Impact Of Inventory Management And Control System In The Performance Of A Manufacturing Company In Nigeria (A Study Of Siba Water Company, Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area)
In any major manufacturing companies, inventory control is essential parts to check and carry out inventory adequately for proper recording. That is why in this subject topic we choose to carry out study on the impact of inventory management and control system in the performance of a manufacturing company in Nigeria. Which a case was SIBA water company no 105 Uyo Road, Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area. In order to carry out this study successfully, the work was divide into five chapters, while chapter one was on introduction and background of the study, chapter two reviewed of related literature on the subject matter, chapter three was on research design and methodology adopted in carrying out this research while chapter four was a data presentation, analysis and interpretation, while chapter five gave the summary of the work done. similarly, in SIBA water company, sample and sampling techniques were used which we have 65 and in population of the study we have five (5) department in that company which namely; Account section, purchasing officers, Transportation/Maintenance officers, Marketers, and Administration departments. Method of data analysis was chi-square method. Above all, questionnaire were administered to a few selected people in Ikot Ekpene and environment and a total number of sixty five (65) copies of the questionnaire were sent out to be completed by the people but a total of fifty five (55) copies were returned as population study. To this ends, the study revealed the following as major impact of inventory management and control, it enables the production process to flow smoothly thus enabling customer’s orders to be meet promptly and reduces the cost of carrying excessive inventories. That the inventory management techniques used by different manufacturing enterprises includes perpetual inventory review method, just in time inventory model, A.B.C analysis inventory models and a combination of modern and traditional methods that the problems inherent in holding inventories in manufacturing enterprises are in adequate warehouse facilities with the required infrastructures, risk of deterioration in the value of stocks, inadequate electricity and other amenities to keep inventory items in good form, inadequate managerial and technical know-how. It was recommended that management of manufacturing enterprises should make provision for adequate warehouse facilities, equip same with adequate infrastructure needed to keep stock in good state. Also, government should overhead the dilapidated economic and social infrastructures in order to reduce the cost of doing business in Nigeria as well as ensure full employment of factors of production which will bring about improved productivity in the country. Finally, it was recommended that manufacturing companies should train staff for/seriously development in our country.
Table of Contents
- Cover page
- Title page
- Table of Contents
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of Problem
- 1.3 Purpose of the Study
- 1.4 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
Review of Related Literature
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2 What is Inventory
- 2.2.1 The Theoretical Frame Work
- 2.3 What are the Aims of Inventory Management in Organization
- 2.4 Types of Inventory Control System
- 2.4.2 The Fixes Order Quality System
- 2.4.3 The Cyclical Provisioning or the Fixed Order Interval System
- 2.4.4 The Material Requirements planning (MRP
- 2.5 Importance of Inventory Taking Control in any Manufacturing Company
- 2.6 Kinds of Costs Associated with Inventory
- 2.7 Stock Checking and Stock Taking
- 2.7.1 Purpose of Stocktaking
- 2.8 Objectives of Inventory Control
- 2.9 Requirement for Effective Inventory Management / Inventory Management Software
- 2.10 Methods of Controlling Issue of Stock
- 2.11 Problems Associated with Control System
- 2.12 The Main Objectives of Stores Control System
- 3.1 Introduction
- 3.2 Area of the Study
- 3.3 Research Design
- 3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
- 3.5 Population of the Study
- 3.6 Procedure for Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Presentation of Data
- 4.3 Data Analysis
- 4.4 Testing of Hypothesis
- 4.5 Discussion and Summary of Findings
Introduction, Summary, Recommendations and Conclusion
- 5.0 Introduction
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
1.1 Background of the Study
When scholars first introduced the word “inventory”, they use the word stocks that are kept on store for use as the need arises. However, inventory includes all those goods and materials used in the production and distribution processes. Raw materials, components parts, sub-assemblies and finished products are all part of inventory as well as the various supplies required in the production and distribution process.
Inventory (or stock control) is defined by Jessop and Morrison (2010) as the operation of continuously arranging flows of materials so that stock balance are adequate to support the current rate of consumption, with due regard to economy. Inventory ties up capital, use storage space require handling, deteriorate, sometimes become obsolete, incur taxes, require insurance, can be stolen, and sometimes are lost. Furthermore, inventory frequently compensates for sloppy and inefficient management, including poor forecasting, haphazard scheduling and inadequate attention to setup and ordering process. In other words, inventory may hide inadequacies and allows management to ignore them, in such cases inventory increases cost and productivity without enhancing net income, it is a liability regardless of where it is carried on the organizations balance sheet. In addition, if an organization has the wrong items in inventory, the situation is worsened. However, the benefits of a properly managed inventory outweigh the costs of maintaining it. The absence of the appropriate inventory will halt a production process. Lack of competent parts will short down an assembly line with partially complete ones collecting dust.
An inventory can be an asset in the full sense of the word. Measures of performance and productivity may differ among organizations, but all need adequate inventory management.
