Impact Of Instructional Materials On Academic Performance Of Senior Secondary School Students In Chemistry In Nsit Ubium Local Government Area

Project and Seminar Material for Chemistry Education

Impact Of Instructional Materials On Academic Performance Of Senior Secondary School Students In Chemistry In Nsit Ubium Local Government Area


Abstract


This research was carried out to analyse the impact of instructional materials on academic performance of senior secondary school students in chemistry in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area. For the study, the sample consisted of one hundred and fifty students were randomly selected from five different secondary schools with ten students representing each class of the junior secondary schools and each class in the senior secondary schools. The data collection instrument was the questionnaire and percentage rating was used to analyse the results generated from the scores. The outcome of the analysis of data showed that the use of appropriate and relevant teaching aids, adequate instructional materials, adequate subject teachers, and academic qualifications of teachers greatly influenced students’ performances in subjects. From the results, it was concluded that the use of instructional materials had effects on the academic performances of students in secondary schools in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Instructional materials serve as a channel between the teacher and the students in delivering instructions. They may also serve as the motivation on the teaching-learning process. It is use to get the attention of the students and eliminate boredom. Instructional materials are highly important for teaching; especially for inexperienced teachers. Teachers rely on instructional materials in every aspect of teaching. They need material for background information on the subject they are teaching.

Young teachers usually have not built upon their expertise whenever they enter into the field. Teachers often use instructional materials for lesson planning. These materials are also needed by the teachers to assess the knowledge of their students. Teachers often assess students by assigning tasks, creating projects, and administering exams. Instructional materials are essential for all of these activities. Chemistry as a science subject is activity oriented and the suggested method for teaching it which is guided discovering method is resource based (NTI, 2007).This suggest that mastery ofchemistry concepts cannot be fully achieved without the use of instructional materials. The teaching of chemistry without instructional materials will certainly result to poor performance in the course. Franzer et al. (1992) stressed that;a professionally qualified science teacher no matter how well trained would be unable to put his ideas into practice if the school setting lacks the equipments and materials necessary for him or her to translate his competence into reality. Basssey (2002) described instructional materials media as system component that may be used as part of instructional process which are used to disseminate informative message and ideas or which make possible communication in the teaching-learning process. Experience over the years has shown that teachers have been depending on excessive use of words to express, convey ideas or facts in the teaching-learning process. This process is termed the ‘chalk-talk’ method. Today advances in technology have made it possible to produce materials and devices that could be used to minimize the teachers’ talking and at the same time, make the message clearer, more interesting and easier for the learner to assimilate (Onasanya, et al. (2008).According to Soetan et al. (2010), graphics including charts, posters, sketches, cartoons, graphs and drawings. Graphics communicate facts and ideas clearly through combination of drawings, words and pictures. The use of graphics in teaching creates definitiveness to the materials being studied. They help to visualize the whole concepts learned and their relationships with one another. Hands-on instructional materials show, rather than tell, which increase information retention. A truism often heard in teaching is that if you have not learnt, I have not taught. A reasonable conclusion then is that the importance of instructional materials in teaching and learning science is most efficient illustrated through student achievement result. The Biological Science Curriculum Study (BSCS) (2011) asserts that students come to the science classroom with many misconceptions to correct for proper scientific learning to progress. Schools should base instructional material on fundamental scientific concepts and principles, which help to align students understanding with current knowledge and teach them to monitor and control their own thoughts process to facilitate learning. When science is integrated with other inter-disciplinary courses, the teachershould give careful attention to designing ”a logical and coherent structure” for ensuring that they clearly communicate and ensure contextual understanding of embedded scientific concepts, as recommended by the Long Beach Unified School District(LBUSD)(2010).The LBUSD recommends the use hand-on science activities. The BSCS advocates group work and inquiry based activities. Such explorations encourage students to engage in science, which promote problem-solving thoughts patterns and correct students’ mistaken notion of science and the world. Teachers who take time to provide instructional materials and option that take into consideration or account the different ways students receive and express knowledge are more likely to see their students’ success. Science classroom should provide a variety of audio, visual and print input methods depending on students need, allow students the flexibility to communicate their true learning. According to BSCS, students or teachers who must closely follow their 5Es instructional model….engage, explore, explain, elaborate and evaluate…achieve a high rate of success. Taylor, Scotter and Coulson (2007) conclude, “that there is a statistical link between superior student achievements and basic or extensive of strategies and learning sequences consistent with the 5Es”.Research study has shown that where instructional materials are used the learning environments are highly stimulating and the students appear to take greater interest in learning.

