The Impact Of Information And Communication Technology On The Teaching And Learning Of Statistics In Tertiary Institutions

Mathematics Education Project Material

Mathematics Education Project Material


This project work is titled “the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on the teaching and learning of statistics in tertiary institutions, a case study of Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja”. The source of data collection is primary. From the analysis carried out, we discovered that ICT improve the quality of the teaching and learning of statistics in our tertiary institutions. Also, we found out that poor students background in ICT does affects students research work in tertiary institutions. Appropriate recommendations were given.

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

Education is one of the main corner-stones for economic development and improvement of human welfare. As global economic competition grows stiffer, education becomes an important source of competitive advantage as it is linked to economic growth and ways for countries to attract investment and hence jobs (Srivatsava 2002). Education further appears to be one of the major determinants of sustainable life-long earnings. Countries, therefore, frequently raise educational attainment as a way of tackling poverty and deprivation (UNESCO 2005). A well
-educated and skilled workforce is one of the core pillars of the knowledge-based economies (UNESCO 2005). This realization makes the reforms in education and development to remain a central pre-occupation for many countries and for international development. In every country at any given level of economic development, there is a great demand for education reform in order to be able to face the prevailing political, social and cultural changes as well as scientific and technological transformations ( UNESCO Educational policy and Reforms 2008)

Since 1990, many governments have been promoting the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in education, particularly to expand access to and improve the quality of education. At the same time, globalization and shift to a knowledge-based economy requires that education institutions develop individual ability to apply knowledge in dynamic contexts. ICTs have been identified as a means to attain these objectives (School Net Africa 2003).

Although ICT is now at the center of education reform efforts, not all countries are currently able to benefit from this development and advances that technology can offer. Significant barriers often referred to as digital divide limit the ability of some countries to take advantage of technological development (Kozma and Anderson 2002). The developing countries are faced with challenges related to access, pedagogy or assessment when using ICTs to improve and reinforce education ( Kozma et al 2002). It is important to note that the concept, methods and application of the term ICTs are constantly evolving rapidly; starting from the popularity of the issue of computers in education in the 1980s, when relatively cheap micro-computers became available for the consumer market, later, near the end of 1980s the term was replaced by IT (Information Technology); signifying a shift of focus from computing technology to the capacity to store, analyze and retrieve information. This was followed by the introduction of the term ICTs (Information Communication Technologies) around 1992 when email and World Wide Web (Internet) became available to the general public (Pelgrum and Law 2003).

Though initially educators saw the use of ICTs in the classroom mainly as a way of teaching computer literacy, it has a broader role: that of delivering many kinds of learning at a lower cost and with high quality than the traditional methods of teaching allow. In addition schools and universities increasingly use ICTs as do other large organizations, to reduce cost, improve efficiency and administration (Blurton 2002).

There has however been a wide disparity between the levels of investments in developed countries vis-a-vis the developing countries, Nigeria included. Scrivatsava (2002), nonetheless states that this disparity is not necessarily a bad thing as developing countries can learn from developed countries on ICT integration.

The government of Nigeria recognizes the benefits of ICT Integration in Education at all levels of education in the country. The Nigeria Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment (2003-2007), stresses that ICT is crucial for realization of the required improvement in the Curriculum. The vision of Ministry of Education Science and Technology (MoEST) is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training. In order to achieve this vision, in every educational institution, teachers, learners and the respective community should be equipped with appropriate ICT infrastructure, competencies and policies for usage and progress (Nigeria National ICT Strategy GoK 2006)

A critical aspect to the successful implementation of ICT integration-related objectives is the planning aspect. Pelgrum and law (2003), indicate that policy makers and educational planners play a central role and indicate that there are policy and planning implications in each step of implementation.

