The Impact Of Interior Designing In The Hospitality Industry (Case Study Of Selected Hotels In Enugu)
This study sought to assess the impact of interior designing in the hospitality industry (case study of selected hotels in Enugu). The research methodology of choice was a quasi-experimental research design. The population of the study comprised of selected hotels in Enugu state. Data was collected using questionnaires. In analyzing the data collected, the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) computer software package was used because of its capacity to statistically analyze data with speed and accuracy. The study established that the restaurants had complied with interior design requirement to improve human well-being as well as overall restaurant performance. The study further established that majority of the restaurants still are challenged to substantiate the value of branding in clear financial terms, thus they are not investing heavily on advertising campaigns. The study results indicated that majority of the restaurants play a wide genre of music that their customers like. The colours they are using in the restaurants are visually pleasant to their customers and that their lighting is moderately bright, beautiful and appealing to their customers. Majority of the restaurant do not treat design as an integral part of their business strategy that can add measurable value to their performance and create a more sustainable business for the future.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of Problem
- 1.3 Research Objectives
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Definition of Terms
- 1.8 Organization of the Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Aesthetic Experience and its Measurement
- 2.3 Interior Conditions
- 2.3.1 Auditory Cues
- 2.3.2 Scent as an Ambient Variable
- 2.3.3 Furnishing
- 2.3.4 Space and Layout
- 2.3.5 Color
- 2.3.6 Lighting
- 2.3.7 Signs, Symbols, Artefacts
- 2.3.8 Furniture
- 2.4 The Relationship Between Branding and Business Performance
- 2.5 Ambient Conditions and its Relationship to Business Performance
- 2.6 Interior Design as an Integral Part of Your Business Strategy
- 2.7 Theoretical Framework
3.0 Research Methodology
- 3.1 Design of the Study
- 3.2 Area of the Study
- 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
- 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
- 3.5 Validation and Reliability of the Instrument
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
4.0 Results and Discussion
- 4.1 Results
- 4.2 Discussion
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
1.1 Background of the Study
This study sets out the current state of knowledge on design and its’ role in driving business performance and productivity. This study sought to answer questions such as: how can design enhance value and productivity in an entrepreneurial endeavor, for example a start-up business or an existing business? Can design have a positive influence on your bottom line? Last but not least, does design mean good business? If you are opening a new restaurant, owning an existing restaurant, or just came up with a restaurant business plan, you should give stress on looks of your restaurant business setup. Exterior and interiors both are important aspects, but your customers will spend more of their time inside your restaurant, so interior design consideration is more important, Ancills (2008).
Look and feel is a pleasing factor, in hospitality it is one of the most important factor. It can have positive effects on your restaurant business and provides proper returns of money invested in interior designing. Excellently designed interior of your restaurants provides a soothing and comfortable dining experience to your customers. Ancills (2008) continues to say that it is true that walls, furniture, colours, paintings, lightings, and carpets all represent your restaurant. Together they make the visual impact o f your restaurant. We can easily notice a single theme accepted by all key players of the hospitality industry. This common theme is in fact a part of their brand identity promotion.
This visual impact is the first appearance of your service offerings to your customer. Your interior designing theme will decide your customer’s mood, that mood will decide their selection of cuisine presented in your menu, Nigel (2011). Design that increases diversity amongst products, even without necessarily making one product objectively ‘better’ than another, helps businesses create niche markets. Where there are wide variations in taste and income it may make more sense to target a specific area o f the market, potentially allowing firms to charge higher prices. But design will not always be this straightforward. As Johnson, Myatt (2004) note ‘…a design change may appeal to some consumers, while displeasing to others’.
