The Impact Of Information And Communication Technology (ICT) On Students Performance In Public Secondary Schools

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The Impact Of Information And Communication Technology (ICT) On Students Performance In Public Secondary Schools


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

ICT stands for information & communication technologies. ICT refers to technologies that provide access to information through communications. It is similar to information technology (IT). “But primarily focuses on communication technologies. This includes the internet, wireless network, cell phones & other communications medium”. In the past few decades information & communication technologies have provided to society with vast array of a new communication capabilities. “People can communicate in real time with others in different countries using technologies such as instant messaging, voice over IP and video conferencing, social networking websites like face book allow users from all over the world to remain in contact and communicate on a regular basis”. Modern information communication technologies have created a global village in which people communicate with others across the world as if they were living next door. “For this reason ICT is often studied in the context of how modern communication technologies affected society” (tech factor, January 04, 2010). ICT stands for information & communications technology is an umbrella term that includes any communication device, encompassing radio, television, cell phones, computer and network hardware, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services & applicate with them such as video conferencing and distance learning. “ICT are often spoken of a particular context such as ICTs in education, health care, or libraries” (Margaret Rouse, September, 2005). “ICT (information and communications technology or technologies) is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning”. ICT (information and communications technology – or technologies) is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning. “ICTs are often spoken of in a particular context, such as ICTs in education, health care, or libraries” (Abe & Adu, 2007). The world of today is characterized by revolutionary advances powered by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The world is being reduced to a global village through the use of information and communication technology thus, ICT promotes national development and better relationship with other nations. ICT refers to the electronic and communication devices associated with human interactive materials that enable users to employ them for a whole range of teaching and learning process (Cox, Preston and Cox, 1999a). Information Communication Technology is the fusion of two technologies: They are Information Technology (IT) and Communication Technology (CT) (Iwu, 2006). ICT embraces all technologies for manipulative communication of information and also encompasses any medium used to record information such as: radio, television, etc., and technology for communication through voice and sound or images using microphone, camera, loudspeaker, telephone/ mobile phones (Osu, Udosen, and Akpan, 2010). Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are indispensable and have been accepted as part of the contemporary world, especially in the industrialized societies to the extent of giving a new phase to the education system in terms of pedagogical approach (Ololube, 2006). According to Fari (2010), information and communication technology facilities are described as all the facilities available for the identification, generation, processing, storage, packaging, preservation, conservation and transfer of information, regardless of time and distance constraints. In other words, Information and Communication Technologies are information handling tools used for producing, storing, processing, distributing and exchanging of information.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

The pattern of teaching and learning process today is expected to shift from the conventional method to a more dynamic and flexible one, which is learner-centred (Ezekoka and Okoli, 2012). This learner-centred approach makes students to influence the content, activities, materials and pace of learning, which places them in the centre of the learning process and enhances independent learning (Collins and O‟Brien, 2003). However, despite the glaring relevance of ICT in education, coupled with the huge capital investment of both Federal and State governments through ICT driven project known as “school net” Adomi, (2006) and Okebukola (2004) and donations from Non Governmental Organizations to Secondary schools in Nigeria, some teachers are still reluctant, ineffective and unproductive in using ICT facilities to improve students’‟ academic performance. It is on this note that the researcher intends to investigate the impact of information and communication technology on student’s academic performance.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of the study is to ascertain the impact of ICT on student academic performance. For the successful completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following sub objective

  1. To ascertain the impact of ICT on secondary school students academic performance.
  2. To ascertain the relationship between the use of ICT and the conventional approach in teaching and learning in secondary schools.
  3. To investigate the role of ICT on students academic performance
  4. To ascertain the effect of ICT on the learning culture of secondary school students.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

For the successful completion of the study; the following research hypotheses are formulated;

  1. H0: information communication technology has no impact on students academic performance.
    H1: information communication technology has a significant impact on student’s academic performance
  2. H02: there is no relationship between the use of ICT and the use of the conventional approach in teaching and students academic performance
    H2: there is a significant relationship between the use of ICT and the use of the conventional approach in teaching and students academic performance

1.5 Significance of the Study

It is believed that at the completion of the study, the will be of great importance to the ministry of education in formulating policies and ensuring that secondary schools adopt and implement the use of information communication technology in public secondary schools.