Also, it includes the related process of provisioning, which is the determination of requirement in advance, stock control is a way of regulating the levels of supplies in stock to avert stock excesses or deficiencies. It also involves techniques used to ensure that stocks are kept at levels that guaranteed maximum service levels at minimum costs.
Stock control involves the following processes
- Assessing the items to be held in stock
- Deciding the extent of stock holding of items individually and collectively
- Regulating the input of stock into the store house
- Regulating the issue of stock from the store house
All business and institution require inventories, often they are substantial part of total assets. Financially, inventories are very important to manufacturing companies, on the balance sheet, they usually represent form 20% to 60% of total assets, inventory are used, their value is converted into cash which improves cash flow and return on investment.
There is a cost for carrying inventories, which increase operating costs and decreases profit. Good inventory management is essential, inventory is an idle stock of physical goods that contain economic value and held in various forms by an organization in its custody awaiting packing, processing, transformation, we or sale in future point of times.
Since the inventory or stock in the company or firm determine to a greater extent the prosperity and success of a firm. Therefore, there is need for good management and control of inventory in order for it to bring a more positive impact to the firm or company. Some scholars also defined inventory management as an effort for planning and controlling of inventory from the raw material stage to the customers for consumption or further production.
According to Breton (2007) is a major interest of purchasing managers in many industries, the inventories comprises a substantial share of the firm assets. If the productivity of the inventory asset can be enhanced, improvement will go directly to the bottom line. The function of purchasing is directly influenced by inventory management decision
To get the most value out of our resources, we must design production process that make product more effectively. Once the process exists, we need to manage their operation so that they produce goods most economically. Managing the operation means, planning for and controlling the resources used in the process.
If the right stocks in the right quantities are not available at right time, the process cannot produce what it should, labour and machinery will be poorly utilized. The profitability and even the existence, of the company will be threatened inventory management and control system are designed to monitor product availability, determining purchasing schedules and cycle out obsolete or unsold product.
Others scholars like “Anderson” also regard inventory management is the art and science of managing, to have the right product at the right time and right place in exactly the right amount, at the best possible price. It held to reduce the amount to time that product sits on your shelves.
To this ends, to keep inventory investment and inventory losses at a practical minimum. In as much as objective (i) is achieved by keeping inventory, this should not be done at a loss. Sound purchasing and supply management aims at efficient management and control of inventory levels in the overall interest of an organization. When optimum inventory levels are maintained, efficient utilization of capital is achieved with a resultant attractive return on investment (ROI). A good inventory system ensures the development and maintenance of good stocking policies, records and procedures which ultimately combat fraudulent supply practice
Therefore, every organization constantly strives to maintain optimum inventory to be able to meet its requirement and avoid over or under inventory that can impact the financial figure and profitability, should implement this system.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The following problem was identifiable in the organization of my case study which retains my desire to embark on this research.
Lack of Continuous arrangement of flows of material
This is the major problem of the organization, the operation of continuously arranging flow of materials so that stock balances are adequate to support the current rate of consumption with due regard to economy is unavailable.
Low Increment in cost of goods sold
Inventory management and control system is the only measures for lowering cost of goods. Since they is absent of inventory management and control system, increase in cost of goods sold become obvious.
High amount of obsolete and unsold product
A well design inventory management and control system, give the manufacturing company ability to reduce the amount of time that product sits on the shelves. But since they is no effective inventory management and control system in this organization, this give room to increase in the number of obsolete and unsold product.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The study is specifically undertaken to achieve the following purpose;
- To examine the impact of inventory management and control system in the performance of a manufacturing company.
- To unveil the relationship between inventory management and control system in the performance of a manufacturing company.
- To find out whether inventory management and control system can coexist.
- To diagnose the positive impact of inventory management and control system.
- To examine the negative impact of inventory management and control system on performance of a manufacturing company.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
Some of the objectives to be achieved at the end of this study are as follows;
- To provide a dependable solution to the problems in the organization.
- To find out the impact of inventory management and control system in purchasing and supply of inventory in the manufacturing company.
- To uncover what inventory management and control system is all about.
- To make good recommendation on the topic.
1.5 Research Questions
- Is there any relationship between inventory management and controlling system in the performance of a manufacturing company?
- Does inventory management and control system has any positive impact on the performance of a manufacturing company?
- Is there any reason for inventory management and control system in manufacturing company?
- Does inventory management and control system help organization to be more profitable?
1.6 Research Hypothesis
- Ho: There is no relationship between inventory management and control system in manufacturing company
- H1: There is a relationship between inventory management and control system in manufacturing company?
1.7 Significance of the Study
The study is specifically designed to help the organization of my case out of the present condition, by proffering dependable solution to the problem facing the organization. The study is also designed to be useful for student in tertiary institution in advancing their knowledge about this topic and broadening their horizon.
Moreover, researcher in different researching organization will find the work meaningful, as it will act as a framework for further research work on this topic and help update studies previously undertaken on this topic.