This study sought to establish the fact that distinctive interior environments enrich lives and deliver economic returns. Any successful retail outlet has a strong brand personality that entices, impresses, encourages and reassures the customers. By creatively expressing the brand, products and image within well defined spaces, it not only enriches the customer experience but enhances the sales as well, Kramer (2011). Secondly, within the retail outlets, by applying ergonomic principles to the design of the restaurants, greater functionality can be achieved and yielding higher productivity but unfortunately this is seldom considered, Kramer (2011). Thirdly, entrepreneurs do not embrace the fact that Interior design environments that deliver economic returns, concerns itself with the visual or ambient enhancement o f an interior space. This can be achieved by creating a clean, environmentally sustainable space with good acoustics, lighting and air quality, Mazarella (2011). Thus, this study sought to explore that interior design is practical, aesthetic, and conducive to intended purposes, such as raising productivity, selling merchandise, or improving life style. Fourthly, this study seeks to bring to light that Interior design is not a discipline that works in isolation; in actual fact it is a multi-faceted profession in which creative and technical solutions are applied within a structure, to achieve a built interior environment that solves the customer’s problems and links space to business strategies and goals, Mazarella (2011).
1.2 Statement of Problem
Interior design in hospitality industry is the style of decoration used in room. It is the frame work through which the prospective guests view the hospitality industry which include residential, establishment restaurants, fast foods, outlets and hotels. In any residential establishment, the basic requirements for guest are food, drink and accommodation. The statement “that first impression last longer” is very true as the guest from his/her impression on entering decides if he/she will come back again. On arrival the guest enter the front office and gain the impression of the establishment from what can be seen mainly from the setups of the establishment, the decorations the interior decorations and as the guest move on his/her room has more time to explore the surroundings more closely. Also the guest takes a close look at the decorations finishing and decides if it is likely to meet with the requirements and provide satisfaction.
In the past, it was true that the room of a hotel should as far as possible give appearance of home away from home. But it is now realized that the guest who wants to feel at home expects so much difference in the way of decoration. Design suitable for home often have a cold appearance and look very cool and attractive. Nowadays new architectural exterior and interior designs have been formulated to give the outside and the room a warm, friendly and luxury appearance. The role of interior design in hospitality cannot be underestimated as warm, colour good furniture attracts guest to hospitality industry like every other business organization needs to maximize profit. This makes it necessary for the hospitality industry to pay strict attention to interior design.
Interior design is an activity that every hotel should undertake so as to eliminate the danger of customer rejection of rooms. Most hotels do not have a policy for new interior décor as a result of this they find it difficult to have the customer patronization and face the competition in the market.Poor management decisions on management of interior design can jeopardize an organization change of goal.
1.3 Research Objectives
The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of interior designing in the hospitality industry case study of selected hotels in Enugu. Specifically, the objectives include:
- To determine whether branding incorporated within the hospitality industry has influence on business performance of restaurants in Enugu.
- To identify whether the ambience of an interior space has influence on business performance of hotelsin Enugu.
- To verify how Interior Design when incorporated in the overall organizational strategies and goals influences business performance of the hospitality industry in Enugu.
1.4 Research Questions
This project is designed to tackle the following reach questions;
- Does branding incorporated within the hospitality industry has influence on business performance of restaurants in Enugu?
- Does the ambience of an interior space have an influence on business performance of hotels in Enugu?
- How does Interior Design when incorporated in the overall organizational strategies and goals influence business performance of the hospitality industry in Enugu?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study the hypothesis is to be tested at 0.5 alpha levels.
- HO: Interior design has contributed to the development of hospitality industry
- HA: Interior design has not contributed to the development of hospitality industry
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study would contribute in no small measure to the development of interior designed in hospitality industry that interiors design in the establishment cannot be overemphasized. Therefore interior needs not be thoroughly and adequately appraised. The research would be useful in other prospective researchers in interior decoration in hospitality industry. Also the study will help in polishing people’s orientation about decorations and design.
The rationale behind this study was to set out the current state of knowledge on design and its’ role in driving business performance and productivity. This report sought to answer questions such as: how can design enhance value and productivity in an entrepreneurial endeavor, for example a start-up business? Can design have a positive influence on your bottom line? Last but not least, does design mean good business?
1.7 Definition of Terms
According to Wall-block he defines hospitality ‘as the act of making guest or tourist to feel at home by providing foods, drinks accommodation and entertainment for their staying. Also Luckwood defines hospitality as the people’s business of providing security physical and psychology comfort reward. Oyeniyi also defines hospitality as a friendly and a generous reception and entertainment of guest.
This is the industry that provides food, beverage, accommodation and entertainment to meet the need of the domestic and international leisure and tourism market. Hospitality industry also provides service in offices factories and clubs. Hospitality industry can also be defined as an industry that deals with the provision of food, drinks and accommodation for permanents or stopover guest.
