The Impact Of Information Technology And Communication Technology (ICT) In Teaching And Learning Basic Science

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science Education

The Impact Of Information Technology And Communication Technology (ICT) In Teaching And Learning Basic Science


Abstract


This study was carried out on the impact of information technology and communication technology (ICT) in teaching and learning basic science using some selected schools in kazaure Local Government area of Jigawa State as a case study. The study was carried out to ascertain whether the use of ICTs is effective in improving teachers’ performance in Basic Science, ascertain whether the use of ICTs is effective in improving students performance in Basic Science, determine the competence level of Basic Science teachers’ use of ICTs in teaching and learning of the subject, and find out the factors which limits the use of ICTs in the teaching and learning of basic science. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of teachers in the selected primary schools in Kazaure Local Government area of Jigawa State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 53 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that the use of ICTs effective in improving teachers’ effectiveness in teaching Basic Science. The study also revealed that the use of ICTs is effective in improving students performance in Basic Science. Therefore, it is recommended that government, cooperate bodies and good spirited individuals should invest in education by providing the schools with power supply generators and foot the electricity charges of schools. This would help address the problem of inadequate power supply to schools. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The idea that teaching and learning can successfully take place through the application of electronic communication facilities between teachers and learners is one which had generated hope that many more learners can be reached at a more convenient pace that had erstwhile been rather more inconvenient. Thus, the meaning of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) lies in the functions they perform. Pernia in Abubakar (2019) stated that an ICT as any device and application used to access, manage, integrate, evaluate, create and communicate information and knowledge. They include technologies, such as computers, the internet, telephone, television, radio and audiovisual equipment used to communicate in order to create, manage and disseminate information. ICTs may be classified as software and hardware(Iwu, 2019). In education, the knowledge of ICTs enables students to enhance their daily life, develop skills for professional or vocational purposes and serves as effective medium of teaching and learning as it enhances the teaching and learning process.

ICT tools available in classrooms today range from simple tool-based applications, such as word processors to online repositories of scientific data. Others are primary historical documents, handheld computers, and closed-circuit television channels(Holla, 2018). In more recent years, use of computers in schools has grown more diversified as educators recognize the potential of learning with technology as a means for enhancing learners reasoning and problem solving abilities. Looking at the place of education in nation building and the population explosion in the secondary schools these days, the use of ICT in the teaching-learning process, specifically, basic science becomes imperative(Jung, 2019). This is true because its adoption by the basic teachers will enhance effective teaching. Such issues like good subject organization, effective class management, content creation, self-assessment, self-study collaborative learning, task oriented activities, and effective communication between the beneficiaries of teaching learning-process and research activities will be enhanced by the use of ICT based technology(Mbwesa, 2018). The advancement in ICTs have taken teaching and learning of basic science beyond the teacher standing in front of a group of learners and disseminating information to them without the learner’s adequate participation (Ajayi, 2008). With the aid of ICT, basic science teachers can take learners beyond traditional limits, ensure their adequate participation in teaching and learning process and create vital environments to experiment and explore. This new development is a strong indication that the era of teachers without ICT skills are gone(Kremer and Holla, 2018).

It is pertinent to state that though ICTs add value to the process of teaching and learning, it however does obviate the need for teachers to serve as leaders in the classroom; traditional teacher leadership skills and practices are still important; especially those related to lesson planning, preparation, and follow-up. Introducing ICT tools alone will not change the teaching and learning process. The existence of ICTs does not transform teacher practices in and of itself. However, ICTs can enable teachers to transform their teacher practices, given a set of enabling conditions. Teachers’ pedagogical practices in basic science and reasoning influence their uses of ICT, and the nature of teacher ICT use impacts student achievement in basic science (Trucano, 2020). Many have been cautious in their acceptance of integrating ICT tools into the classroom and some have simply rejected these technologies. This is as a result of the teacher’s poor knowledge about ICT tools and how they can be used in the educational process in the classroom. In view of the above, this study seeks to examine the impact of information technology and communication technology (ICT) in teaching and learning basic science.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The way ICT is used in lessons is influenced by teachers’ knowledge about their subjects, and how ICT resources can be utilized and related to it. Teacher’s content mastery and understanding of student comprehension make ICTs use more effective. When teachers use their knowledge of both the subject and the way learners understand the subject, their use of ICT has a more direct effect on learner’s achievement (Catarina, 2019). Specifically, basic science teachers require extensive, on-going exposure to ICTs to be able to evaluate and select the most appropriate resources. However, the development of appropriate basic science pedagogical practices is seen as more important that technical mastery of ICTs. The use of ICTs by teachers is on the increase(Mbwesa, 2018). However, while there is a great deal of knowledge about how ICTs are being used in developed countries, there is not much information on how ICTs are being used by basic science teachers in Nigeria.

A good number of schools in Nigeria have poor access to most ICT tools for teaching basic science. This makes them to lag behind in the utilization of ICT resources in teaching learning of basic science(Iwu, 2019). The scenario was also responsible for the very poor extent of accessibility rating of all ICT resources as availability leads to accessibility. The level of use of ICT tools have been affected in a larger scale by: poor electric power supply, lack of knowledgeable ICT support staff, inadequacy of trained basic science teachers in the use of lCTs, poor government-community- parents teachers association interaction as to raise funds for procurement and/or maintenance of ICT tools, high cost of ICT equipment, materials and accessories, government’s payment of lip service to implementation of ICT policies, inadequate telephone services, inability to replace broken down equipment and facilities (Kremer and Holla, 2018).

