Impact Of Instructional Material In Teaching And Learning English Language

Project and Seminar Material for English Education

Impact Of Instructional Material In Teaching And Learning English Language


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the effects of instructional materials on the teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools in Nigeria using some selected secondary schools in Aba, Abia state as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to find out whether there is an adequate availability of instructional materials for the teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools in Aba; find out whether the use of instructional materials aids the effective teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools in Aba; find out whether the use of instructional materials improves the learning of students in English language in secondary schools in Aba; and find out whether there is a significant difference between the performance of students taught with instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprises of English teachers in selected secondary schools in Aba, Abia state. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 39 respondents and 35 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is no adequate availability of instructional materials for the teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools in Aba. Furthermore, the result of the findings reveals that the use of instructional materials aids the effective teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools in Aba.. Therefore, it is recommended that there is need for all stakeholders including the Federal, State and Local Governments and the Private sector to contribute financially and materially in the provision of instructional materials and resources for the teaching of English in the secondary schools. To mention but few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The influence of instructional materials in promoting students’ academic performance and teaching and learning in educational development is indisputable. The teaching of English language in Nigerian secondary schools needs to be properly handled. The materials used by teachers to teach and drive home their subject points at the primary and secondary school levels of our education system is incontrovertibly a paramount issue in practical classroom interaction and successful transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the learners. Instructional materials are materials which assist teachers to make their lessons explicit to learners. They are also used to transmit information, ideas and notes to learners (Ijaduola 2007). Instructional materials include both visuals and audiovisuals such as pictures, flashcards, posters, charts, tape recorder, radio, video, television, computers among others. These materials serve as supplement to the normal processes of instruction.

English Language is an important and fundamental subject that must be credited by students before gaining admission into any tertiary institution. The importance and technicality of this subject makes it necessary that relevant instructional materials should be used to teach it to the learners. This fact is supported by Macaulay (2009) who asserts that visual aids make lesson come alive and help students to learn better. It is against this background that this study attempts to examine the extent to which the utilization of instructional materials could advance junior secondary school students performance in English language.

Poor academic achievement in English Language could be attributed to many factors among which teacher’s strategy itself was considered as an important factor. This implies that the mastery of English Language concepts might not be fully achieved without the use of instructional materials. The teaching of English language without instructional materials may certainly result in poor academic achievement. Franzer , Okebukola and Jegede (2012) stressed that a professionally qualified English teacher no matter how well trained, would unable to put his ideas into practice if the school setting lacks the equipment and materials necessary for him or her to translate his competence into reality.

Bassey (2012) opined that art of teaching is resource intensive, and in a period of economic recession, it may be very difficult to find some of the electronic gadgets and equipment for the teaching of English language in schools adequately. A situation that is further compounded by the galloping inflation in the country and many at times, some of the imported sophisticated materials and equipment are found expensive and irrelevant; hence the need to produce materials locally. Obioha (2006) and Ogunleye (2002) reported that there were inadequate resources (Teaching aids inclusive) for teaching in most secondary schools in Nigeria. They further stated that the available ones are not usually in good conditions. There is the need therefore, for improvisation. Adebimpe (1997) and Daramola, (2008) however noted that improvisation demands adventure, creativity, curiosity and perseverance on the part of the teacher, such skills are only realizable through well-planned training programme on improvisation.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The art of teaching is fundamentally concerned with passing ideas, skills and attitude from the teacher to the learner. In Nigeria, for example experience has shown that spoken words alone in the communication of ideas are grossly ineffective and inefficient in producing desired learning outcomes. Every year, when the results of public examination are released, there has always been mass failure in English language. The reason for this could be ascribed to the fact that teaching English language as a second language (ESL) in Nigeria pose serious problem of comprehension to students. The effects of mother tongue interference also poses challenges to learners, this subject cannot be taught effectively without the use of relevant instructional materials to make the learning practical rather than purely theoretical.

On the foregoing, Mutebi and Matora (2004) have emphasized the effect of instructional materials utilization on teaching and learning. According to them, we learn and remember 10% of what we hear 40% of what we discuss with others and as high as 80% of what we experience directly or practice. However, the questions here are: does the use of instructional materials really influence students’ academic performance? Is teaching effectiveness enhanced by the use of instructional materials? Could students’ learning be advanced by the use of instructional materials? Finding answers to these questions and more summarizes the entire problem of this study.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to examine the effects of instructional materials on the teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools in Nigeria.

The specific objectives of this study are:

  1. Find out whether there is an adequate availability of instructional materials for the teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools in Aba.
  2. Find out whether the use of instructional materials aids the effective teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools in Aba.
  3. Find out whether the use of instructional materials improves the learning of students in English language in secondary schools in Aba.
  4. Find out whether there is a significant difference between the performance of students taught with instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials.

