Impact Of Industrial Health And Safety Management On Workers Productivity
Employee health and safety is consider to be a major determinants of employee and organizational performance. Today, the matter of work-force health and safety at work is receiving worldwide attention, this is the major reasons why most successful organization take care of his employee health and safety. However, many organization often record high rate of industrial accidents, large-scale absenteeism occasioned by ill health as a result of the neglect of health and safety. This project provides various types of employee health and safety and how it could be implemented for improved organizational performance taken Unilever Nigeria Plc as a case study.
Three (3) null hypotheses were postulated to find out if there is no significant relationship between Industrial Safety Management and workers performance; between occupational health and employee’s performance; between health and safety management and protection of company equipments and property. Questions were formulated based on the three hypotheses. A total number of ninety seven (97) copies of closed-ended questionnaire were administered to respondents during the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted in the study. Inferential statistical method of chi-square (X2) was used to test the stated hypotheses with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0). Data analysis was carried out at five percent 0.05 (5%) level of significance.
Findings revealed that there is significant relationship between industrial health and safety management and workers’ productivity. The study recommends continuous training/ retraining of health and employees should be committed to safety culture safety personnel and the entire workforce on safe work procedures. Top management and employees should be commitment to safety culture. Monthly safety incentive schemes for all the employees in Unilever Nigeria PLC should be put in place. The study thus concluded that employees’ health and safety is important in promoting employee and organizational safety and improved performance of the company.
Table Of Contents
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- 1.1. Background To The Study
- 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
- 1.3 Research Objectives
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Hypothesis Of The Study
- 1.6 Significance Of The Study
- 1.7 Limitation Of The Study
- 1.8 Organization Of Study
- 2.1. Introduction
- 2.2. Historical Background Information
- 2.3. The Concept Of Occupational Health And Safety
- 2.4. Safety And Productivity In Organisation
- 2.5. Measuring Productivity
- 2.6. The Employee And The Working Environment
- 2.7. Safety And Health Culture
- 2.8. The Working Environment And Performance
- 2.9. Safety And Health Culture
- 2.10. Occupational Injuries
- 2.11. Organisational Role And Attitude To And Safety
- 2.12. Management Commitment
- 2.13. Employees Involvement Of Health And Safety
- 2.14. Empirical Analysis
- 3.1. Introduction
- 3.2. Area Of Study
- 3.3. Research Design
- 3.4. Population
- 3.5. Sampling And Sampling Procedures
- 3.6. Instrumentation
- 3.7. Data Collection
- 3.7.1 Sources Of Data
- 3.7.2 Data Collection Technique
- 3.8. Data Validity And Reliability
- 3.9. Procedures For Data Analysis And Presentation
Analysis, Discussions And Representation Of Results
- 4.1. Introduction
- 4.2. Presentation And Analysis Of Preliminary Data
- 4.3. Gender Of Respondents
- 4.4. Age Of Respondents
- 4.5. Educational Background Of Respondents
- 4.6. Working Experience Of Respondents
- 4.7. What Is The Safety Standards Put In Place The Organisation?
- 4.8. How Has Health And Safety Standard Affected Employees‟ Productivity?
- 4.9. What Is The Level Of Employees Understanding Of Health And Safety Policies Of The Organisation?
- 4.10. What Is The Attitude Of Management Towards Health And Safety Of Employees?
- 4.11 What Are The Challenges Of Health And Safety Standards In The Organisation?
Summary Of Findings, Conclusion And Recommendation
- 5.1. Introduction
- 5.2. Overview Of The Study
- 5.3. Key Findings
- 5.4. Conclusions
- 5.5. Recommendations
- 5.6. Suggestions For Further Research
1.1 Background To The Study:
Industrialisation has been the engine of growth for most developing countries like Nigeria and because of that many successive governments strive to find ways and means for developing their industrial sector. The influence of an enduring employee’s safety on organisational productivity and loss control in the Nigerian construction industry cannot be over emphasized, especially in the areas of setting minimum safety management standards, safe work procedures and environmental management standards (Lourandos, 2008).
It is assumed that an organization’s employees safety measures have a direct relationship with employees’ productivity in view of the fact that assigned tasks can only be safely accomplished when the work environment is safe and conducive for the execution of the assigned duties, be it construction, manufacturing or servicing, thus, any phenomenon that affects human production capacity will invariably affect organizational productivity hence improving workers wellbeing offers a company the opportunity of enhancing its performance (Galliker, 2000).
Apart from the need to reduce or eliminate accidents, construction companies should inculcate safety measure in their workforce in order to satisfy legal, social, and moral obligations of the host community. Dorman (2000) argues that for companies to provide effective improvement of health, safety and environment conditions, the costs of ill-health/accidents must be economic, internal, variable and visible. Court (2003), in his contribution to corporate employees safety management sees the subject of safety as needed in every industry, he further argues that creating better work environment and preventing harm from work are the key means of improving productivity. Today, the matter of work-force safety at work is receiving worldwide attention. And Nigeria cannot be left out.