Research done by Brassford, Brown and Cocking (1994),showed that ICT can enhance critical thinking, information handling skills, the level of conceptualization and problem solving capacity among learners. However, according to GoK (2006) there is considerable technology lag in the Nigerian education institutions. Most of the institutions still use nearly obsolete systems and consequently are unable to exploit educational potentials of the emerging technologies. The document also notes that most schools use less than 40% of the available infrastructure and there is; therefore, a need to ensure optimum use of ICT resources by students, teachers and administrators in order to exploit educational potential of the technology. It is, therefore, against the background of the foregoing, that the researcher sought to investigate the extent of ICT integration in enhancing teaching and learning activities in public tertiary institutions in Nigeria.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The successful integration of ICT into the classroom warrants careful planning and depends largely on how well policy makers understand and appreciate the dynamics of such integration (Jhurree 2005). Ministry of Education has placed considerable emphasis on the importance of ICT integration in education as evidenced by the promulgation of National ICT strategy in 2006 following the approval of sessional paper number one of 2005. The vision of Ministry of Education is to facilitate ICT as a universal tool for education and training and in particular stimulate ICT integration in education in various regions in the country. However, while other countries have reported up to 41% of ICT integration in teaching and learning the proportion remains substantially low in Africa Nigeria included. Kasharda and Waema (2007) and Irura (2008) referring to the implementation of ICT integration policy asserts that , there has not been well spelt out procedure to address uniformity in the pace of ICT integration and it’s adoption approach due to the various needs and disparities in tertiary institution in Nigeria. A recent report by Wikipedia Nigeria in 2012 in Kogi indicated that some tertiary institutions had very few computers and that for most of the schools that had reasonable number of computers, the main use was in teaching Computer Studies. Kogi is a relatively new that was gazette in 2009. A study was therefore essential to determine the extent of ICT integration in education in Kogi with particular focus on exactly how technology is being used in the teaching and learning process.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of ICT integration in teaching and learning process in tertiary institutions in Nigeria.

1.4 Objectives of the Study

  1. To determine the extent of accessibility of computers to teachers and students in tertiary institutions in Kogi.
  2. To determine the level of teachers’ and students’ expertise in ICT integration in teaching and learning process in Kogi.
  3. To determine the ways in which ICT is integrated in teaching and learning process by teachers and students.
  4. To determine the extent of implementation of the Ministry of Education policy on ICT integration in tertiary institutions in Kogi.

1.5 Research Questions

  1. What is the extent of accessibility of computers and related peripheral to teachers and students to support e-learning?
  2. What is the level of teachers and student expertise on ICT integration in the teaching and learning process?
  3. In which ways do teachers and students integrate ICTs in the teaching and learning process?
  4. To what extent has the Ministry of Education ICT integration policy objectives been implemented by schools in Kogi?

1.6 Significance of the Study

The Study findings may be used to facilitate the integration of ICT in the teaching and learning process by both teachers and students. This information may also be useful to administrators, policy makers and other stakeholders in education in determining the preparedness of tertiary institutions in Kogi in terms of availability of appropriate ICT infrastructure for e-learning. Also, the findings may be used as a baseline data for laying strategies on increasing the level of ICT integration in the . The study may further indicate the capacity building gaps which may be useful in formulating framework to empower ICT users in integrating ICT in the tertiary institution curriculum.

1.7 Limitations of the Study

Some questions of innovation and teaching practices relied on the level of ICT knowledge of the respondents and some respondents had limited knowledge owing to their level of ICT awareness. This was solved by use of contingency question items such that one only responded to items that applied to him or her. An observation checklist was also be used to confirm, where it was possible, the veracity of responses in the questionnaire items. Again, owing to the nature of technology explosion and rapid changes taking place in education institutions, the ICT integration situation in tertiary institutions in the may change rapidly within a short span of time, rendering the study to be obsolete. However, the findings may still be useful as a baseline for future study to assess the extent of such change.

1.8 Delimitation of the Study

Delimitation of the study is the boundary limitation Best and Kahn (2005). This study focused exclusively on utilization of ICTs in teaching and learning activities but did not focus on ICTs utilization on other aspects in education like administrative processes. Although Kogi is located in an agriculturally productive area, it is typically a rural area; hence, the findings of this research may be generalized to other regions with caution since some conditions in the may be unique and different from other areas especially those in urban set-ups.

1.9 Assumptions of the Study

  1. Tertiary institution teachers and students are computer literate and are conversant with various computer usages in teaching and learning in Tertiary institutions.
  2. The study assumes that tertiary institutions in Kogi utilize ICT in the teaching and learning process.

