The Impact Of Industrial And Domestic Waste On Our Environment

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

The Impact Of Industrial And Domestic Waste On Our Environment


Abstract


In Nigeria open dumping is still the most common household waste disposal method/practice. This type of practice is un hygienic and environmentally unfriendly. This research is aimed at assessing the impact of industrial and domestic waste on the environment. The research found that there are some other types of management or disposal method in practice, these include the use of packing and burning, dumping in pits outside the house and dumping in streets by residents, wheel barrows. Data for the study include the use of observations, qualitative data and oral interviews in data gathering and analysis. The research, recommends that the state government should provide household waste management equipment and vehicles, generators on loan for waste management authorities. Waste management such as the construction of sanitary landfills, purchase of incinerators for recycling plants, encourage waste to wealth practices as this would actually reduce the amount of waste that would be physically available in the study area. It remedies shows that waste management activities by the corporations, individuals and families has a great impact to people’s health and environment.

 


Table of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Definition of Terms
  • 1.8 Organization of Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Study of Industrial Solid Waste Generation
  • 2.2 Waste Generation And Disposal
  • 2.3 Studies of the Composition Household Solid Wastes
  • 2.4 Factors Affecting Solid Waste Management and Disposal
  • 2.5 Waste Management
  • 2.6 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.7 Empirical Review

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Data and Sources
  • 3.3 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Impact of Effluent on the Environment
  • 4.2 Impact of Industrial Industrial and Domestic on Water Bodies
  • 4.3 Impact of Industrial Industrial and Domestic of the Soil
  • 4.4 Impact of Industrial Industrial and Domestic on the Air
  • 4.5 Impact on Human And Ecosystem

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Solid wastes comprise all the wastes arising from human and animal activities that are normally solid, discarded as useless or unwanted. Also included are by- products of process lines or materials that may be required by law to be disposed of (Okecha 2000). Solid waste can be classified in a number of ways, on the basis of sources, environmental risks, utility and physical property. On the basis of source, solid wastes are again classified as: Municipal Solid Wastes, Industrial Solid Wastes and Agricultural Solid Wastes. Nigeria’s major urban centres are today fighting to clear mounting heaps of solid waste from their environments. These strategic centres of beauty, peace and security are being overtaken by the messy nature of over flowing dumps unattended heaps of solid wastes emanating from household or domestic or kitchen sources, markets, shopping and business centres. City officials appear unable to combat unlawful and haphazard dumping of hazardous commercial and industrial wastes which are a clear violation of the clean Air and Health Edicts in our environmental sanitation laws, rules and regulation.

Refuse generation and its likely effects on the health, quality of environment and the urban landscape have become burning national issues in Nigeria today. All stakeholders concern with the safety and the beautification of our environment have come to realize the negative consequences of uncleared solid human wastes found in residential neighbourhoods, markets, schools, and central business districts in our cities. These solid wastes have become recurring features in our urban environment. It is no longer in doubt that Nigerian cities are inundated with the challenges of uncleared solid wastes. As a result, urban residents are often confronted with the hazardous impact to their collective health and safety.

A United Nations Report (August 2004) noted with regret that while developing countries are improving access to clean drinking water they are falling behind on sanitation goals. At one of its summit in 2000 (Uwaegbelun 2004) revealed that The World Health Organization-(WHO 2004) and United Nations International Children Education Fund- (UNICEF 2004) joint report in August 2004 that: “about 2.4 billion people will likely face the risk of needless disease and death by the target of 2015 because of bad sanitation”. The report also noted that bad sanitation – decaying or non-existent sewage system and toilets- fuels the spread of diseases like cholera and basic illness like diarrhea, which kills a child every 21 seconds.

The hardest hit by bad sanitation is rural poor and residents of slum areas in fast-growing cities, mostly in Africa and Asia. In 1992, the “Earth Summit” succeeded in alerting the conscience of the world to the urgency of achieving environmentally sustainable development. The Summit asserted that if we know enough to act today, then we must also find answers to many tough conceptual and technical questions that have remained unsolved over time. It affirms that rapid urbanization in developing world if ignored can be a threat to health, the environment and urban productivity.

