Impact Of Information And Communication Technology On Records Management Practices In A Business Organization

Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management BAM

Impact Of Information And Communication Technology On Records Management Practices In A Business Organization


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the impact of information and communication technology on records management practices in a business organization using Nestle PLC. Lagos state Nigeria as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to determine the extent ICT has been integrated into record management in business organization, determine the benefits associated with the use of ICT for record management in business organizations, and determine the major challenges affecting the use of ICT for record management in business organizations. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of staff of Nestle PLC. Lagos state Nigeria. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 41 respondents and 35 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that the benefits associated with the use of ICT for record management in business organizations includes: increases efficiency in records searching, improves efficiency in record retrieval & redaction, lower records storage costs, reduced potential for litigation and penalties, improves customer service, improves regulatory compliance, and enhanced records security. The study also revealed that the major challenges affecting the use of ICT for record management in business organizations includes: obsolescence in technology, authenticity and reliability threats, security and privacy can be compromised, costs increasing, insufficiently educated staff. Therefore, it is recommended that the management should provide and deploy more ICT facilities to facilitate large storage and management of record; this will in turn reduce manual handling of huge records and files. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Over a quarter of a century ago, Ben Russak (1975) noted that traditional models of scholarly communication would be undermined by the photocopy machine and the computer. His prediction has held: the advent of new information technologies that have completely and irrevocably transformed the ways in which materials are created, structured, stored, transmitted, distributed, communicated, and accessed, have similarly transformed the means and modes of scientific communication.

During the past decade, global communications have changed dramatically, as a result of the increased use of information and communication technologies (ICTs). ICTs are becoming necessary if countries are to compete on a global scale.

Oliver (1999) sees ICT as the science that investigates the properties and behaviour of information, the force governing the flow of information and the means of processing information for optimum accessibility and usability. In the past few years Information Communication Technology (ICT) has spread through the whole world in a big way. Computers are finding their way into schools and higher learning institutions, government and the private sector, and other organisations. In many cases, ICT has penetrated work and learning environments unplanned. Many governments and users recognize the potential of ICT and the opportunities it provides, particularly for economic and social development where distances and traditional systems have tended to hamper progress. ICT also presents opportunities for recordkeeping in developing countries. Bamiro and Liverpool (2002 in Akwegwu et al 2011) observe that the computer (ICT) has already invaded and dominated universities in the developed world. It has also been widely acknowledged that ICTs have the potential to play an immediate role in the quest for sustainable and equitable development in Third World countries.

In Nigeria, over the past few years there have been attempts by governments past and present to improve Nigeria’s information highways because of the realization of the use of ICT as a tool for sustainable development, which is indeed significant. This has led to some improvements in ICT infrastructure though there is still room for further improvement. The private sector has also been very instrumental in developments in this sector, building some form of infrastructure on their own with great success.

Records management as a field of work and as a means of ensuring productivity has not been given the necessary attention that it deserves in Nigeria until recently when both public and private organization have started to pay attention to good records management systems and practices. Although International Standard for the management of business records (ISO 15489) emphasizes the need for good records management as an effective way for countries and organizations to fulfil their obligations and meet expectations of their stakeholders, this requirement has suffered a major backlash in Nigeria.

Records and record keeping constitute the life wire of organizations (Egwunyenga, 2006). It would be very difficult to plan and administer any organization effectively if records are not kept and managed properly. Records are documents, books, diskettes and files which contain information on what goes on in the organization (academic and non-academic activities), staff and management as well as other resources (Olagboye, 2004).

Record keeping and management ought to be taken as a vital responsibility by organization because of the indispensable role records play in the effective day-to-day running of the organization. However, most organization do not have a good culture of record keeping. The few records that are kept are usually not properly stored, thus creating the problem of retrieval to users when needed.

The few organizations that have adopted the electronic record-keeping practice in the record management system of their organization have risen above such problems of storage and retrieval, as ICT affords the opportunity to have a quick and easy view of all the records on organization activities. Technological advancement had contributed to the effective storage and management of organizational records.
ICT and record management have a strong degree of commonality and many complementary skills. ICT and record management are both concerned with the creation, storage, accessibility and security of digital information. The ultimate aim of both record management and ICT is to support, protect and enable the business of the organisation in a cost-effective manner now and in the future. Information and Communication Technology is the major change perceived in the world of record management.

However, where ICT engineers and maintains systems to manage an organisation’s information assets, the focus of record management is on protecting, classifying and maintaining the authenticity of records, so they remain accessible and function as evidence of the business conducted for as long as they are required to be kept.

