The Impact Of Job Satisfaction On Employees Performance In The Public Sector

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration


Abstract


The topic of this project report on the Impact of Job Satisfaction on employee performance in the public sector (PS). There was a time when it was considered sound economic policy for government to establish and invest in corporation and enterprises. It was then agreed that the public sector were better for stimulating and accelerating natural economic development rather than private initiative. This research therefore aimed at investigating, identifying, analysis and presenting research findings on the Impact of Job Satisfaction on employee performance. To achieve the above aims, research hypothesis were formulated to that whether promotion has no impact on job satisfaction, there is no relationship between salary and job satisfaction and conducive environment does not contribute to job satisfaction in the public sector.

The researcher made use of research questionnaire, which were designed and distributed to employees of these the public sector. The method of analysis is the use of tables, percentage and chi-square. The major finding of the research is that promotion has a significant relationship with job satisfaction, there is relationship between salary and job satisfaction and conductive environment contribute to job satisfaction among employee in the public sector.

In view of the above findings the study recommended that:

  1. The public sector should see increase/prompt payment as a motivation factor, that can increase productivity in the organization.
  2. Government should use employee inputs as a criteria for promotion of workers, because most of these workers in government are idle.
  3. Government should make the working environment conducive, so that the workers, can see their working environment as their second home.
  4. The public sector should adopt management by objective in which employee should be part in decision making of the organization so that all hands will be on deck.
  5. The structure of the organization should be restructure so that there will be cordial relationship between the employees and employer.
  6. Working conditions should be improved and sustainable to enhance performance.
  7. Management should be sensitive to the difference in needs and values among the employee.

Every individual is unique and will respond differently to attempts to motive him or her. 8. Management should be sensitive to employees, complaints about low pay and unchallenging work. Too often management delude them into thinking that employees dissatisfaction can be lessened by painting work area piping in music, giving out a few more words of praise, or giving people longer work breaks.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

In contemporary organizations the yearning forsatisfaction is the most important issue on the part of theemployees. Need and environment play a pivotal role in thedetermination of man’s behaviour (Ujo, 2004), and Maslow (1943) identified seven important needs of human beings rated in their order of priority; these include physiological, safety, love and affection, achievement, self esteem aesthetic and self actualization needs. Ascending of these needs summed up in one word, motivation involves needs, want and Satisfaction, motivation refers specifically “to the drive and effort to satisfy an identified want or goal” satisfaction on the other handrefers to “a state of contentment experienced when a particularwant is satisfied”. The issue of job satisfaction has been givenmuch attention over the years. This is because the importance of such a concept cannot be over emphasized. When therecame the emergence of large formal organizations which mademanagement more complex followed by a shift in dependent variable, little attention was given to their impact upon jobsatisfaction.

The door was let open to consider the place ofmotivation in relation to performance and production morale,group dynamics democratic supervision and personal relationsbecause factors that are very important and have been shownin contemporary studies as being related to job satisfactionand increased productivity.Ujo (2004) quoting Davis (1977) asserts; what employeesdo when joining an organization is to make an unwritten psychological contract with it, this contract is In addition tothe economic contract for wages and working conditions.Employees agree to give a certain amount of work and loyalty,but in return they demand more than economic rewards fromthe system. They seek security, treatment as human beingsand rewarding relationship with people and support infulfilling expectations. If the organization honours only theeconomic contract, employees will tend to loose interest intheir jobs. Following this trend, there is an agreement that jobsatisfaction is the extent to which a job helps one attain hisimportant job values. This agreement can be described as unity in diversity because the numerous definitions of jobsatisfaction all pointed to the same view.

Salawu (2008) defined job satisfaction” as the extent ordegree a person is satisfied with the job he or she is doing, interms of the salary, self actualization, prestige of the job,autonomy, control and condition of the job”. Locke (1976),defined job satisfaction ” as the appraisal one’s job asattaining or allowing the attainment of one’s important jobvalues providing these values are congruent with or help fulfillone’s basic needs”. For Davis (1977) job satisfaction is “thefavourableness or unfavourableness with which employeesview their work, public servant like any other worker has abundle of needs. They need food, shelter, self esteem and selfactualization to mention but few. It is the urge to satisfy someof these needs that motivate people to accept these jobs. Theattempt to take a job therefore, may have a variety of motiveswhich may essentially be complex and conflicting but theultimate goal is satisfaction.

Although, a great deal of Nigeria workers consider theirjobs as a means of providing them with the necessary money to cater for their needs, cloth them and perhaps save part of itor invest for their family members.
Job condition and employer, employee relationships are very important since they affect the performance of workers. Every organization, whether in private or public sector strives to effectively elicit the best from the professionals, unfortunately, it seems the desired goal has remained elusive. An in-depth study of job satisfaction has shown that there are people who do have job satisfaction in spite of their organization’sprovisions of those conditions that are satisfactory. Studies have also shown that workers achieve different levels of job satisfaction at different period in their careers and at differentoccupational levels. Closely related to this is the fact that despite the growing sophistication in technology a greatpercentage of Nigerian work-force seen dissatisfaction withtheir jobs, lack of commitment and are always willing to leavetheir’ jobs for more promising and satisfaction ones. Incessantconflicts, disagreement, protest, tension, distrust, trade disputes, strikes etc. also characterized the actions of theworker in different unions in Nigeria. This implies that the various organizations are far from solving the workersproblem. It also signifies frustrating, unchallenging, unsatisfying and bring job conditions.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Despite the ban on private practice by government, public servant still engage in very serious private businesses and some times use their official time for their personal business.