The study was therefore designed to investigate the impact of information technology and communication technology (ICT) in teaching and learning basic science.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically examine the impact of information technology and communication technology (ICT) in teaching and learning basic science. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Ascertain whether the use of ICTs is effective in improving teachers’ performance in Basic Science.
  2. Ascertain whether the use of ICTs is effective in improving students performance in Basic Science.
  3. Determine the competence level of Basic Science teachers’ use of ICTs in teaching and learning of the subject.
  4. Find out the factors which limits the use of ICTs in the teaching and learning of basic science.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions

  1. Is the use of ICTs effective in improving teachers’ effectiveness in teaching Basic Science?
  2. Is the use of ICTs is effective in improving students performance in Basic Science.
  3. What is the competence level of Basic Science teachers’ in the use of ICTs in teaching and learning of the subject?
  4. What are the factors which limits the use of ICTs in the teaching and learning of basic science?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Ho: ICTs has no positive impact on the teaching and learning of basic science.

Ha: ICTs has a positive impact on the teaching and learning of basic science.


1.6 Significance of Study

This study is very important in various ways. It is expected to identify the perception of students’ and teachers’ Information and Communication Technology (ICT)integration for academic activities. The results of this study are expected to unfold the problem which the students face on the use of ICT and electronic resources and how the problem affects their overall performance in school, especially in basic science. Knowledge of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)integration and electronic resources will help the Government, school Administrators, Parents and Science Teachers to start working together towards alleviating some of the problem face by the students in integrating information and communication technology (ICT) for better educational outcome.

This study will also benefit administrators and educators in pursuing knowledge that will assist in determining the important variables as well as recognizing access to ICT infrastructure and resources in successful academic performance.

The study will also help to reduce increased dropout rate in the country (especially for students) that lack ICT skills thus increasing literacy rate as well as level of ICT integration among students and teacher.

Finally, the study will also be beneficial to students as it will enlighten them on the need to take their educational life more seriously especially with the integration of ICT, so as to contribute to the development of science and technology in the country (Nigeria).


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine the impact of information technology and communication technology (ICT) in teaching and learning basic science using some selected schools in kazaure Local Government area of Jigawa State as a case study. However, the study will further focus on the competence level of Basic Science teachers’ in the use of ICTs in teaching and learning of the subject, and the factors which limits the use of ICTs in the teaching and learning of basic science.

In the course of this study, 5 schools are to be selected… Among which include; Kazaure Primary School, Kanti Primary, Kudu Primary, Arewa Primary, and Mayaki Primary.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Information and Communication Technology:

This refers to a set of combined technologies that will facilitate not only information processing but also its transmission for purpose of teaching and learning.

Computer:

This is an electronic device that accepts data in coded form and processes them to give meaningful information.

Basic Science:

This is an integrated science course is a subject that deals with the study of living things and non-living things. It also combines all other science subjects such as physics, biology, health science, agricultural science, geography, etc.


1.10 Organization of Study

The study is structured into chapters and consists of five chapters. Chapter one introduces the study with the background, statement of problem, research objectives question, hypothesis, significance, scope, definition of terms. Chapter two reviews various authors literature on the subject matter of the study. Chapter three consists of the methodology used in carrying out the study. Chapter four present, analyze and interprets the collected data. Chapter five provide the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of information technology and communication technology (ICT) in teaching and learning basic science using some selected schools in kazaure Local Government area of Jigawa State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the impact of information technology and communication technology (ICT) in teaching and learning basic science using some selected schools in kazaure Local Government area of Jigawa State as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to ascertain whether the use of ICTs is effective in improving teachers’ performance in Basic Science, ascertain whether the use of ICTs is effective in improving students performance in Basic Science, determine the competence level of Basic Science teachers’ use of ICTs in teaching and learning of the subject, and find out the factors which limits the use of ICTs in the teaching and learning of basic science.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were teachers in the selected primary schools in Kazaure Local Government area of Jigawa State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The use of ICTs effective in improving teachers’ effectiveness in teaching Basic Science.
  2. The use of ICTs is effective in improving students performance in Basic Science.
  3. The competence level of Basic Science teachers’ use of ICTs in teaching and learning of the subject is low.
  4. The factors which limits the use of ICTs in the teaching and learning of basic science include; poor power supply, lack of competent teachers, poor maintenance of available ICT facilities, teachers negative attitude towards ICT tools, high cost of ICT tools are the factors militating against the use of ICTs in teaching and learning.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Government, cooperate bodies and good spirited individuals should invest in education by providing the schools with power supply generators and foot the electricity charges of schools. This would help address the problem of inadequate power supply to schools.
  2. For the effective use of ICTs in teaching and learning, teachers need to be competent enough to use ICT-based materials. To this effect, in-service training courses for ICTs use should be offered to teachers who need to learn how to utilise ICT tools/resources, how to create or select internet-based activities, how to plan ICTs assisted lessons and how to integrate ICT resources into actual classroom teaching. Through such training, teachers would understand the pedagogical and technical aspects of ICT, and teachers would be able to engage in their professional development and, as a result, their interest and willingness to use ICT based materials and activities in the classroom could be well responded and constructively put into practice.
  3. The schools through ministry of education should seek technical partnership and collaborative funding with international and national organizations to provide and maintain more ICT facilities such as computers (hardware and software console), internet facilities, laptops, projectors, interactive boards, printing accessories in secondary schools and ensure these facilities are gainfully utilized by setting up monitoring teams to pay unscheduled visits to schools periodically.
  4. The remuneration of teachers should be subjected to upward review from time to time. This will to a great extent serve as morale boost and encourage right/positive attitude to work.

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