Impact Of Laboratory In The Teaching And Learning Of Chemistry

Project and Seminar Material for Chemistry Education

Impact Of Laboratory In The Teaching And Learning Of Chemistry


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the impact of laboratory in the teaching and learning of chemistry using some selected senior secondary schools in Ogbomosho. The study was set to find out whether laboratory facilitate the effective teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary schools, find out whether Chemistry laboratory facilities are adequate in senior secondary schools based on Nigerian minimum standard, investigate whether the teachers have a positive attitude towards the utilization of laboratory facilities for the teaching and learning of Chemistry in secondary schools, and ascertain whether the use of laboratory facilities for teaching/learning of Chemistry promotes students academic performance. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of chemistry teachers and students of some selected senior secondary schools in Ogbomosho. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that Laboratory facilitate the effective teaching and learning of Chemistry in secondary schools. The result of the findings reveals that the teachers have a positive attitude towards the utilization of laboratory facilities for the teaching and learning of Chemistry in secondary schools. Therefore, it is recommended that all the science laboratories in the school should be equipped with modern equipment and other necessary teaching aids or instructional materials. The provision of these materials/equipment will help both the teachers and the students in their teaching and learning process. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Chemistry is the branch of science that deals with the behaviour of matter in relation to their composition and the various changes which they undergo when combined with other elements. Chemistry is the science that systematically studies compositions, properties, and activities of organic and inorganic substances, and various elementary forms of matter (Nnoli, 2011). Hamid and Azita (2009), viewed chemistry as the central science, the mastery of its concepts regarding the structure of matter and how it is essential to further course work in all sciences. Chemistry is essentially a practical oriented subject that demands proper exhibition of good study behaviour for effective interpretation of existing phenomena. The subject chemistry therefore involves both content and practical skills which areacquired through scientific processes like observation, classification, measuring, collection and interpretation of data, hypothesizing, experimentation etc. These manipulative skills/scientific processes function in the laboratory with appropriate equipment and facilities (Reid. 2007). It follows that the chemistry student is expected to observe in the laboratory by using various types of equipment and apparatus to find out things by himself.

The laboratory has been playing a central and instinctive role in science education. Hofstein and Lunette (2004) pointed out that there are rich benefits accrued from using laboratory activities. Amongst these benefits is the ability to develop manipulative skills and also to develop problem-solving attitudes. Sirhan (2007) reported that chemistry is one of the important branches of science which appear to be a difficult subject for many students, hence the need for an effective and efficient laboratory use. Moreso, the uniqueness of a laboratory lies principally in providing students with opportunities to engage in the process of investigation and inquiry. The laboratory is an equipped room where practical activities and analyses are carried out. Chemistry laboratory equipment refers to the various tools, chemicals and apparatus used by scientists working in the laboratory. The laboratory equipment/facilities are often used in performing experiments by students and teachers.

It was pointed out by FRN (2004) that chemistry practical by students in the laboratory should constitute the main approach for learning chemistry since chemistry is an experimental subject. The teaching of practical aspect of chemistry can hardly be achieved without the use of the laboratory. Hofstein & Lunette, (2004) indicate that learning in science is enhanced and the understanding level is improved when students engage in practical experiments in science laboratory. Nigel (2009) proposed an increase in emphasis on practical aspect of chemistry if the nation is to attain growth in science and technology.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The importance of practical work in chemistry is to provide learners with ample opportunities to use scientific equipment to develop basic manipulative skills as well as practice investigative or inquiry activities thereby developing problem-solving attitudes needed for future work in chemistry. Mohammad (2011) indicated that the availability of equipment, apparatus/materials, and chemicals are very less provided in schools in Nigeria.
It was further observed that science teachers did not use science laboratories with the available equipment, apparatus and chemicals. This is an indication that availability of resource input has no value for academic objective until they are actually used. The use of science laboratories is therefore very important for the achievement of the aims of science education.

Science laboratory is a very important resource input for teaching science and it is an important predictor of achievement (Muhammed & fayyaz,. 2011). Adesoji and Olatunbosun (2008) add that laboratory adequacy was reported to affect theperformance of students in chemistry and students tend to understand and recall what they see more than what they hear. This is an indication that students actually want to see that they use laboratories in the teaching and learning of chemistry.

Anene, (1997) observed that in recent times, poor performance of students in chemistry in examination has generated serious concern among science educators. Consequently, researchers have worked on several causative factors, such as inadequate laboratory equipment, laboratory activities, teachers’ qualification, and students’ inability to acquire some basic science process skills. In an attempt to address the problem highlighted above, some studies have been carried out through the use of carefully planned instructional strategies and models to improve the status of chemistry teaching and learning. Despite all these efforts, students’ performance in chemistry has remained consistently poor. All these strategies gave a little improvement over the conventional teaching method, which is being used in our secondary schools. However, there seems to be a neglect of other important factors, such as laboratory activities (Anene, 1997).