1.10 Definition of Significant Terms

  1. Access; opportunity or right to make use of something. ICT access is usually determined by the number of ICT equipment available visavis the number of learners.
  2. Broadband internet of speed greater than or equal to 256 kilobits per second (Kbps) in one or both direction
    Computer training the process of enlightening an individual on how to use the computers
  3. Computer Virus a computer programme designed to affect the normal functioning of computer. It can damage stored information or fill the computer storage devices. These include Trojan, autorun, bomb.
  4. Digital Content Refers to information that is published and distributed in electronic form such as softwares.
  5. Digital Divide It is the gap between those people with access to information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and those who do not have.
  6. Hardware Refers to physical or tangible components of a computer including computer motherboard and its accessories.
  7. Information Communication Technology any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit and analyze information electronically in digital form including the internet, broadcasting technologies and mobile phones. For purpose of this research the term ICT will be operationalised to imply only computers and related peripheral devices for instance projectors, printers and scanners.
  8. Information Communication Technology Integration use of any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit and analyze information electronically to introduce, reinforce, supplement and extend learning or acquisition of skills.
  9. Multimedia It’s a combination of various digital means of communication in computers. (images, sound, video and text).
  10. Pedagogy A term generally used to refer to strategies of instruction or style of instruction.
  11. Peripheral any auxiliary or external device connected to a host computer and it expands the computer capability for instance printers, scanners, LCD projectors. In this study the term ICT tool has been used generally to include the computer themselves, their peripherals or any other related facility.
  12. Software program that instructs a computer to process data. Software’s can be categorized into open source and proprietary.
  13. World Wide Web It is information superhighway; it comprises networks that are joined globally.

1.11 Organization of the Study

The study is organized into five chapters: Chapter one highlights the background and statement of the problem, purpose, objectives, significance, limitations, delimitations, basic assumptions and the definition of significant terms of the study. Chapter two focuses on literature review which is organized into the following themes:- the concept of the ICT integration in education, internet connectivity and ICT equipments in the school, teachers professional development in ICT, digital curriculum and content of the schools and ICT integration policy implementation in education. Chapter three covers research methodology that was employed. These included research design, the target population, the study sample size and sampling procedure, research instruments, validity for the instruments, reliability of the instruments, data collection and data analysis technique. Chapter four consists of data presentation analysis and discussions of the findings while Chapter five comprises of summary, conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for further research.

Chapter Five

Summary of Research Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter presents summary of the study, research findings, conclusions drawn and the recommendations for the study and suggestions for further research

5.2 Summary of the Study

The purpose of the study was to find the extent of information communication technologies integration in the teaching and learning process in tertiary institutions in Kogi. The objectives of the study were:- To determine the extent of accessibility of computers to teachers and students , to determine the level of teachers’ and students’ expertise in ICT integration , to determine the ways in which ICT is integrated in teaching and learning process and to determine the level of implementation of the Ministry of Education policy on ICT integration . Literature reviewed on ICT integration laid the background for the study. The main data collection method used was questionnaire administered to teachers, principals and students in form 3 and form 4 . An observation checklist was used as a confirmatory tool

The study employed descriptive survey design. 355 students, 245 teachers were sampled for the study while all 34 principals in all the 34 tertiary institutions in Kogi, were purposively included for the study. Research instruments were appraised by my supervisor to enhance validity. Test- retest method was used to determine instrument reliability where two schools were sampled .The coefficient of reliability of the instrument were 0.93,0.96 and 0.82 for the principals questionnaire ,teachers and students respectively the responses from the questionnaires were included in the main study. Data collected from the respondents was both quantitative and qualitative in nature. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentage while qualitative data for open ended questions was coded and transcribed per research question item. The data was analyzed and summarized to identify the main research finding and there after conclusions and recommendations were made

5.3 Summary of Research Findings

The summary of the research findings has been presented as per research objectives in the study.