Instructional resources which are educational input are of vital importance to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum. It has been defined as learning resources associated with objects, persons or other aspects of the environment which can be used to impact, or help in any learning activity (Iyunade, 2014). Instructional materials are befits the teacher as it make instruction easier and the learners as it make the learning objectives clearer (Iyunade, 2014). Instructional materials if effectively used are capable of captivating students‟ interest; stimulating desires in learning and make them participates in the lesson (Mba, 2004). In a situation like this, students‟ academic performance could be positively influence. Instructional materials include both the printed and audio-visual materials and as well resource places and person. Printed instructional materials include, but not limited to textbooks, journal articles, instructor manuals and guides, student workbooks, assignments, and other reference materials. Audio-visual materials consist of electronic videos, audiotapes, slides, filmstrips, radio and/or television (Onyilagha & Nnajiofor 2016).

Academic performance is a major aspect of school system. It has been conceived as the reflection of students‟ ability in academic work (Okeke, & Attah, 2010) which shows how well a student performs in test and examination (Olibie, & Ezeoba, 2013). Academic performance of students is an area that is given wide research over the years. This is due to the poor performance students observed in public and school examination (Agreement, & Ontiretse, 2011). Instructional materials therefore, are essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning of school subjects to promote teachers‟ efficiency and improve students‟ performance. Studies on influence of instructional material on academic performance of students in Social Studies available to this researcher are conducted in Bostwana (Agreement, & Ontiretse, 2011) and Ekiti state ( Olayinka, 2016). There is therefore, the need to carry out similar study in Kaduna state thus this informed the present research with the hope that it will fill up the gap in literature and attempts to find out if the use of instructional materials could improve the performances of students in this subject at the junior senior secondary school.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

One of the major problems facing education sector in Nigeria is the low level of the performance of secondary school students in both local and standardized examinations. It has become a great concern for researchers, educators and all education stake-holders over the years. It was observed that students usually fail in examinations owing to improper teaching methods and lack of essential teaching aids for instructional delivery (Afolabi, 2009). During the teaching process instructional material otherwise known as teaching aids meant to make instruction more meaningful, clear and much more interesting to students are brought in display. There is a general impression that education is not achieving the desired objectives especially with high incidence of students’ poor performance in senior secondary certificate examination. This situation has assumed a precarious dimension in all secondary schools in Nigeria. The failure of educational system to provide adequate and appropriate teaching-learning aids in order to improve academic performance of students is of a great concern to government, educational institutions and other concern citizens.


1.3 Objective of the Study

This study is generally aimed at examining the impact of instructional materials on academic performance of senior secondary school students in chemistry in Nsit Ubium local government area. It will specifically

  1. To examine the different instructional materials necessary for effective teaching of chemistry
  2. To determine the effect of instructional material on academic performance of student
  3. To investigate the significant relationship between instructional material and academic performance.

1.4 Research Question

  1. What are the different instructional material necessary for effective teaching?
  2. Do you think instructional materials have any effect on academic performance of student?
  3. Is there any significant relationship between instructional material and academic performance of student?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: there is no significance effect of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students
  • Hi: there is significance effect of instructional materials on the academic performance of secondary school students

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study intended to find the impact of inadequate instructional materials in secondary schools. The knowledge obtained would help the government most especially local government and educators to reflect and make evaluation on the requirements of other instructional materials apart from class-rooms alone. Since the beginning of secondary schools, the government and local communities have been putting more emphasis on the construction of new class-rooms, and rece90ntly, construction of laboratories. However, provision of quality secondary school education requires more than just class-rooms and laboratory buildings. The evaluation of instructional materials, along with other reform movements, allows educators and planners to plan for appropriate environment for teaching and learning so as to provide quality secondary school education.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This research work will be conducted on the impact of instructional materials on academic performance of senior secondary school students in chemistry in Nsit Ubium local government area, five secondary schools will be selected for this research, both public and private school will be selected.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.

