Impact Of Laboratory Work In Physics On The Academic Performance Of Students: A Case Study Of Selected Secondary School In Moro LGA Of Kwara State

Physics Education Project Material

Impact Of Laboratory Work In Physics On The Academic Performance Of Students: A Case Study Of Selected Secondary School In Moro LGA Of Kwara State


Abstract


This study was carried out on the impact of laboratory work in physics on the academic performance of students using selected secondary school in Moro LGA Of Kwara State as a case study. To achieve this, 4 significant research objectives were formulated. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of physics teachers and students in some selected senior secondary schools of Moro LGA Of Kwara State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents, while 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and percentage. The result of the findings reveals that students exposure to laboratory facilities influences their performance. The findings also revealed that the extent to which students are exposed to laboratory work in secondary schools in Moru Local government is low. And students’ attitude are being changed towards practically based subjects when exposed to adequately equipped laboratories facilities. In regard to the findings, the study recommends that school administrators should encourage physics teachers by supplying the necessary equipment and apparatus. This is because school laboratory is very essential for proper science teaching in schools. And physics teachers should be up and doing, in hands, on minds, on activities as doing so would help to enhance students practical skills in physics.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

We live in the world of science and technology as of to date and of which human beings encounter issues and problems that have their root in science. Science and technology have become critical factors of economic and social development. Through science, nature has been well utilized and transformed into meaningful resources for a better living in the world. The tremendous emerging trends in science education has assured to man a comfortable living within the society.(FGN,2004). Etymologically, science is defined as a body of knowledge, a way or method of investigating and a way of thinking in the pursuit of an understanding of nature (Abimbola & Mustapha, 2003). The aim of the teaching and study of sciences are to encourage and enable students to provide the broader objectives of science that is process skill i.e., knowledge, curiosity; develop skills of scientific inquiry to design and carry out scientific investigations and evaluate scientific evidence to draw conclusions; communicate scientific ideas, arguments and practical experiences accurately in a variety of way; demonstrate attitudes and develop values of honesty and respect for themselves, others and their shared environment (Ezeh, 2016).

Fundamental research among science education and cognitive scientists focuses on how the people learn science and how they apply knowledge in their daily life. As science subjects, scientific inquiry is the primary process by which scientific knowledge is gained. One of the most reliance by which the process of inquiry can be learnt is the laboratory where students’ experiences first-hand the inquiry process.(National Association of Biology Teachers,2005) The emphasis on teaching and learning of science is on ensuring that teachers not only teach the process of science but also are able tosubject scientific concepts to the sensory experience of the learner. Bythis, the “hands” and “mind” of the learners must be on scientific activities such that the learner will be able to learn actively and thereby participate in knowledge construction learning. (Ausubel, 1963)

In Nigeria, that all is not well in the teaching and learning of Physics in particular is captured in the curriculum document which states that:Physics is crucial for effective living in the modern age of science and technology. Given its application in industry and many other professions, it is necessary that every student is given an opportunity to acquire some of its concepts, principles and skills. Unfortunately, the teaching and learning of physics has been fraught with challenges which prevent many students from performing well in external examinations’ (Federal Ministry of Education 2009). Akanbi (2003) observed that the trend in the enrolment and performance of senior secondary school students in science related subjects, especially physics, has assumed threatening and frightening dimension. Bamidele (2004) observed that students’ lack of interest in physics as a result of preconceived idea that physics is a difficult subject has affected the enrolment and performance of students. It is therefore necessary to provide students with a strong broad back ground in areas of science education when laboratory facilities are adequate in school. Students should be offered opportunities to enable them grow in their problem solving abilities, think critically and acquire scientific and technological literacy (William and Maureen, 2012). Jeske(1990) and Ogunleye(2002) have also found that a laboratory is a primary vehicle for promoting reasoning skills and students’ understanding thereby enhancing desired learning outcomes in students. The laboratory is the center of scientific studies so long as science remains both a product and process. The availability of laboratory equipment, facilities and materials pay a vital role in determining the extent of best laboratory practices that will ensure acquisition of science process skills and competence in science concepts by the learners.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The current trend in the teaching and learning of physics in Nigeria, where most public schools that are attended by the majority of the school age population lack the supply of adequate materials and facilities for teaching and learning of the subject, has forced most teachers to use the traditional lecture method in teaching physics rather than exposing student to adequate laboratory experience. According to Berghel, Daly & Lavelle, (1984), this has greatly impacted on the performance of students, particularly in Physics, and more generally in the science subjects as several studies have associated students’ attainment with laboratory resource availability and utilization.
Importantly, practically based subjects like physics and other subject as chemistry, biology and agriculture constitutes of a major part of hands on and if not taught properly, the education of the students will be affected negatively hence poor performance, low quality of understanding of subject matter and this brings low half-baked students in science subjects which more leads to imaginative perception of students that science subjects are difficult to attain (Anyanwu 2021). When students are taught science subjects theoretically without the practical aspects inculcated and done in the laboratory, the students will not learn properly. The implication of this means that the role of the laboratory and its facilities on academic achievement of students in science subjects is ignored.

