The Impact Of Learning Environment On Students’ Achievement In Chemistry

Project and Seminar Material for Chemistry Education

The Impact Of Learning Environment On Students’ Achievement In Chemistry


Abstract


This study examines the impact of learning environment on students achievement in chemistry in secondary schools in Lagos mainland local government area. Factors such as school facilities, class size, school location and school plant planning were examined to know their impact on the academic achievement of students in chemistry. Questionnaire was administered to test the hypotheses developed. Simple percentage statistical tool was employed to analyze the variables. Based on the findings, it was discovered that poor school facilities, large class size, inappropriate school location, and poor school plant planning negatively affects students’ academic performance. Recommendations were made to address the issues of school learning facilities, classroom population, school location and proper school plant planning.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

In modern societies, education has become a critical tool for achieving rapid and sustainable growth and development. As a result, every society’s rate of growth is inextricably linked to a well-organized, regulated, and supervised educational system. To do so, the school becomes an instrument for providing intellectual and social interactions through which the learner develops the skills, awareness, attitude, and interest that form their ability to work effectively in society. The school, on the other hand, will only be able to fulfill its function successfully if the community embraces students and provides them with pleasure, independence, comfort, and a general sense of well-being that facilitates teaching and learning. It is important to note that the goal of education is reflected not only in the subject taught and the level of achievement, but also in the learning environment. This is because, according to Akinbote (2010), a learner is a product of his or her environment. This learning environment can also influence the behaviour and achievement of the learner. Plato and Greek philosophers realizing the importance of stimulating learning environment in the life and achievement of the learner suggest that a child must be provided with the right kind of learning environment by placing the child in the midst of these things which are like what we want them to become (Akinbote, Oduolowu and Lawal 2001).

The school environment, which include the classrooms, libraries, technical workshops, laboratories, teachers’ quality, school management, teaching methods, peers, etc are variables that affect students’ academic achievement (Ajayi, 2001 and Oluchukwu, 2000). Hence, the school environment remains an important area that should be studied and well managed to enhance students’ academic performance. The issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to the government, parents, teachers and even students themselves. The quality of education not only depends on the teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties, but also in the effective coordination of the school environment (Ajao 2001). It has also been observed that adequate attention is now being paid to school plant planning throughout the world’s educational systems including Nigeria.

Educational facilities such as school plant have been repeatedly found to have positive relationship with standard and quality of educational system. (Ojedele, 2000).Nigeria as a nation strives to experience real growth and development. This requires a clearly defined development strategy that allows intensive utilization of resources which is endowed. These resources are the various school physical facilities that are indispensable in the educational process. They include the sitting, the building and physical equipment, recreation places for the achievement of educational objectives (Oluchuckwu, 2000).School environment which include instructional spaces planning, administrative places planning, circulation spaces planning, spaces for conveniences planning, accessories planning, the teachers as well as the students themselves are essential in teaching-learning process. The extent to which student learning could be enhanced depends on their location within the school compound, the structure of their classroom, availability of instructional facilities and accessories. It is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of the students.Relating this study to international occurrences are the assertions of Williams, Persaud & Turner (2008), quoting Marsden (2005), which reported that safe and orderly classroom environment (aspect of instructional space), School facilities (accessories) were significantly related to students’ academic performance in elementary schools. The three researchers, also quoted Glassman (1994), asserting that a comfortable and caring environment among other treatments helped to contribute to students` academic performance.The physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on teachers, students, and the learning process. Poor lighting, noise, high levels of carbon dioxide in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures make teaching and learning difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation systems lead to poor health among students as well as teachers, which leads to poor performance and higher absentee rates (Frazier, 2002 Lyons, 2001; and Ostendorf, 2001). These factors can adversely affect student behavior and lead to higher levels of frustration among teachers, and poor learning attitude among student.Beyond the direct effects that poor facilities have on students’ ability to learn, the combination of poor facilities, which create an uncomfortable and uninviting workplace for teachers, combined with frustrating behavior by students including poor concentration and hyperactivity, lethargy, or apathy, creates a stressful set of working conditions for teachers. Because stress and job dissatisfaction are common pre-cursors to lowered teacher enthusiasm, it is possible that the aforementioned characteristics of school facilities have an effect upon the academic performance of students in chemistry.Previous studies have investigated the relationship of poor school environment including problems with student-teacher ratio, school location, school population, classroom ventilation, poor lighting in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures in the classroom with student health problems, student behaviour, and student achievement (Crandell & Smaldino, 2000; Davis, 2001; Johnson, 2001; Lyons, 2001;Moore, 2002; Stricherz, 2000; Tanner, 2000). To complement these studies, the present research will examine the aforementioned areas of school environment as it affect students performance in chemistry.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Emphasizing the importance of school environment to students academic performance chemistry, Oluchukwu, (2000) asserted school environment is an essential aspect of educational planning, he went further to explain that “unless schools are well suited, buildings adequately constructed and equipment adequately utilized and maintained, much teaching and learning may not take place.