According to the hotel proprietors Act 1956 ‘An hotel is an establishment offering food and drink and sleeping accommodation, if required by anybody travelling who appear able and willing to pay for service and facilities provided. By Common Law a hotel can offer food beverage and accommodation to its guest but it must also assume a liability for the provision of a high standard of cleanliness and sanitation.
According to Oxford mini reference dictionary define interior design as the art or job of choosing the paint, carpets, Furniture etc. decorate the inside of a house. In hospitality industry, interior design does not necessary mean the inside of a hotel but extent of the immediate surroundings of the hotel also interior design gives someone practical information about planning, building and decorating inside of a hotel and when people lives and work.
This is a general form or arrangement line or shapes forming a decoration also according to Oxford dictionary defines design as the art or process of deciding how something will look, work etc. by something may be made arrangement of lines and shapes as a decoration. Also a drawing that shows how a thing is to be made.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This study is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is the introduction which contains the background, research problems and objectives. The second chapter is the literature review and the third chapter is the research methodology. In the fourth chapter, the researcher analyses the data and discusses the results. The fifth chapter is the last chapter which presents the summary, conclusion and recommendations.
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
The study sought to examine the impact of interior designing in the hospitality industry (case study of selected hotels in Enugu). The study established that the hotels had complied with most of the requirements such as working environment was enabling, furniture were comfortable to use, work environment was not clattered with furniture and equipment. The manager and staff moderately disagreed that work counters are comfortable to work on and the restaurant work environment was not enabling to the disabled. Majority of the hotels had complied with ergonomics requirement to improve human well-being as well as overall restaurant performance. The study results showed that majority of the restaurant in Enugu CBD offer quality services, and quality services is a main attribute towards customer loyalty. The study found out that majority of the hotels do moderately participate in advertising campaigns. A few of the hotels are able to retain their older customers and experienced growth in the last quarter. Majority of the hotels still are challenged to substantiate the value of branding in clear financial terms, thus they are not investing heavily on advertising campaigns. One of the prime determinants of customer satisfaction is perceived quality.
The study result indicated that majority of the hotels play a wide genre of music that their customers like. Secondly, the colours they are using in the hotels are visually pleasant to their customers. The study further found out that in the majority of the hotels, their lighting is moderately bright, beautiful and appealing to their customers. Ambient conditions affect perceptions of and human responses to the environment and their behavior.
From the study, it is clear that design is not seen as one of the main routes through which ideas are turned into innovations; a technique to harness or channel creativity for commercial advantage. The study results indicated that majority of the restaurant in Enugu CBD are not aware of the fact that effective design can make an important contribution to business success. Treat design as an integral part of your business strategy and it can add measurable value to the bottom line and create a more sustainable business for the future. Majority of the restaurant do not treat design as an integral part of their business strategy that can add measurable value to their performance and create a more sustainable business for the future.
The study concludes that majority of the hotels had complied with most of the interior requirements such as working environment been enabling, furniture been comfortable to use, and work environment not clattered with furniture and equipment. On ergonomics the study further concludes that work counters are not comfortable and it was not enabling for the disabled. The study further concludes that majority of the hotels in Enugu offer quality services and it is the main attributes towards customer loyalty. The study on branding further concludes that few hotels often participate in advertising campaigns. The study concludes that majority of the hotels had acted in accordance to the ambience customers like such as music, colours. The study research further concludes that not all the hotels have their lighting as bright, beautiful and appealing to their customers. On organizational strategies and goals the study concludes that effective design can make an important contribution to business success. The study further concludes that restaurant should treat design as an integral part of their business strategy that can add measurable value to their performance and create a more sustainable business for the future.
- The study recommends that hotels should invest in interior design of their businesses; this is because it greatly influences the performance of hotels within the retail industry.
- The study recommends that working counters should be made comfortable and working environment enabling for the disabled.
- The study recommends that on branding restaurant ought to participate in advertising campaigns often.
- The study recommends that hotels should make their lighting as bright, beautiful and appealing to their customers.
- Finally the study recommends that hotels should incorporate the importance of interior design on business performance on their vision statement and mission statement.
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