There is a high rate of industrial accidents and large-scale absenteeism occasioned by ill health (Kohn and Mark 1996). Some jobs are very hazardous and the common law requires every employer of labour to ensure that the work-force is safe and that employees doing hazardous work are protected adequately. In that case, safety at work must be pursued as a means of enhancing efficiency and quality of performance (Eze, 2006).
Hence, providing working conditions that promote the safety of employees is therefore becoming a major management concern. Barriers are introduced in the form of guards, clothing, protected areas and the like. Perhaps, equally important, reducing the accident potential of a work environment tends to increase the feelings of security and reducing anxiety levels. This in itself makes people less likely to have accidents because they are no longer distracted by their anxieties. Companies also use publicity campaigns, involving various personnel communication media and contests to promote safety (Cole, 1993). Contests typically provide financial reward to members of groups with low accident rates. The focus of these contests and the measures employed can vary considerably, but the essential ingredient is the idea that it pays to be safe. The influence of an enduring employee’s safety management on organisational productivity and loss control in the Nigerian industrial clime cannot be over emphasized. Hence, this research study investigated the impact of industrial health and safety management on workers’ productivity with special reference to Unilever Nig. PLC.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem:
In today’s workplace, whether it is on a plantation,in an office, factory, institutions, etc. everyworker across the globe is faced with a multitudeof health hazards such as dusts, gases,noise, vibration and extreme temperatures. Thisinvariably results to absenteeismtriggered by ill-health. Unfortunatelysome employers assume little responsibility forthe protection of workers’ health and safety.
It is noteworthy that the right to life is fundamental and most be considered sacrosanct. Yet every year 2.2 million men and women are deprived of that right by occupational accidents and work related diseases (ILO, 2011). By conservative estimates workers suffer 270 million occupational accidents and 160 million occupational diseases each year (ILO, 2011). This is perhaps just the tip of the iceberg, as data for estimating nonfatal illness and injury are not available in most developing countries. Occupational injuries alone account for more than 10 million Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost, or healthy years of life lost whether to disability or premature death, and 8% of unintentional injuries worldwide (ILO, 2011).
The consequences of construction incidents (accidents, ill-health and environmental pollution) on workers’ productivity are so grave that construction companies should be legally, morally and socially compelled to inculcate safety measures in their workforce. Construction incidents especially
those involving lost time injuries (LTI) and lost workdays (LWD) usually lead to shop closure for incident investigation and reporting. This situation results in loss of man-hours, output, reputation and low workers morale. It is on this backdrop that this study was carried to investigate the impact of industrial health and safety management on worker’s productivity.
1.3 Objective Of The Study:
The major objective of this study is to examine The Impact of Industrial Health and Safety Management on Workers Productivity. Other specific objectives of this study are to:
- To determine different type of health and safety method essential for organizational improved performance.
- To find out effect of health and safety management on employee performance.
- To examine the effect of health and safety management on organizational performance.
- To find out the effect of health and safety management on organizational equipment and property.
- To determine the effect of health and safety management on employee lives and wellbeing.
1.4 Research Questions:
This research work shall be guided by the following research questions:
- Is there any significant relationship between industrial health and safety management and workers’ productivity?
- Is there any significant relationship between health and safety management and employee performance?
- What is the effect of health and safety management on organizational performance?
- What is the effect of health and safety management on organizational equipment and property?
1.5 Research Hypotheses:
The under mentioned hypotheses will be tested in the course of the research study at 5% level of significance.
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between industrial health and safety management and workers’ performance.
- Hi: There is a significant relationship between industrial health and safety management and workers’ performance.
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between Occupational health and employee’s performance.
- Hi: There is a significant relationship between Occupational health and employee’s performance
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between health and safety management and protection of employee lives and wellbeing.
- Hi: There is a significant relationship between health and safety management and protection of employee lives and wellbeing.
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between health and safety management and protection of company equipment and property.
- Hi: There is a significant relationship between health and safety management and protection of company equipment and property.
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between total safety management and organizational performance.
- Hi: There is a significant relationship between total safety management and organizational performance.
1.6 Significance Of The Study
One of the primary goals of organisations is to optimize human resource to achieve set targets. Issues of health and safety within organisations are critical in the accomplishment of tasks. Industrial accidents and illness make up one of the largest part of loss of production time in the industry and these injuries have posed a major challenge to most manufacturing industries. Companies have suffered long spells of production shortfalls, compensation payment, insurance premiums and legal battles due to injury, reduction to the quality of life, family problems and decrease of life-span and other effects which is impossible to evaluate its qualitative cost on the employee, organisation, society and the nation in general.
