. Policies to guide the overall conduct of each category of educational activities are generally made by the government, through the President or the Ministry or department of education. Such policies are for the whole education system (or country). They are system policies. Another group of educational policies made within the confines of system policies (nested in system policies), are policies of lower levels of management and they include policies made by educational parastatals, schools, head of institutions, faculties or departments, teachers, etc. These are called institutional policies. By virtue of the fact that the authority of the government is of a higher order than that of an educational institution, institutional policies are nested in the policies of the government policies


1.2 Statement of the Problem

If a society shows no interest in the systematic conduct of education, the society does not need any education policy. Educational policies are policies made inside or outside educational institution for guiding the conduct of educational activities. These policies may be on curricular activities, pedagogical policies, resource policies or distributional policies. On this background the researcher wants to investigate the impact of legislation and implementation of education policies on tertiary


1.3 Objective of the Study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To determine the impact of legislation and implementation of educational policies on tertiary
  2. To ascertain the relationship between legislation and educational policies
  3. To ascertain whether educational policies affect academic performance of student

1.4 Research Hypotheses

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

  1. H0: there is no impact of legislation and implementation of educational policies on tertiary
    H1: there is impact of legislation and implementation of educational policies on tertiary
  2. H02: educational policies do not affect academic performance of student
    H2: educational policies affect academic performance of student

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study will give a clear insight on the impact of legislation and implementation of educational policies on tertiary. The study will be beneficial to students, educational sector and the general public. The study will serve as a reference to other researchers


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of the study covers the impact of legislation and implementation of educational policies on tertiary.The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Organizational Privacy:

Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Legislation:

Legislation is law which has been promulgated by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it.

Implementation:

The process of putting a decision or plan into effect; execution.

Educational Policy:

Education policy consists of the principles and government policies in the educational sphere as well as the collection of laws and rules that govern the operation of education systems.

Tertiary:

Tertiary education also referred to as third stage, third level, and postsecondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the impact of legislation and implementation of educational policies on tertiary

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of the legislation and implementation of educational policies on tertiary


5.2 Summary

This study was on the impact of legislation and implementation of educational policies on tertiary. Three objectives were raised which included: To determine the impact of legislation and implementation of educational policies on tertiary, to ascertain the relationship between legislation and educational policies, to ascertain whether educational policies affect academic performance of student. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected tertiary institution. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up heads of department, senior lecturers, junior lecturers and graduate assistants were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


5.3 Conclusion

The poor performance of the education sector in Nigeria, which is evident in the falling in standard of education and poor quality, has been attributed to ineffective implementation of education policy. This is engendered by the lapses in the education policy formulation process. These lapses include lack of indigenous education policy that takes into consideration cultural values and Nigerian environment, non-involvement of the stakeholders especially the teachers in the policy formulation process, lack of continuity of policy implementation whenever there is a change in government or administration and lack of political will by the government. These lapses have immense implications for every aspect of education (i.e the context, the input, the process and the outcome).


5.4 Recommendation

Education has been described as the tool for human and society development and for education to carry out this assignment effectively; it must be of high quality and standard. It is therefore imperative to make these recommendations as if follow will lead to proper implementation of education policy and consequently improve the quality/standard of education in Nigeria. Stakeholders, especially the teachers, must be involved in education policymaking, implementation and evaluation as a responsibility as well as a right. By listening to teachers, policy makers would receive first-hand information and experience from the grassroots that could help them tackle core issues in the education system – improve the standard and quality of Education. Stakeholders’ involvement can be established through the formation of Education councils that will comprise of stakeholder, especially the teachers, and interest groups in education industry. These education councils will be national or state bodies that will be shadowed with the responsibility of providing their ministers and governments with policy advice on innovation in education policies. Government should show better commitment to education by implementing the UNESCO recommendation of allocating 26 percent of total country annual budget to education. This will facilitate the procurement of all the necessary instructional materials and provision of conducive environment for proper teaching and learning. People with proven integrity should be appointed to handle education matters. Teachers should be motivated by improving their conditions of service through regular payment of salaries and promotions as at when due. Adequate and efficient strategies for implantation of education policy must be put in place before the implementation begins. Adequate human and material resources that will ensure proper and result oriented implementation should be put in place. Well-trained teachers that are competent in the areas of subject matters and pedagogy should be employed and those who are in service should be regularly retrained and encouraged to go for seminars and conferences to update their knowledge.


The Impact Of Legislation And Implementation Of Educational Policies On Tertiary Institutions (A Case Study Of Lagos State)


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