They sell, hawk, and even scramble for contracts and supplies when they are supposed to be in their offices. The individuals whose goals and aspirations are thwarted by the organization becomes frustrated, develop feelings of low self-worth, become a pathetic, disinterested and tend to withdraw self commitment in their work. Personal business outside the organization becomes more important.

The unsatisfied worker may be physically present at their place of work, but his mind and thought are off the job. The increased death rates in our hospitals, poor performance of students in school certificate, examination and low productivity in the civil service are testimonies of poor performance of public servants. There is no doubt that if public servants have job satisfaction, they will perform better in their job, the research will therefore examine the impacts of job satisfaction on employees performance.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To identify the role of promotion on job satisfaction among employees.
  2. To determine effect of salary on job satisfaction among employees.
  3. To identify the important of conductive environment on job satisfaction.

1.4 Research Questions

This study asks the following questions:

  1. Is there any relationship between job satisfaction and employees performance?
  2. Can good incentive scheme bring about employee job satisfaction for enhanced performance?
  3. Is the working environment of any relevance in ensuring employees job satisfaction?
  4. Is recognition and reward factors that can bring workers productivity.

1.5 Significance Of The Study

Management of the public sector has been a thorny issue in Nigeria and has generated quite a high number of debates and literature in the last two decades. This study is therefore significant because it will add to the existing body of literature in this areas.

It is also significant because it would provide information on the trend and journey so far in the management of the public sector. The results of the study will be discerning as it will reveal how much job satisfaction is obtainable in the public sector as well as how these have affected employee productivity in the organizations.

Since independence, government in establishment of businesses and maintaining them has invested so much; yet not much has been recorded in the area of productivity and employee morale.

According, this study will be useful to economists, management practitioners, students and the general public because it will provide direction on the way forward. The recommendations are useful because they will serve as advice to the government on what ought to be the appropriate relationship between government and the businesses.


1.6 Scope And Limitation

The scope of the study covers Enugu, the Capital of Enugu State. The concern of the study was the government owned companies within the city. Enugu served as capital of defunct Eastern Region, East Central State, and old Anambra State hence its good number of government businesses, which are either headquartered in the city or have regional offices there. Such companies studied are the Enugu State Transport Company (ENTRACO), Hotel presidential, Enugu, Nigeria Railway Corporation, Eastern Regional Office among others. These companies were established to make profits, as aim yet to be met.

This study has quite a number of significant limitations to it. The first was that the researcher as a worker has to combine her work with the study and this was not easy. Additionally the study was conducted during the period of fuel scarcity this resulting in high cost of transportation and in some most cases, low attendance by employees of the organizations visited for the distribution of questionnaires. Conducting a study of this nature in our environment receptive of answering the oral questions while others did not take time off of study the questionnaire hence few of the discard due to wrong filling. These limitations did not affect the outcome of the study in any way.


1.7 Delimitations Of The Study

As already mentioned, The public sector like PHCN etc were established to provide infrastructure services. For this group of The public sector, performance is in the area of efficiency of services provided. There are other categories of The public sector established purely for profit making. For this group performance comes in the area what is made in terms of profits.

This study is delimited mostly to the second group where it is assumed that the impact of job satisfaction on productivity is felt more. This implies that only companies established purely for profit were considered for the study. The above delimitation was considered normal for a study of this nature in a developing country like ours with paucity of data.


1.8 Definition Of Terms

1. Motivation

This is a process of stimulating people to action in order to achieve desired goals or accomplish a desired task: Hezbong, Fedenick (1964). The motivation Hygiene concept and problems of manpower personnel Administration January – February.

2. Personnel Administration

Is that organization or enterprises function which is especially concerned with the management of the human component in organization. Abah, Norbert C. (1997) Public Personnel Administration Enugu: Jeen Publishers Ltd.

3. NA

Nigerian Airways. Sun Newspaper April 20, 2003

4. B.P.E.

Bureau of Public Enterprises Sun Newspaper April 20, 2003

5. MBO:

Management by objective Ordiorne, CT Politics of Implementing. MBO” Business Horizon June 1974


Chapter Five


Summary Of Findings, Conclusions And Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

This study has been an attempt to examine the impact of job satisfaction on organizational performance among the public sector. Having gone through the whole length of data analysis and summary, the following conclusions are hereby drawn most of the varied problem encountered, have been unvested since most of these problem is as result of poor management of the the public sector. It look into productivity will be increased.


5.2 Recommendation

If the benefits of job satisfaction are to be achieved and if it is to make its fullest impact in increasing productivity in the public sector like other firms that induce job satisfaction among their employees. It will be necessary to make the following recommendation:

  1. The public sector should see increase/prompt payment as a motivation factor, that can increase productivity in the organization.
  2. Government should use employee inputs as a criteria for promotion of workers, because most of these workers in government are idle.
  3. Government should make the working environment conducive, so that the workers, can see their working environment as their second home.
  4. The public sector should adopt management by objective in which employee should be part in decision making of the organization so that all hands will be on deck.
  5. The structure of the organization should be restructure so that there will be cordial relationship between the employees and employer.
  6. Working conditions should be improved and sustainable to enhance performance.
  7. Management should be sensitive to the difference in needs and values among the employee. Every individual is unique and will respond differently to attempts to motive him or her.
  8. Management should be sensitive to employees, complaints about low pay and unchallenging work. Too often management delude them into thinking that employees dissatisfaction can be lessened by painting work area piping in music, giving out a few more words of praise, or giving people longer work breaks.

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