Health and safety of workers is a moral responsibility within our society that cannot only depend on productivity criteria within a particular company but can also have a serious consequence for individual workers, society and the nation as a whole. It is of the hope that the study would boost the morale of employees and ensure job security at all times by getting a better understanding of health and safety practices in the organisation. The study would also help the employees to comply with organisational health and safety standards which in the long run would reduce accidents and injuries at the workplace thereby increasing their performance and productivity.
This study would serve as the bases for increasing the awareness of health safety as well as identifying the weaknesses of the various strategies that employers adopt to enhance health and safety standards and recommend the possible ways of improving them. Employers would appreciate the cost of equipping employees with the right protective clothing and standards to ensure accident free environment.
Findings and recommendation offered should not only add to existing literature for academic purposes, but also provide useful insights and guidelines for enhancing the quality of health and safety among employees in organisations.
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
As with many human endeavors, the study was not without any shortcomings. Some of the requirements in the questionnaire were sensitive company information and as such, employees and employers were reluctant in answering questions which was critical in providing the necessary response for the study as they were of the view that providing the right answers may affect them directly or indirectly.
1.8 Organisation Of The Study
This dissertation is organized into five chapters.
- Chapter one presents the background to the study, problem statement, objectives (both general and specific). It also outlines the research questions, significance, as well as the limitations of the study.
- The second chapter reviews relevant literature on the concepts and core issues of the study while
- Chapter three explains how the study was conducted. Methodological issues considered here include the study design, study population, sample size and sampling procedure and instrumentation, sources of data and procedure for data analysis and presentation.
- Chapter four discusses and analyzes the results of the study while
- Chapter five summarizes, offers recommendations and conclusion for the study.
Conclusions And Recommendations
Based on the findings it can be concluded that occupational health and safety practices at Nigeria Unilever Nigeria Plc is not in conformity with what has been described as “best practices”. This is because, responsibilities of employees and management are not clearly spelt out with regards to health and safety. Employees are not trained in strategies for protection against hazards at the workplace.
Increasingly, occupational health and safety is recognized as an issue that can impact on the effective functioning of firms and economic growth of the country. Safety of employees is primarily important at any workplace be it the manufacturing, construction, utility, educational institution or hospital. The importance of safety at work place cannot be over simplified. Labour productivity measures the extent to which labour is efficiently used. From the study, it can also be deduced that health and safety of the worker, the better the motivation to boost productivity. Therefore, if an organisation does not adequately invest in the competence of its labour force, in modernizing its plants and factories or in improving the efficiency of its operations, it would affect the organisation. Adaptation of safety measures, policies and procedures not only ensure safety of life of the employee and fellow workers but also their family dependents.
The findings of the study have shown that employees‟ productivity in Nigeria Unilever Nigeria Plc, is influenced negatively by poor management of safety practices and safety programmes, bad management attitude towards health and safety, and training of employees on safety standards in the organisation. Therefore all stakeholders should play active roles accordingly in measuring safety and continuous improvement in integrated safety management systems. It must however be admitted that no quantitative review could be done due to the absence of reliable figures on production and health records that could be applied for such an analysis.
From the findings and conclusions of the study, the following recommendations are made.
Management should be more responsible for the needs and concern of their employees‟ safety and health by being more sensitive to the problems of the employees. This can be carried out by the provision of a suggestion box or other avenues for employees to give their suggestions on how safety can be improved.
Furthermore, management should put in place policies and structures for improving occupational health and safety within the organisation. Management should not wait to form ad hoc committees after an accident has occurred in the organisation. Near misses should also be investigated thoroughly to forestall re-occurance of accident in the near future.
Management should allocate funds and invest in occupational health and safety programmes. This programme should include proactive measures like near miss reporting, accident investigations, risk assessment, auditing for compliance and using inherently safe technologies.
Again, organisations should put in place active health and safety committees which should be given full mandate to implement their recommendations. Moreover, copies of organisational health and safety procedures should be given to employees in order to make them aware of the laid down policies, rules and safety precautions to reduce accidents in the organisation.
Health and safety measures should be in place and employees should be trained on how to use the emergency facilities in case of a problem. There should be a continuous review of occupational health and safety policies, to ensure that firms have up to date safety measures in place.
The organisation should organize competitions among departments on practicing good health and safety practices so that employees will be more motivated and aware of ergonomics. Certificate should be awarded and recognition given to the department that excels. At the same time employees who fail to adhere to rules and procedures should be sanctioned in relation to the misconduct exhibited.
5.6 Suggestions For Further Research
A similar study should be conducted in the health care institution. The study should be carried out in both public and private health care institutions in order to compare these two sectors in the implementation of organisational health and safety policies and procedures.
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