Cities are the engines of economic growth, but the environmental implications of such growth need to be assessed and managed better. The critical and most immediate problems facing developing countries and their cities are the health impact of urban pollution that are derived from inadequate water services, poor urban and industrial waste management, as well as air pollution, especially from particulates which constitutes part of solid waste.

Among the pressing environmental and public health issues in Nigeria today is the problem of solid waste generation and disposal. The problem of solid waste management is a historical one because man’s existence is inextricably linked to the generation of waste. The problem is becoming intractable as many cities in developing countries cannot keep pace with urbanization, pollution, and the increasingly concomitant generation of garbage due to changing life styles and consumption patterns.

The mountainous heaps of solid wastes that deface Nigerian cities and the continuous discharge of industrial contaminants into streams and rivers without treatment motivated the federal government of Nigeria to promulgate Decree 58 for the establishment of Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) on 30 December 1988 (Federal Military Government 1988).

A national policy on the environment was formed and the goals of the policy include: to secure for all Nigerians a quality of environment adequate for their health and well-being; to raise public awareness and promote understanding of the essential linkages between the environment and development; and to encourage individual and community participation in environmental protection and improvement efforts (FEPA 1989). As regards the solid waste sector, the specific actions desired include collection and disposal of solid waste in an environmentally safe manner; setting up and enforcement of laws, regulations, and standards; encouragement of public participation; environment monitoring and imposition of penalties on defaulters to encourage compliance (FEPA 1989; FRN 1991).

In spite of the formulation of FEPA and a national environmental policy, the environment has not been adequately protected. Interest is mainly on aesthetics, which is rarely achieved (Agunwanba 1998). Wastes collection is irregular and restricted to the major cities. Improperly sited open dumps deface several cities, thereby endangering public health by encouraging the spread of odors and diseases, uncontrolled recycling of contaminated goods and pollution of water sources (Adegoke 1989, Singh 1998).

Sadly, there seems a resignation to the unremitting solid wastes build up by the relevant authorities, where such bodies exist at all. However, in reactions to the inescapable environmental impact of delay in solid wastes removal, the federal government for example, introduced the monthly environmental sanitation in the early seventies. There from the States and Local Governments were expected to take a cue and evolve their own solid wastes management (SWM) strategies based on the peculiarities of their environment.

Each state had in the process of mitigating urban solid wastes, set up Wastes Management Boards (WMB) in attempts to tackle the occurrence of wastes and their hazards to society as a whole. While the unhealthy aspects of abandoned solid wastes can be contained, the more avoidable features of blocked drains, traffic impedance and floods have yet to be fully tackled.

One resonant feature common in the wastes build-up and emanating environmental degradation scenarios is the high cost or capital intensive nature of its amelioration as well as tackling the solid wastes menace. It requires a lot of financial and human capital to minimize and attempt to eradicate the adverse effects of exposed and untreated solid wastes in our urban centres.

It is expected that government would in due course arrive at the means to combat solid wastes and reduce their negative impact on area residents and the perception of our cities as being dirty, chaotic, and full of traces of rotting or fermenting garbage that emit odours harmful to the human body. Obviously, the timely removal of accumulated solid wastes require much more than our governments at all levels are presently engaged in. Further plans, policies and programs would need to be put on a more permanent basis in order to combat the dastardly effects of environmental degradation. Understandably, it would require effective mobilization of resources such as involving all stakeholders in regular counter measure to suppress uncontrolled solid wastes generation and irregular disposal outside city confines altogether.


1.2 Statement of Problem

As a result of increased urbanization and infrequent environmental sanitation exercises, urban residents dump solid wastes carelessly or haphazardly – anywhere they deem fit. Such controversial tendencies and attributes would seem incomprehensible; if we desire to live in beauteous environments. Some of the lagoon front in the country has been turned into a dump for human and all sorts of solid waste. Trucks fully loaded with feces queue up in large numbers to discharge the contents into the lagoon (Njoku 2006). Environmental experts are of the view that the implication of this practice is very grave. The failure of relevant agencies to stem the tide of reckless waste dumping and littering of Nigerian cities’ infrastructure (streets and roads) and surrounding bushes indicate a clear pattern of non-enforcement or non-implementation of existing environmental sanitation laws.

