Leadership Styles And Workers Performance In An Organisation (A Case Study Of Unilever Plc, Lagos)

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Leadership Styles And Workers Performance In An Organisation (A Case Study Of Unilever Plc, Lagos)


Abstract


This study was carried out on leadership styles and workers performance in an organisation using Unilever PLC, Lagos state as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of staff of Unilever PLC, Lagos state. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 60 respondents and all were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that leadership style have an effect on workers’ commitment.The study also revealed that leadership style have an effect on workers’ effectiveness. Furthermore, leadership style have an effect on workers’ productivity. Therefore, it is recommended that leaders should allow improvement of interpersonal relationship between the staff and the management team to ensure increased productivity, and subordinates should be education about the need for harmony with them and their leaders in the work place for the mutual benefit of both parties. This of course call for improved communication.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.0 Data Presentation
  • 4.1 Analysis of Data
  • 4.2 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.3 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

There is hardly any conversation today in Nigeria that doesn’t begin with the word “leadership”. Leadership in government, organization, mosque/churches and even in schools and family. There are also leadership issues being discuss in several parts of world today. Government has fallen and organizations has fail due to bad leadership. There cannot be leadership without followership. Leadership styles can either motivate or discourage employees (workers), which in return can cause employee’s increase or decrease in their level of performance. That is, a particular style of leadership has a direct influence or effect on the productivity of an employee or employees. According to Schyns & Sanders (2007), the sources of employee job dissatisfaction include inadequate salary, conflicting job demands (from the leadership) and absence of promotion prospects.

For efficiency purposes, an effective leadership style, one that positively affects employees’ satisfaction and results in better performances, effectiveness and productivity is clearly desirable (Muller, 2005). For every organization who wants to remain and wax stronger in a global market competitive environment must engage the service of good leaders. The effective leadership style certainly improves workers and organizational productivity. Ojokuku, Odetayo and Sajuiygbe (2012) confirmed that leadership style is the major determinant of any organization success especially in Nigerianbanks. Williams (2009) pointed out that leadership creates understanding and recognition of a group’s undertaking, purpose and make the workers to know beyond their own wants and needs for the good of the cluster. According to Jago (2012) “Leadership is expressed or displayed through interaction between people and necessarily implies its complement, followership. For one to influence, another must permit himself to be influenced” He pointed out that different leaders have their own distinctive leadership styles that have proved to be closely associated with their organizational performances and outputs.

Hartog, Muijen and Koopman, (2017) noted that transactional leadership and transformational leadership have gained currency and attention over a period of last few decades. They argued that transformational Leadership and Transactional Leadership both are directly related with numerous workplace outcomes such as job satisfaction, group performance, employee’s performance, and organizational commitment. Abdul, Ausnain and Munawar (2012) also agreed that both transformational and transactional leadership have positive significant effect on organizational commitment. Researches (Luchak and Gellatly, 2007; and Paré and Tremblay, 2007) revealed that organizational commitment is positively associated with work efforts, organizational performance and negatively related to absenteeism and employees turnover. Bass (2015) described transformational leadership style as a systematic way by which subordinates or fellows praise and appreciate their leaders. Resultantly, this style enhances their motivational level, which leads toorganizational productivity. While Ivey and Kline (2010) stated that, “Transactional leadership is characterized by leader-follower exchanges, whereby leaders exchange things of value with followers to advance both the leaders’ own and followers’ agendas”. The manufacturing sector is one of the engine of economic growth and development globally, Nigeria inclusive.

According to Bennis and Nanus (2010), many organizations are over managed and under led. The difference is crucial, managed are people who do things right, but leaders are people who do the right things always. Problems are bound to occur within every noted organisation and decision making is bound to generate conflicts while initiating policies. Adair J (2002), stated that people are expected to coordinate whatever they are doing to achieve organizational goals. In this light, the notion of leadership act are those which help a grouping meeting those stated objectives. In general terms the acts of controlling other people consists uncertainty reduction ,which entails making the kind of choice that permits the organization to proceed towards its objective despite various kinds of internal and external variables. Kourdi J (2009). from the foregoing, this study aims at examining leadership styles and workers performance in an organisation.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

There are so many problems that hinder the organizations for the achievement of the organizational aims and objectives. These problems are curled from the principles of management, which includes include planning, which is regarded as one of the crucial element/aspect of the administrative functions of the chief executives. With the presence of effective leadership, there are efficient and effective management of enterprises to perform up to expectations(Hersey and Blanchard, 2008). Like most other tools for achieving organizational goals effective leadership style is faced with some constraints which prevent some enterprises from achieving their normal goals and objectives. Also, most management is not even aware of the exact constraints to the effective leadership style. According to Katz And Kahn (2009), the exigency of the situation created by effective leadership style encourages research on the issue of “leadership styles on worker’s performance”. The dream of any organization is to minimize cost and maximize profit, this can only be achieved through effective and efficient leadership style and it is an account of this that this work is embarked upon.