Corroborating these, Mark (2002) and Ajayi (2007), maintained that high levels of students’ academic performance may not be guaranteed where instructional space such as classrooms, libraries, technical workshops and laboratories are structurally defective. They also emphasized that structural effectiveness, proper ventilation and well sited instructional space lead to successful teaching and learning process of students in chemistry.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine the impact of learning environment on students achievement in chemistry in secondary schools in Lagos mainland local government area. The study also aims

  1. To examine the impact of school facilities on the academic performance of students in chemistry
  2. To explore factors such as class size that have been perceived to promote or inhibit students learning and overall students academic achievement in chemistry and
  3. To investigate the extent to which school location affects the academic achievement of students in chemistry.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Is there any relationship between school environment and the student academic achievement in chemistry?
  2. To what extent do school facilities affect student performance in chemistry?
  3. What effect does class size has on the academic performance of students in chemistry?
  4. To what extent does school location has on the achievement of students in chemistry?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho1: There is no significant difference between school environment and the students’ academic performance in chemistry
  • Ho2: There is no significant difference between school facilities and academic performance of students in chemistry
  • Ho3: There is no significant difference between class size and academic performance of students in chemistry
  • Ho4: There is no significant difference between school location and academic performance of students in chemistry

1.6 Significance of the Study

It is hoped that this study will provide information for parents, educators and school administrators to reflect upon various factors that help students in achieving its academics goals in chemistry. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to their school, which may consequently lead to enhancing students’ academic performance in chemistry. In addition, the fact that this study is conducted in public schools, it shares quite a lot of similarities with many other counterparts. In this connection, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools to reflect upon the school environment as it affect the academic performance of student in chemistry.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This research work focuses on influence of Learning environment on academic performance of students in chemistry in some selected schools in Lagos mainland local government area. This research work covers the impact of the learning environment on students’ academic achievement in chemistry in all public secondary schools students in Lagos mainland local government area. However, four public secondary schools were used as case study.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Apart from time-frame and shortage of finance, the major limitation to this research is the inability of the researcher to cover the whole public secondary school in Lagos mainland local government area.


1.9 Definition of Terms

School:

A school is an institution designed for the teaching of students (or “pupils”) under the direction of teachers

Learning Environment:

A school’s physical environment includes the school building and the surrounding.

Academic Achievement:

Knowledge attained or skills developed in school subjects by test scores.

Secondary School (Also “High School”):

Is a term used to describe an educational institution where the final stage of schooling, known as secondary education and usually compulsory up to a specified age, takes place. It follows elementary or primary education, and may be followed by university (tertiary) education.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was to examine the impact of learning environment on students’ academic achievement in secondary schools using selected schools in Lagos mainland local government area as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at highlighting the impact of school facilities on the academic performance of students in chemistry. explore factors such as class size that have been perceived to promote or inhibit students learning and overall students academic achievement in chemistry and the extent to which school location affects the academic achievement of students in chemistry. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from teachers and students local government area


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:

  1. In smaller classes students tend to be as much as one to two months ahead in content knowledge
  2. Class size also shapes the quality of writing instruction at all levels
  3. Class size reduces the attentiveness of a student

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Positive learning environment encourages students‟ motivation to learn and improve in their academic achievement.
  2. Conducive learning environment helps teachers to achieve their instructional objectives
  3. Recommendations were made for a more proactive approach that would facilitate provision of adequate facilities in our public secondary schools in Nigeria and Lagos State in particular.
  4. The study had revealed the picture of poor condition of facilities in public schools and urgent attention is needed to put it in proper condition or else it gets to total collapse.

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