1.4 Research Questions

In order to achieve the objectives of this study, the following research questions were raised to guide the investigation:

  1. Is there an adequate availability of instructional materials for the teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools in Aba?
  2. Does the use of instructional materials aid the effective teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools in Aba?
  3. Does the use of instructional materials improve the learning of students in English language in secondary schools in Aba?
  4. Is there a significant difference between in the performance of students taught with instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials.

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: The use of instructional materials does not aid the effective the teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools.
  • Ha: The use of instructional materials aid the effective the teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study on the effect of instructional material on the teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools will be of immense benefit to the school administrators and English Language teachers, exposing them to the necessity of exploring different instructional materials in the teaching and learning of English language in their schools. The study will also be of benefit to educational policy makers because it will bring to their awareness the need for instructional materials in schools and guide them on the kind of instructional materials needed in the teaching of English language in secondary schools since it contributes to a great deal in improving academic performance of students. Furthermore, this study will serve as a benchmark to scholars and students for further research in this topic or related domain.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the examination of the effects of instructional materials on the teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools in Nigeria. The study will be carried out in some selected secondary schools in Aba, Abia State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

The researcher encountered minor obstacles when conducting the study, as with any human endeavor. The significant constraint was the scarcity of literature on the subject due to the nature of the discourse, so the researcher incurred more financial expenses and spent more time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information and in the data collection process, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Furthermore, the researcher did this investigation alongside other academic activities. Furthermore, the sample size was limited because only a few respondents were chosen to answer the research instrument, therefore the results cannot be generalized to other secondary schools outside the state. Despite the constraints encountered during the research, all elements were minimized in order to provide the best results and make the research effective.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Instructional Materials:

These are materials that can be used to Illustrate the content of instruction so as to make teaching and learning more effective and efficient.

Students:

The participants in a formal training on various subjects and disciplines.

Teacher:

A professional individual who possess the skills and knowledge to communicate same to students for an effective human life.

Student’s Academic Performance:

This is the extent to which students performed in an examination or has achieved their educational goals.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter (chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effects of instructional materials on the teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools in Nigeria using some selected secondary schools in Aba, Abia state as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the effects of instructional materials on the teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools in Nigeria using some selected secondary schools in Aba, Abia state as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to find out whether there is an adequate availability of instructional materials for the teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools in Aba; find out whether the use of instructional materials aids the effective teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools in Aba; find out whether the use of instructional materials improves the learning of students in English language in secondary schools in Aba; and find out whether there is a significant difference between the performance of students taught with instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 35 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were English teachers in selected secondary schools in Aba, Abia state.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. There is no adequate availability of instructional materials for the teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools in Aba.
  2. The use of instructional materials aids the effective teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools in Aba.
  3. The use of instructional materials improves the learning of students in English language in secondary schools in Aba.
  4. There is a significant difference between the performance of students taught with instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. There is need for all stakeholders including the Federal, State and Local Governments and the Private sector to contribute financially and materially in the provision of instructional materials and resources for the teaching of English in the secondary schools.
  2. Teachers should co-ordinates their efforts in the sector of teaching with instructional materials.
  3. Conference, seminars and workshops should be organized to exchange ideas and documents concerning instructional materials.
  4. Teachers should be further encouraged to improvise and make teaching aids for themselves where possible is it’s not readily available.
  5. School Heads, Principals and officials of the Ministry of Education should ensure regular supervision to enhance effective use of the available instructional materials and resources in the teaching of English in the junior secondary schools.
  6. Teachers should mutually help each other to acquire all the materials necessary to carry out teaching with instructional materials.
  7. Lean resources and financial constraints prevent us from equipping all schools with the most needed instructional materials for the teaching and learning of English Language, it is thus necessary to produce specialized personal aids, there by improvise more for the use that will maximize the little teaching aids at our disposal.
  8. The federal ministry of education in conjunction with the state ministry of education should create a committee to be entrusted with centralizing and disbursement of research undertaken on instructional materials media for teaching by various scholars/researchers.
  9. The Federal Government and states Government should as a matter of urgency employ the recommendations by various researchers in the field of mathematics to ensure sustained promotion and better understanding of mathematics students. The centre should also assess the most effective methods and teaching aids needed to be developed.
  10. Finally M. Ishaku (2007) recommends that for effective learning to take place there must be instructional materials, funds, adequately trained teachers, workshops and engaging higher institutions in relevant research and educators in curriculum development for the provision of guidelines for identification, facilitation, promotion of prospect in the areas of institutional technology in post primary schools.

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