The Impact Of Increased Class Size Of Pupils On Teaching And Learning Method

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The Impact Of Increased Class Size Of Pupils On Teaching And Learning Method


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

There has been much discussion on the educational consequences of class size inequalities in several countries throughout the world. Opinions range from academics and policymakers who claim that reducing class size is not cost efficient to those who believe it should be a primary aspect of educational reform. Policy in several nations has shifted in favor of small classes. Over 30 states in the United States have approved laws to implement class size reduction (CSR) programs. The current aim in England and Wales is for a maximum class size of 30 for students aged 4 to 7, with bigger reduction envisaged in Scotland.

The number of students in a given course or classroom, specifically the number of students taught by individual instructors in a course or classroom or the average number of students taught by teachers in a school or educational institution, is referred to as class size. The phrase may also refer to the number of pupils who are taking part in a learning session. Class size is almost entirely a managerial choice over which instructors have little or no say. Class size is an educational instrument that describes the average number of pupils per class in a school (Adeyemi, 2008). In school, there are huge and little sizes. The smaller the class, the more likely a teacher will spend more time with individual students. Large classrooms pose additional issues in terms of classroom administration, child control, and marking, planning, and evaluation. When faced with huge classrooms, teachers are put under extra strain. Smaller classrooms allow teachers to more easily identify issues and provide feedback, identify specific needs and tailor instruction to fit them, and create personalized goals for students. Teachers also have stronger relationships with and knowledge of individual students. According to Ajayi and Adeosun (2004), in order to reduce escalating capital costs in education, the average class size could be raised. Toth and Montagna (2002) backed these views by reporting that the growth in enrollment in many schools, which has become a major issue for students, may undoubtedly lead to an increase in class size. Commeyras (2000), on the other hand, disagreed with these ideas, reporting that successful teaching appears to be impractical for teacher educators with big class numbers of 50, 75, 100, or more.

According to Dror (1995), class size has become a phenomena that is frequently cited in the educational literature as having an impact on students’ moods and accomplishment, as well as on administration, quality, and school finances. According to him, class size is practically an administrative choice over which instructors have little or no authority. Most researches begin with the premise that the size of the class will be a key driver of students’ success. With the exception of a few, many studies have found that, in an ideal setting, class size appears to be a crucial component. The first question that has to be addressed right away is how many students comprise a large group and how many constitute a small group. Bray (1990) stated in describing a small group that they have few professors with tiny pools of ability; provide a restricted variety of disciplines; and often find it difficult to justify costly investment in libraries… As a result of having the same instructor for their whole school career, their students lack competitiveness and interest with very few peers.

Evidence suggests that the number of children enrolled in urban schools is growing. One of the reasons contributing to the overcrowding of primary schools in metropolitan areas is the consistent availability of recreational activities that keep pupils occupied after school. Contrarily, According Seun (2015), the Federal Ministry of Education, as at 2004, the population of Nigeria secondary schools stood at one hundred and eighteen thousand, two hundred (118200) secondary schools This figure when compared with that of 1999 which was inclusive according to Federal Ministry of Education was very high because during that period, it was so in order to attract Federal Government attention. The present Nigerian population of secondary schools going by the above number is almost twenty one thousand, eight hundred and twenty eight (21828) secondary schools. With the decline in the quality of education and output, it therefore becomes imperative to find out whether the increase in of students’ directly affect their academic performance and identify the causes of increase in population of students in public primary schools and what could be done to remedy the situation.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Over the years, there has been an increase in the population of students in urban secondary schools. This has been consistent, without the attendant increase in facilities, teachers and infrastructure, etcetera. According to Udoekong (2016), the over-population in public primary schools in Nigeria have had a detrimental influence on the Nigerian educational sector, with disastrous consequences in terms of loss of learning standard, altered teaching methodology, led to unmet learning outcome, low achievement in entrance examination and its attendant consequences. This overpopulation issue might be blamed for enormous misery, corruption, social chaos, low living standards, crime, under-funding of schools and scanty educational facilities. Thus this has reduce the level of education. This study, will therefore look at the impact of class size on student academic attainment in secondary schools.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to find out the impact of increased class size of pupils on teaching and learning method, specifically the study intends to:

  1. To Identify the causes of increase in pupils’ population in pupil secondary schools.
  2. To ascertain weather increased class size on teaching and learning methods in public primary schools.
  3. To determine the weather over populated class room have any implication on the learning outcome.
  4. To find out the effects of overpopulation on pupil’s academic achievement.

1.4 Research Question

The research is guided by the following question constructed in line with the research objectives:

  1. What are the causes of increase in students’ population in pupil secondary schools?
  2. Does increased class size alter the teaching and learning methods in public primary schools?
  3. Does over populated class room have any significant implication on the learning outcome in primary school?
  4. What is effect of overpopulation on pupil’s academic achievement in primary school?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study will be of great benefit to the students, teachers, educational planners, government and society at large. For the students, it will motivate and increase their willingness to attend school and help improve their performance in school. To the teachers, it will help improve abilities of the teacher to manage the classroom efficiently because reduction in the number of students encourages teacher – students’ relationship and leads to effective and efficient academic performance. To the education planners, it will be a guiding material to enable them check the population of students in relation to the available schools to accommodate them. To the government, it will serve as a guide to identify the need to improve the infrastructure available for teaching and learning. The study will be of great significance to the society at large as it will help produce qualified citizens that will contribute positively to the growth of the society and it will also serve as a resource and reference material to future scholars who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on the impact of increased class size of pupils on teaching and learning method. It will identify the causes of increase in pupils’ population in pupil secondary schools. It will ascertain weather increased class size on teaching and learning methods in public primary schools, determine the weather over populated class room have any implication on the learning outcome and find out the effects of overpopulation on pupil’s academic achievement. The study will however be delimited to primary schools in Lokoja local government in Kogi State.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering only selected primary schools in Lokoja local government in Kogi State. Thus findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for other primary schools in other states within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful


1.8 Definition of Terms

Class Size:

Refers to the number of students in a given course or classroom

Academic Achievement:

Academic achievement or performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals.


The Impact Of Increased Class Size Of Pupils On Teaching And Learning Method


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The Impact Of Increased Class Size Of Pupils On Teaching And Learning Method


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Frequently Asked Questions


Does class size affect teaching and learning in primary schools?

Throughout the primary school years. students in the class and larger numbers of students within the groups. This had negative effects on teaching, learning and students’ concentration. 

What are the effects of large classes on students?

Students in the class and larger numbers of students within the groups. This had negative effects on teaching, learning and students’ concentration. In smaller classes, teachers were which larger classes would appear to seriously threaten. The Ministry of Education also wants our ‘world – class’ revised curriculum implemented.

What is the average effect size of teacher ratings on learning?

The average effect size of ‘quality of teaching’ is 0.44, considerably smaller (average effect size 0.57, rank 37). Mo re seriously, perhaps, in terms of the relevance of his learning come from student ratings of teachers by college and university students’ (p. 115).

Do class sizes and teacher ratios affect child achievement?

Children who start behind their peers benefit most. There is also a positive effect on smaller in the lower secondary school. This suggests that the achievement of weaker students poorer families) may be put at risk if teacher student ratios and class sizes are increased. 

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