However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Instruction Materials:

Facilities given to students, so that they can use every opportunity to develop full potential. Instructional materials include fixtures, equipment, and buildings necessary for the effective and efficient operation of the program of public education (uslegal.com, 2015).

Academic Performance:

Refers to the level at which a student, teacher or institution has managed to reach their educational goals.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  1. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  2. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  3. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  4. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  5. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This section presents the summary of the study, conclusion and the recommendations of the study.


5.2 Summary

The objective of this study is to find out the impact of instructional materials on academic performance of senior secondary school students in chemistry in Nsit Ubium local government area. Specifically the study examined the different instructional materials necessary for effective teaching. It determined the effect of instructional material on academic performance of student. It revealed the significant relationship between instructional material and academic performance of secondary school student using Nsit Ubium local government area.


5.3 Conclusion

From the study findings, the following were the observations from this study:

There is a significant effect on the use of instructional materials and academic performance of student in secondary school. It is apparent that many schools in the study area do not use appropriate instructional materials. They do not have instructional materials that the schools need to buy, nor do they improvise their own. Although all the teachers agree that instructional materials are important in contributing to students’ academic performance, they do not show a need to have these materials in their classrooms. This implies that, although the teachers have the knowledge about the importance of instructional materials, they are not inclined to develop them. This may have many reasons. One could guess that teachers do not care whether the students perform or not, and this from the management point of view, may emanate from low morale and motivation towards their teaching. Another explanation may be, poor supervision from their heads of schools. Normally, heads of schools are supposed to be instructional supervisors, to ensure that instructions are going on and students are provided with quality education coupled with quality instructional resources. Lack of supervision may be the reason for the situation found by this study.


5.4 Recommendations

Basing on the findings from this study the following are the recommendations;

The findings of this study as enumerated above have made it necessary to make some recommendations of certain measures which will help in the supply, acquisition and enhancement of the effective use of these instructional materials in the secondary schools in Nigeria in general

  1. Teachers/Students should improvise locally made instructional materials using resource from the school environment or raw materials from outside the school environment to be used in teaching of social studies.
  2. The State Ministry of Education, Education Board and Local Education Authorities should employ competent teachers who can handle the subjects very well, because most of the teachers teaching the subject are not qualified.
  3. Parents should be encouraged to donate money through parent teachers association (PTA) for the provision of instructional materials for teaching and learning in the schools, government alone cannot shoulder all the responsibilities in the schools, there is need for the parents to help in running the schools. The money donated by the parents should be used for the purchasing of teaching aids.
  4. The production of low cost instructional materials should be intensified by the board. The production of these materials can be of the Resource Centres, local raw materials can be effectively utilized in the production of the needed instructional media. This will reduce the cost of importing materials and equipment which have foreign background and may not serve the need of Nigerians. Any materials and equipment produced locally will be such that have the users needs as the focal point. Materials and equipments which could be used in the rural areas where there is no electricity would be produced locally at the resource centres, Thus, the constraints imposed by lack of electricity will be remove.
  5. A miniature resource centre should be established in every secondary schools by the Ministry of Education and Local Education Authority, such a resource centre should serve the secondary schools in which it is established. Instructionalmaterials should be produced, stored, maintained and others should go there to loan any materials or equipment which they need in teaching and return such a materials or equipment immediately after use.
  6. Parents should help in the repairs of the damaged instructional materials in the various secondary schools in the state.
  7. The State Ministry of Education, Education Board should release fund to the various Zonal Education Offices and Local Education Authorities and the principals specifically for maintaining and repairing damaged equipments. This method will remove the protocol of applying, filling forms and awaiting for approval before money is released for the repair of every minor damage done to an equipment.
  8. Seminars, conferences and workshops on the relevance, production and improvisation of instructional materials should be organised during vocations by the State Ministry of Education and Education Board. These should be organized on Zonal Levels and Local Government basis to attract so many teachers as possible, because some teachers cannot operate some of the available instructional materials while some teachers do not know the functions of some instructional media.
  9. The available social studies text-books in use in secondary schools in the state were not recommended for teaching-learning by the Ministry of Education. So recommended text-books should be purchased and supply to the secondary schools.

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