Irregular and unplanned dumping of solid wastes, especially at night, which are often in gross violation of relevant rules and regulations continue to hinder plan preparations and effective land use delineation which were expected to usher in a beautiful, clean and orderly environment. Consequently, there remains a huge gap between policy formulation, execution and implementation which exacerbate the problem of solid waste management in Nigerian cities which necessitate the need to evaluate the impact of industrial and domestic waste on the environment.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to assess the impact of industrial and domestic waste on the environment. The following are the specific objectives of this study:

  1. To evaluate the problems of industrial and domestic waste in Nigeria.
  2. To examine the consequences of poor industrial and domestic waste on the environment.
  3. To identify the strategies than has been adopted in industrial and domestic waste management in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the problems of industrial and domestic waste in Nigeria?
  2. What are the consequences of poor industrial and domestic waste on the environment?
  3. What are the strategies than has been adopted in industrial and domestic waste management in Nigeria?

1.5 Hypothesis

  • H0: Industrial and domestic waste management practice has no significant impact on environment in Nigeria.
  • H1: Industrial and domestic waste management practice has significant impact on environmental sustainability in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is of great significance as it will educate the public, stakeholders in environmental management, students, government and policy makers on the problems of industrial waste management focusing on the environment with a view of identifying management strategies to combat the menace associated with poor solid waste management.

This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Industrial Waste:

The waste produced by industrial activity which includes any material that is rendered useless during a manufacturing process such as that of factories, industries, mills, and mining operations. Toxic waste, chemical waste, industrial solid waste and municipal solid waste are designations of industrial wastes.

Domestic Waste:

Is waste that is generated as a result of the ordinary day-to-day use of a domestic premise and is either collected by or on behalf of a local government as part of a waste collection and disposal system.

Environment:

The surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal, or plant lives or operates.

Management:

The process of dealing with or controlling things or people.


1.8 Organization of Study

The study comprises of 5 chapters. In chapter one, the concepts are introduced and the problem of the study is established with the research objectives and questions. Chapter two presents the literature review while chapter three presents the research methodology. The fourth chapter presents the results and discussion, and the last chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

The impact of industrial and domestic waste on the environment, air, water, soil and humans cannot be overemphasized. It is by virtue of this significant impact that treatment of waste industrial and domestic is of great importance. Waste industrial and domestic released into the environment without an adequate treatment usually results in environmental deterioration. Some of these effects are short term related while some are not necessarily apparent but in the long term the result of their bio-accumulation is clearly evident on the recipient. People often are concerned with the acute effect, but there is need to consider the long-time effect. The possible ill effect of these wastes might be on the environment and this must be eliminated by proper waste handling methods and procedural treatment. There should be stringent regulation against the discharge of industrial and domestic that fails to meet the consent requirement for discharge into the environment.


5.2 Recommendations

  1. There is need for government to partner with non-governmental organization [NGO], community and private sector to manage waste. Residents should be encouraged and learn how to start combustion and incineration of waste to reduce the volume of household waste through the local government and private sectors. This can convert water to stream which can in turn be converted by electricity.
  2. Government should provide, upgrade and maintain all the necessary infrastructural facilities and agencies responsible for household waste evacuation in urban centers. Adequate and efficient transportation is required to safety evacuate the enormous household waste generated to the final disposal sites.
  3. The state governments should provide household waste management equipment and vehicles, guarantee loans for waste management authorities, final management such as the construction of sanitary landfills and purchase of incinerators for recycling plants.
  4. The federal government through its agencies such as the national Environmental standard regulatory and enforcement Agency [NESREA], Ministry of environmental etc, era should provide national policy guideline and standards for household waste management, support capacity building through programs prepare by the ministry of works and housing, prepare master plan for key Nigerian cities on waste management, support programs of environmental education nationwide.
  5. Also funds can be sourced from multilateral agencies such as the united Nations Environmental Program,[UNEP] , united Nation Development program[UNDP] et cet era for specific aspects of waste management.

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