Extent of accessibility to computers and related peripherals

The study established that most schools in Kogi were equipped to some extent with computer and related peripherals as all schools were connected to electricity and 54.8% of the schools had installed a standby generator, most of the schools 74.2% had at least one computer laboratory and 54.8 % of the schools had installed 20 or more computers accessible to students. The computer student ratio (CSR) for tertiary institution in Kogi stood at 22 students per 1 computer (22:1).The study also established that the average number of computers per school was 20.03 with standard deviation of 16.91. In regard to internet connectivity, 51.6% of schools were connected to the internet. Basic ICT tools were widely available in most schools, including printers laptops, modems and LCD projectors. In almost all schools apart from printers and modems the school owned only one of each item.

Level of expertise in ICT integration

A majority of all the school community (teachers, students and principals) reported to have received some ICT training. It was further established that most teachers and principals had ICT literacy training of between 1-2 weeks duration.

However, when tested on their skills to operate with various applications most teachers and students alike demonstrated low level of confidence in areas like using access and excel, technology management and file management indicating that there is still capacity building gaps that should be addressed.

Ways in which teachers and students integrate ICT in teaching and learning process

The study revealed that 60% of teachers in Kogi do not use the internet or computers to prepare learning materials .Further, 88.1% of the teachers who use computers or the internet spend less than 5 hours per week in using the internet or computer for teaching and learning purpose. This indicates that most teachers spend most of their time using tradition methods like text books, chalkboards, and handwritten notes as opposed to technology enhanced methods.

The majority of the students had no access to computers during their learning while most of those accessing the computers for learning purposes spend less than 2 hours per week. This clearly indicates that schools in Kogi are yet to fully tap on the vast opportunities for learning using ICT. On regards to intensity or frequency in which teachers made use of ICT in performing basic teaching and learning roles, it emerged that the majority of teachers had never used ICT in performance of the following task;. Preparing records of work ,using digitalized notes and lessons presentation in class using projectors for the students, most indicated to have used ICT for sometimes in playing games 43.2% and for watching DVD and VCD on educational issues but most had never used ICT for finding information via internet, communication or networking with them or using specific subject software for learning purposes.

Indeed when asked to rate themselves in terms of utilizing ICT in their learning vis a vis traditional methods of text books and handwritten notes, cumulatively 84.9% rated themselves at a percentage of below 50% implying that most students felt they were more traditional users of learning methods than technology users.

Level of implementation of ICT integration policy

Most ICT integration objectives have only been implemented partially. The main objective of the policy was to increase ICT integration in teaching and learning which is still very low in the . The implementation of ICT integration in education is faced by various challenges including inadequate relevant e-content, insufficient teachers time, insufficient number of computers and lack of internet connection. These challenges need to be addressed.

5.4 Conclusion

From the research findings it is clear that schools in Kogi had installed computers and related peripherals. However they were not adequate for full ICT integration in the teaching and learning process due to the fact that in most schools some ICT equipments were very few for instance desktop and laptops computers and LCD projectors. The majority of teachers and students alike reported to have had some form of ICT training however, they demonstrated low level of confidence in performance of several skills. Generally there is low extent of ICT integration by both teachers and students and the implementation of ICT integration policy was hampered by various challenges that need to be addressed.

5.5 Recommendations of the Study

The following are the recommendations of the study:-

  1. School authorities need to create more facilitation for more ICT integration not only in the school but also in the classrooms including ensuring that all the classes have appropriate infrastructure like sockets for ICT equipments as well as replacing blackboards with whiteboard or smart boards so as to reduce dusty classrooms and improver projection of the work from the computer
  2. Teacher’s training colleges and universities should not only incorporate and strengthen ICT integration training in their teacher education programs but should also ensure that such training are based on equipping the student teachers with skills on actual integration of ICT in their respective disciplines.
  3. Head teachers, policy makers and other education stakeholders in Kogi should develop strategies concerning increasing the use of ICT in teaching and learning through addressing the various challenges identified that are inhibiting full implementation of ICT integration
  4. There is still need for more intensified government as well as private sector support to tertiary institution towards acquisition of and maintenance of ICT equipments and facilities especially multimedia computers and broadband internet,
  5. There is also need for a curricula that is not reliant on text book and course coverage but one that allow room for deep enquiry which is supported by ICT as well as need to avail more relevant digital content for use in tertiary institutions

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