From the foregoing, it can be argued that the report on poor performance of students in chemistry at the secondary school level might be due to both students’ perception of the laboratory activities and the failure of teachers to conduct laboratory activities in a way that will make students more active participants in chemistry teaching and learning situation. The poor performance in chemistry and other related subjects is a reflection of the inadequacy inherent in the laboratory learning environments at the school level (Aniodoh, 2000).


1.3 Objective of Study

The broad objective of this study is to examine the impact of laboratory in the teaching and learning of chemistry. Specifically, but not limited to, other objectives of this study are:

  1. Find out whether laboratory facilitate the effective teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary schools.
  2. Find out whether Chemistry laboratory facilities are adequate in senior secondary schools based on Nigerian minimum standard.
  3. Investigate whether the teachers have a positive attitude towards the utilization of laboratory facilities for the teaching and learning of Chemistry in secondary schools.
  4. Ascertain whether the use of laboratory facilities for teaching/learning of Chemistry promotes students academic performance.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions guided the study:

  1. Does laboratory facilities the effective teaching and learning of Chemistry in secondary schools?
  2. Are Chemistry laboratory facilities adequate in senior secondary schools based on Nigerian minimum standard?
  3. Does the teachers have a positive attitude towards the utilization of laboratory facilities for the teaching and learning of Chemistry in secondary schools?
  4. Does the use of laboratory facilities for teaching/learning of Chemistry promote students academic performance?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between laboratory facilities and the effective teaching of Chemistry in secondary schools.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between laboratory facilities and the effective teaching of Chemistry in secondary schools.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Findings from the study will be relevant to government, teachers, parents and the academia. It will also make the government through the ministry of education to realize the need for provision of laboratory facilities thereby exposing the students to laboratory activities posting of qualified science teachers, technicians and technologists to secondary schools. It will motivate parents to through the avenue of the PTA make requirements of practical lesson(s) for their children in secondary schools and also this convince the science teachers that practical lessons are mostly essential for effective teaching especially in Chemistry. Finally, the study would contribute empirically to the body of existing literature and it would serve as a reference source to students or other researchers who might want to carry out their research on the similar topic.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will be focusing on impact of laboratory in the teaching and learning of chemistry. The study will be delimited to some selected senior secondary schools in Ogbomosho.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.9 Definitions of Terms

Laboratory:

A laboratory is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.

Impact:

A marked effect or influence

Practical:

Of or concerned with the actual doing or use of something rather than with theory and ideas.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on impact of laboratory in the teaching and learning of chemistry using some selected senior secondary schools in Ogbomosho. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the impact of laboratory in the teaching and learning of chemistry using some selected senior secondary schools in Ogbomosho. The study was specifically set to find out whether laboratory facilitate the effective teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary schools, find out whether Chemistry laboratory facilities are adequate in senior secondary schools based on Nigerian minimum standard, investigate whether the teachers have a positive attitude towards the utilization of laboratory facilities for the teaching and learning of Chemistry in secondary schools, and ascertain whether the use of laboratory facilities for teaching/learning of Chemistry promotes students academic performance.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants, where all respondent are chemistry teachers and students of some selected senior secondary schools in Ogbomosho.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. Laboratory facilitate the effective teaching and learning of Chemistry in secondary schools.
  2. Chemistry laboratory facilities adequate in senior secondary schools based on Nigerian minimum standard.
  3. The teachers have a positive attitude towards the utilization of laboratory facilities for the teaching and learning of Chemistry in secondary schools.
  4. The use of laboratory facilities for teaching/learning of Chemistry promote students academic performance.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. All the topics in chemistry which are practically oriented should be taught in the laboratory, using all the necessary equipment and reagents. By using the chemicals/reagents, the students would acquire the skills involved in handling dangerous substances.
  2. All the science laboratories in the school should be equipped with modern equipment and other necessary teaching aids or instructional materials. The provision of these materials/equipment will help both the teachers and the students in their teaching and learning process.
  3. The science (chemistry) teachers should be encouraged to attend conferences, seminars and workshops. This will help them to learn new things, methods and acquire new skills in teaching difficult chemistry concepts.
  4. The science teachers should be motivated through payment of specially allowance; or they may be placed one step ahead of their counterparts on the same salary grade level.
  5. There should be more periods on the time-table for practical chemistry lessons. The teachers and their students should use the correct chemistry textbooks recommended by the federal, and states ministry of Education in teaching the students.
  6. There should be an increased and enough finance for the purchase of essential laboratory equipment. As a matter of urgency, adequate provision should be made with regards to practical guide or work book for students and teachers if any meaningful achievement is expected from them.

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