Thus, secondary schools require properly equipped and functional laboratories. Although there are several literature on laboratory exposure and student performance in science other science subject like chemistry and physic,little or none has been focused on Physic in the location of the case study hence upon this premise that this study seeks to examine the impact of laboratory work in physics on the academic performance of students. a case study of selected secondary school in Moro LGA Of Kwara State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to examine the the impact of laboratory work in physics on the academic performance of students. a case study of selected secondary school in Moro LGA Of Kwara State. Other specific objectives includes:

  1. To establish the frequency of exposure to laboratory work in secondary schools
  2. To investigate if students’ attitude are changed towards practically based subjects when exposed to adequately equipped laboratories facilities
  3. To ascertain whether laboratory facilities and practicals by science teachers enhance teaching of physics in secondary schools.
  4. To examine whether exposure to laboratory work influences students’ performance in physics.

1.4 Research Questions

The research is guided by the following research question

  1. Does exposure to laboratory facilities influences students’ performance?
  2. To what extent are student exposed to laboratory work in secondary schools in Moru Local government?
  3. Are students’ attitude changed towards practically based subjects when exposed to adequately equipped laboratories facilities?
  4. Does laboratory facilities and practicals by science teachers enhance teaching of physics in secondary schools in Moru Local government?

1.7 Significance of the Study

Finding of this research work is properly utilized, will promote the idea that science is both a product and process in students by arousing interest in practical work and generally in the practically based science subjects in secondary schools hence increasing and improving in academic achievement in these subjects. On the other hand, to motivate parents to provide basic requirements of practical lesson(s) for their children in secondary schools and also this convince the science teachers that practical lessons are mostly essential for effective teaching and learning of science subjects like biology, chemistry, physics, agriculture and to say mathematics. It would also make the government through the ministry of education to realize the need for provision of science equipment to schools and posting of qualified science teachers, technicians and technologists to secondary schools. Finally, the study will add to the body of knowledge and serve as reference materials to student and scholars who wishes to conduct further studies in related filed.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on impact of laboratory work in physics on the academic performance of students a case study of selected secondary school in Moro Lga of Kwara State. The study will further examine whether frequent of student exposure to laboratory work will enhance the interest of student in learning of Physics and increase their achievement.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scantiness of literature related to pedagogical challenge of effective political education and mobilization in Nigeria. Thus much time and organization was required in sourcing for the relevant materials required for the study. More so, the study is limited in scope focusing on teachers in selected secondary school teachers and youths in Moro Local Government Area in Kwara State. Therefore findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for other Local Government and State which creates a research gap and give room for further studies.


1.8 Definition of terms

Laboratory:

A laboratory is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.

Academic Achievement:

Academic achievement represents performance outcomes that indicate the extent to which a person has accomplished specific goals that were the focus of activities in instructional environments, specifically in school, college, and university.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of laboratory work in physics on the academic performance of students using selected secondary school in Moro LGA Of Kwara State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the impact of laboratory work in physics on the academic performance of students using selected secondary school in Moro LGA Of Kwara State as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to establish the frequency of exposure to laboratory work in secondary schools; investigate if students’ attitude are changed towards practically based subjects when exposed to adequately equipped laboratories facilities; ascertain whether laboratory facilities and practicals by science teachers enhance teaching of physics in secondary schools; and examine whether exposure to laboratory work influences students’ performance in physics.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were SS2 biology students and biology teachers in some selected senior secondary schools in selected senior secondary school in Moro LGA Of Kwara State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Students exposure to laboratory facilities influences their performance.
  2. The extent to which students are exposed to laboratory work in secondary schools in Moru Local government is low.
  3. Students’ attitude are being changed towards practically based subjects when exposed to adequately equipped laboratories facilities.
  4. Laboratory facilities and practicals by science teachers enhances teaching of physics in secondary schools in Moru Local government.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. School administrators should encourage physics teachers by supplying the necessary equipment and apparatus. This is because school laboratory is very essential for proper science teaching in schools.
  2. Physics teachers should be up and doing, in hands, on minds, on activities as doing so would help to enhance students practical skills in physics.
  3. Physics teachers should cultivate the habit of teaching both theoretical and practical lessons in laboratory.

Impact Of Laboratory Work In Physics On The Academic Performance Of Students: A Case Study Of Selected Secondary School In Moro LGA Of Kwara State


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