With Information and Communication Technology, Record Management should be simple as compared with the complexity of traditional record keeping. However in most of the business organization in Nigeria the case is different where almost all their records and record management are done manually. As a result, there is a need for the researcher to examine the impact of information and communication technology on records management practices in a business organization.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In the past few years Information Communication Technology (ICT) has spread through the Pacific region in a big way. Computers are finding their way into business organization, learning institutions, government the private sector, and other organisations. (Setareki Tale and Opeta Alefaio, National Archives of Fiji 2005). Example, in the past years, typing was done with typewriters, then there was a transformation to the use of computers, now, not only are computers used to type, but one can programme it to take dictations of notes and type them. However, Ho business organization since its inception is now seeing some level of ICT innovations. With the help of ICT record personnel can store massive amount of data and can retrieve it when required. Rapid technology advancements and continuous increase of records have made Information Technology (IT) applicable at all levels. ICT presents numerous opportunities for improving and transforming business organization which includes; reducing human errors, improving organizational outcomes, facilitating coordination, improving practice efficiencies, and tracking data over time such as data management systems (DMS).

The application of ICT for storage and retrieval of information in business organization makes it easier for all the records to be captured. It is also use to keep the record and to have access to it whenever a need it be, and it is also use in business organization to share information among staff and to update them about the latest development in their areas of information needs.

Despite the important role that ICT has played, the researchers conducted a preliminary investigation in one of the business organization in Yola which revealed that ICT facilities are inadequate. Also the records (files) are still on paper based, manually processed and stored unprofessionally on shelves which made it difficult to be retrieved; this might also lead to loss of files and information records therein.

These problems could be attributed to inadequate deployment of ICT facilities and lack ICT skills exhibited by some personnel. It is against this background that the researchers strived to investigate the impact of information and communication technology on records management practices in a business organization.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The general aim of this study is to analyze the impact of information and communication technology on records management practices in a business organization. The specific aims of this study are outlined below:

  1. Determine the extent ICT has been integrated into record management in business organization
  2. Determine the benefits associated with the use of ICT for record management in business organizations.
  3. Determine the major challenges affecting the use of ICT for record management in business organizations.

1.4 Research Questions

The main focus of this research is to provide a valuable response to the questions below.

  1. What is the extent ICT has been integrated into record management in business organization?
  2. What are the benefits associated with the use of ICT for record management in business organizations?
  3. What are the major challenges affecting the use of ICT for record management in business organizations?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between information and communication technology and records management practices
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between information and communication technology and records management practices.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is expected to provide a basis for comprehensive information on information and communication technology and its impact on record management in business organizations in Nigeria.

The result of the study has the potential to contribute immensely to the strategic decision making of the top management of business organizations. This will enable them to give much attention to records management using ICT and automate most of their process for effective and efficient management of the organization. Also the result of the study would help individuals especially entrepreneurs, managers, business organizations who are yet to enter into business to consider all the relevance of ICT in records management of an organisation. The study would also serve as a reference material for further investigation by interested researchers who might want to know more about the impact of Information and Communication Technology on records management.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is boarded to examine the impact of information and communication technology on records management practices in a business organization. Hence, the study will be delimited to Nestle PLC. Nigeria.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Information Communication Technologies:

This refers to modern equipments used to enhance communication effectiveness like the computers and interment.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of information and communication technology on records management practices in a business organization using Nestle PLC. Lagos state Nigeria as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the impact of information and communication technology on records management practices in a business organization using Nestle PLC. Lagos state Nigeria as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to determine the extent ICT has been integrated into record management in business organization, determine the benefits associated with the use of ICT for record management in business organizations, and determine the major challenges affecting the use of ICT for record management in business organizations.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 35 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were staff of Nestle PLC. Lagos state Nigeria.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The extent ICT has been integrated into record management in business organization is high.
  2. The benefits associated with the use of ICT for record management in business organizations includes: increases efficiency in records searching, improves efficiency in record retrieval & redaction, lower records storage costs, reduced potential for litigation and penalties, improves customer service, improves regulatory compliance, and enhanced records security.
  3. The major challenges affecting the use of ICT for record management in business organizations includes: obsolescence in technology, authenticity and reliability threats, security and privacy can be compromised, costs increasing, insufficiently educated staff.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The management should provide and deploy more ICT facilities to facilitate large storage and management of record; this will in turn reduce manual handling of huge records and files.
  2. The management should made ICT facilities more adequate and effective to enhance management of record in the company.
  3. The management should ensure regular computer training programs and send them for workshop and conference to improve their ICT knowledge/skill so as to equipped them with the necessarily competencies to operate ICT facilities.
  4. The management should provide power plants and solar panels as backup to curtail the shortage of power supply.

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