Many organizations has failed due to ineffective leadership style of the management team of such organization and institution on such situation, the workers are not well organized, controlled or co-ordinated, the effect of this attitude arises from ineffective leadership style, low productivity, high operating cost, unco-operative attitude of employees- e.t.c. all these at the long run leads to the closure of the organisation. Some organizations are faced with the problem of sourcing for competent leaders who have personality, knowledge, intelligence and experience to lead its subordinates to achieving the desired objectives of the organization.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

This study is structured to generally evaluate leadership styles and workers performance in an organisation. However, the study will further

  1. Find out whether leadership style have any effect on workers’ commitment.
  2. Find out whether leadership style have any effect on workers’ effectiveness.
  3. Find out whether leadership style have any effect on workers’ productivity.
  4. Determine the at which leadership style influences worker’s performance.

1.4 Research Question

The following research questions are pertinent to this study:

  1. Does leadership style have any effect on workers’ commitment?
  2. Does leadership style have any effect on workers’ effectiveness?
  3. Does leadership style have any effect on workers’ productivity?
  4. To what extent does leadership style influence worker’s performance?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • H01. Leadership style has an effect on workers’ commitment.
  • H02. Leadership style has an effect on workers’ effectiveness.
  • H03: Leadership style has an effect on workers’ productivity.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The significance this research work is that it would explore the effect of leadership on the performance of employees in organizations with speed references to Nigerian context. This particular organization was chosen because of the rigour employees are made to go through in the course of meeting the targets of the management. This has affected the economic, social and private lives of the employees. It is intended to investigate whether employee’s performance is related to the leadership style, adopted by the management. It is also hoped that the study would contribute to the promotion of the existing frontier or boundary between human knowledge and strengthen the relationship, between the management / employer and the employee in the local government of Nigeria.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine leadership styles and workers performance in an organisation. The study will be delimited to Unilever PLC, Lagos State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Employee:

This is a person who paid to work under the supervision of a manager or an employer.

Motivation:

Motivation involves all the activities which give rise to the behaviour aimed at satisfying one or another kind of want.

Leadership:

This is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent.

Leadership Style:

This is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plan and motivating people

Productivity:

This is the rate at which a company produces goods and the amount produced compared with how much time and the amount which was used for the production.

Performance Appraisal:

It’s the assessment of how well an employee does his job, especially an assessment carried out as part of an organization’s formal procedure in which records are kept and corrections are taken in order to improve on performance.


1.9. Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on leadership styles and workers performance in an organisation using Unilever PLC, Lagos state as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on leadership styles and workers performance in an organisation using Unilever PLC, Lagos state as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to; find out whether leadership style have any effect on workers’ commitment, find out whether leadership style have any effect on workers’ effectiveness, find out whether leadership style have any effect on workers’ productivity, and determine the at which leadership style influences worker’s performance.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 60 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were staff of Unilever PLC, Lagos state.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Leadership style have an effect on workers’ commitment.
  2. Leadership style have an effect on workers’ effectiveness.
  3. Leadership style have an effect on workers’ productivity.
  4. The extent at which leadership style influences worker’s performance is high.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Leaders should allow improvement of interpersonal relationship between the staff and the management team to ensure increased productivity.
  2. There should be a free flow of information to ensure cohesion
  3. The staff should be involved in the process of decision making to ensure strict compliance. Leaders shouldn’t just trust on their own decisions.
  4. The management team leaders should always have the welfare of the workers at heart.
  5. The management team should create a conducive atmosphere that will enhance workers participation in the day to day running of the business.
  6. Subordinates should be education about the need for harmony with them and their leaders in the work place for the mutual benefit of both parties. This of course call for improved communication.
  7. The flow of communication from top hierarchy downwards should be smooth in order to avoid unnecessary misinformation which might result into damaging effects on an organization’s output.
  8. There should be equity and fairness to all. This could be in form of adequate remuneration to staff and the avoidance of unnecessary bias or a show of favoritism in handling staff grievances and other related matters.

Leadership Styles And Workers Performance In An Organisation (A Case Study Of Unilever Plc, Lagos)


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