1.8 Scope of the Study
This study is concerned with the impact of inventory management and control system in the performance of a manufacturing in SIBA water company, number 105 Uyo Road. Inventory as I had already said is the life blood of any business. Most firm productivity and profitability is determined by how effective their inventory management and control system is;
Nevertheless, while embarking on this study a number of constraints were met. These constraint ranging from lack of money to make around for data collection, typing and photocopying, as well as inadequate time to carry out the study.
1.9 Limitation of Study
This particular area of research limited to the impact of inventory management and control system in the performance of a manufacturing company in Nigeria with a particular reference to Siba Water Company Ltd, No 105 Uyo Road, Ikot Ekpene L.G.A. The references will be drawn from general concepts
1.10 Definition of Terms
Control means the supervision of all the relevance operations with the help of control mechanism that feeds back the progress of the work. (Onah 2008),
Inventory is defined as the quantity of goods or materials on hand (Merriam Webster, Dictionary).
Inventory Control System:
Inventory control system is the process for managing, regulating and locating objects or materials (Juhi 2006).
Inventory management is the art and science of managing to have the right product, at the right time and place, in exactly the right amount, at the best possible price.
Management is defined as the co-ordination of all the resources (human and material) of an organization through the process of planning, organizing. Directing and controlling in order to attain organizational objectives (Njoku 2010).
Economic Order Quantity (EOQ):
This can be defined as the ordering quantity that minimize the balance of cost between inventory holding and re-orders costs (Peake A.S 2007)
Is a way of regulating the levels of supplies in stock, to avert stock excesses or deficiency
Introduction, Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion
This chapter presents summary, conclusion and recommendation for further study based on the finding of this study. To this end ,the study revealed by the earlier findings of other recommended researchers in the same area of study and many authors, scholars on inventory control shown that inventory means stock kept. Inventory is a term which Americans use for stock that are kept or stored for use as the need arises.
According to Jessop and Morrison (2004), as the operation of continuously arranging flows of materials so that stock balances are adequate to support the current rate of consumption. Stock control is a way of regulating the levels of supplies in stock to avert stock excesses or deficiencies. it also involves techniques used to ensure that stocks are kept at levels that guarantee maximum service levels at minimum costs
This study was specifically carried to examine the impact of inventory management and control system in the performance of a manufacturing company in Nigeria with a particular reference to SIBA water company No 105 Uyo road, Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area.
In SIBA water company about (5) department were used as subjects of this study which are; Account section, purchasing, officers, Transportation/maintenance offices and marketers and Administration officers. Questionnaire which was systematically structured after the correlated liker’s scale served as the main instrument used to collect data for this study. From the analysis of data findings were made on: The impact of inventory management and control system in any organization shown that to provide both internal and external customers with the required service levels in terms of quantity and order rate fill. And to ascertain present and future requirements for all types of inventory to avoid overstocking while avoiding bottlenecks in production. With keeping costs to a minimum by variety reduction economical lot sizes and analysis of costs incurred in obtaining and carrying inventories.
This study research was specifically carried out in order to find out the impact of inventory management and its control system in the performance of a manufacturing company in Nigeria. Similarly, it is peculiar to note that where a supplier did not acknowledge the purchase order before the actual performance of the contact he may be tempted to after the spirit and word of the contract to suit his selfish ambition. To avert this ugly scenario, it is pertinent that an extra copy of the purchase order be given to the supplier who acknowledges by indicating his acceptance on it. Better still a supplier may be made to write a letter of acceptance to the buyer.
The next step in the inventory cycles is the receipt and inspections of materials supplied to the buyer firm are not received into the stores unless a sort of inspection is carried out for conformity. Verifications are made with regard to the provisions on the original requirements. The reason for inspection is to ensure that goods are received as originally ordered with respect to specifications, quantity, quality measures and price. The commodity is inspected before receiving to assure conformity as requested. At the conclusion of the inspectors have authority to accept or reject materials and endorse goods received Noted (GRN) accordingly, materials that passed inspection are received into the stores and GRN prepared to that effect.
Therefore, in any organization or business enterprises, inventory taken and inspection of goods coming in as well as goods going out of the company is necessary to check them in order to avoid loss. Except in some JIN cases where some certified suppliers are used. In that case, suppliers are routed directly to the point of use by passing receiving. Thus, the buyer relies wholly on the supplier’s quality control and operating accuracy.
Finally, it is important to note that inventory makes possible smooth and efficient operation of manufacturing enterprises by decoupling individual segments of the total operation. Thus, will planned and effectively controlled inventories will contribute substantially to the organizations corporate performance.
Based on the findings of this study the following recommendations are made.
- The problems inherent in holding inventories in Siba are inadequate warehouse facilities with the required infrastructures, risk of deterioration in the value of stocks, inadequate electricity and other amenities to keep inventories items in good form. Inadequate cooperation among functional department involved in material acquisition and utilization and inadequate managerial and technical know – how.
- That the inventory management techniques used by different manufacturing enterprises are perpetual inventory review, method, just-in time inventory model, A-B-C analysis inventory model and a combination of modern and traditional methods.
- In any organization inventory exercises should be taken so as to keep record promptly.
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