The study will also be of great importance to the management of public secondary schools as the study will serve as a guide to the management to explore the benefit of ICT in teaching and learning in public secondary the study will also be beneficial to researchers who intends to embark on study in similar topic as the study will serve as a guide to their study. Finally the study will be beneficial to academia’s students and the general public schools.


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The scope of the study covers the impact of information and communication technology on students performance in public secondary schools. In the cause of the study, the researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

(a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.

(b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

(c) Finance:

The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover


1.7 Definition of Terms

ICT

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is an extended term for information technology (IT) which stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual

Computers

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out an arbitrary set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. The ability of computers to follow a sequence of operations, called a program, make computers very applicable to a wide range of tasks. Such computers are used as control systems for a very wide variety of industrial and consumer devices.

Students

A student or pupil is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution. In Britain those attending university are termed “students”. In the United States, and more recently also in Britain, the term “student” is applied to both categories. In its widest use, student is used for anyone who is learning, including mid-career adults who are taking vocational education or returning to university


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion and also recommendations made of the study.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the impact of information and communication technology on students performance in public secondary schools.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of ICT in secondary schools in Nigeria.


5.2 Summary

In this study, we have tried to summarise the main literature concerning ICT usage and student achievement. ICT seems to have a profound impact on the process of learning in higher education by offering new possibilities for learners and teachers. These possibilities can have an impact on student performance and achievement. There are contradictory results in the empirical literature in this field. Three different arguments can be given in order to explain this lack of empirical evidence. First, since ICT is a form of GPT and immature by nature, a long process of appropriation and exploration of their possibilities by higher education institutions is needed before observing any significant change. This has been the case in other economic sectors and it is also true in higher education. Second, we consider the lack of organizational change in higher education the main explanation.


5.3 Conclusion

On the basis of the findings of this study, the following conclusions were made The use of Computer Assisted mode of Instruction has significant effect on secondary school students‟ academic performance. It can be therefore said that Computer Assisted mode of Instruction proved to be more efficacious than the conventional method of teaching used in some schools today. The use of Computer Assisted Instruction has proved to be effective in reducing the rate of time spent by students in solving questions in Economics during test. This has enhanced students‟ ability to accomplish the task given during assessments faster than using the conventional method of teaching. The use of Computer Assisted mode of Instruction enhanced independent learning skills acquisition amongst SS2 students in secondary schools when compared with the conventional mode of instruction. This has been effective in making students offering computer to develop the spirit of personal study habit to cover up the syllabus. In addition, it was discovered that the use of Computer Assisted Instruction enables male and female students taught computer to compete favorably academically regardless of gender differences.

Furthermore, the researcher discovered that with the use of Computer Assisted Instruction, school location is not a factor in determining the students‟ academic performance. It can therefore be concluded that if is adopted by all schools in teaching of computer this will effectively eliminate school location factor to the barest minimum and enable students taught computer in the rural schools to compete favorably with their counterparts).


5.4 Recommendation

The following recommendations are made on the basis of the outcome of this study. There is a need for adequate provision of ICT-driven instructional devices that are functioning and their appendages for all Senior Secondary School students in Nigeria by the government just like the Lagos State Government initiative of “Opon Imo” (Tablet of Knowledge). This will help secondary school students to develop ICT independent learning skills to improve their academic performance and equally equip them to meet up the challenges of online system of examination currently adopted by some examination bodies. Computer Assisted Instructional technique is relatively new and should be incorporated into the senior secondary school curriculum of computer. Consequently, schools supplied with computer systems by Government and other non-governmental agencies require the need for computer assisted instructional packages in different subjects to be installed on them for use. This will help Economics teachers to develop their skills and competency in instructional delivery. In addition, there is need for proper maintenance culture to be incorporated in schools, in the handling of ICT-driven instructional facilities provided for effective functioning and utilization.


The Impact Of Information And Communication Technology (ICT) On Students Performance In Public Secondary Schools


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