Impact Of Incessant Industrial Strikes On Teaching And Learning Of Mathematics In Katsina State Tertiary Institutions
This study was carried out on the impact of incessant industrial strikes on teaching and learning of mathematics in katsina state tertiary institutions using Katsina State University as a case study. To achieve this 4 research questions were formulated. Respondents were obtained from selected universities in the study area. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of the entire students of the selected university. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposively selected 250 respondents while 200 respondents were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and percentage. While the hypothesis were tested using Pearson Correlation and Chi-square Statistical Tool SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that; the reasons why university products embark on strike include; Wrongful dismissal of workmen, withdrawal of facility or allowance, hours of work and interval timings, dissatisfaction with the policies of the government, holidays and leaves without pay and delay in payment of overdue remunerations, the notable causes of strike action in the Nigerian university system include; Dispute relating to minimum wages, salary and incentive issues, increment not up to the workers performance, dissatisfaction with the policies of the Government and bonus, Provident Fund, and gratuity, disruption of academic calendar, closure of all forms of classes and lectures, delay in students academic progress and graduation, poor performance of students and Low productivity by workers among many others are the major implications of strike action in the Nigerian university system, the strategies used by government in solving strike issues in Nigerian universities include; increasing minimum wages, implementing Salary and incentive policies, satisfying the desire of those in strike and threat, there is a significant relationship between strike action and the academic calendar of Nigerian universities, strike action in Nigerian universities is a product of financial crisis and strike action help the demand of the university product. Based on the above findings, the researcher recommended that the government should respect every agreement entered in to and maintain consistently, their terms of agreement, more funds should be allocated and channeled into education sector from the national budget in every fiscal year, the government should provide all relevant materials, facilities, equipment and other school plant necessary for the smooth running and management of universities in Nigeria, all relevant trade unions related to education should ensure that proper communication between them and the Government are established, and make efforts to resolve issues using other techniques such as dialogue rather than embark on strike all time among many others.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
In Nigeria, strike is the most important form of industrial disputes between employees and employers. Strike is a spontaneous and concerted withdrawal of labour from production (Chand, 2016). Chijioke (2013), defines strike as an organized work stoppage by a body of workers to enforce compliance with demands made on an employer or a group of employers. It is the result of unresolved conflicts between employers and employees. In the education system, the tertiary education sub-sector has been conferred with bad reputation of strikes action. The annals of perpetual strikes of Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU) have dented the image of university education in Nigeria. The frequent nature of the dispute has caused parents, guardians and other stakeholders to consider foreign education regardless of its social and economic implications.
ASUU strikes in Nigerian universities have become so common that parents and students are divided in their opinion on who is responsible for these lingering crises. When some view government nonchalant attitude and lack of commitment to the welfare of the education sector as the cause, others blame ASUU on their radicalism, confrontational approach and insatiable demand. Two kinds of strikes can be noticed in Nigerian universities – the internal and national strikes. Internal strike takes place within the university. Such strike is triggered by factors inherent in each university. National strike involves many universities owned by the state and federal governments. Strike can also be total if academic staff withdraw their services completely from their places of work. It is partial when lecturers report at their places of work but refuse to work. It can also be definite or indefinite. Definite strike lasts for a specific period of time (that is, days, weeks, months or years), while indefinite strike does not have specific time limit. Warning strike lasts for few days and it is meant to intimate government or the university management of an intending total strike (Ige, 2014; Anonaba, 2015).
Ogbette, Eke and Ori (2017) emphasized that, the industrial conflict between ASUU and the government can be understood as having the features of a class dispute and that it entails both economic and political factors. The researchers further stated that the factors affecting the industrial disputes (strike) between the ASUU and the government have been largely propelled by historical, economic and political factors which have become institutionalized and embedded in the Nigerian polity so that the disputes will continue to be difficult to resolve. Also, Osabuohien and Ogunrinola cited in Ogbette et al (2017), observe that unions within the system have often based their demands on adequate funding of the system, university autonomy and academic freedom, as well as salary and conditions of service. It also notes that high handedness, arbitrariness and corruption, on the part of university administration, are some of the causes of agitation in the system.
Strike actions have positive and negative effects on all parties concerned. According to Doublegist (2013), strikes have four dimensions which include: frequency (the number of work stoppages in a given unit of analysis over specific period of time), breadth (the number of workers who participate in work stoppages), durations (the length of stoppage usually in main days of work lost), and impact (the number of working days lost through stoppages). Also, Ogbette et al (2017) categorized the effects of ASUU strikes into two fundamental parts – the positive and the negative effects. Under the positive effects, the eventual funds released will be used by university administrators to meet their immediate needs. Stagnated projects will be completed to serve lecturers and students on campus. To individual who wish to join the academia and become professors will benefit of retiring at 70 years and enjoy special allowances that the current struggle will benefit. For the negative effects, disruptions in academic programmes serve as disincentive to industrious teachers and students. There is also loss of study and research time to students and lecturers respectively.
At the institution level, Amadi and Precious (2015) discovered that strike actions have effects on educational management planning and generally result to irregularity of academic programmes, examination malpractices and cultism amongst students, certificate racketeering, erosion of dignity and respect of higher education. The impact of strikes on higher education in Nigeria is diverse. Many researchers have identified some of these impacts. Anonaba (2015) noted that incessant strikes in tertiary institutions in Nigeria have had negative effects with government, parents, and educational institutions’ administrators having their share of the effects. Generally, incessant strikes have adverse effect on the economy According to Anonaba (2015) these adverse effects include: the suspension of academic activities and disruptions of academic calendar, conflicts between the government and trade unions, government and academics, corruption, laziness of students, increase in crimes in the society, degrading the academic profile of Nigeria, loss of jobs, inactive economic activities and delay in registration of graduate students with National Youth Service Corps (NYSC). In the university, the physical state of the university is impacted by strikes. University structures and equipment are left without use. Vandals use this time to vandalize university properties worth millions and the university is not maintained as workers take part in strike actions. Structures, facilities and environment dilapidate when strike suspends daily maintenance. The image of the university continues to wane before members of the society. Parents become fed up with their ward’s inability to complete their education (Anonaba, 2015).
Humanly, the impact of strike on the University is great. Strike prevents human resources that work at the university from working. It prevents them from developing in any of the areas of their duty. The human brains that are trained at the university are set loose of every level of culturing. These are students who are forced to go on a break, the end of which no one can tell the time the conflict resolution will end. The impact of such phenomenon is that the society fails to benefit from the trainers, the human resources and brains which are the students (Enomah et al. 2010). Also, the economy suffers because of the strike. The economy in this study is divided into three: the University economy, the local economy and the state economy. The University economy dwindles as economic activities become inactive, yet there are even more expenses but no income. University workers would be paid, electricity, water and security would be paid for, more travels for university officials as they engage in travels for endless negotiations to achieve the aim of going on strike. Strike imposes cost on the employees, the employers and the entire economy. The employees may suffer loss when they are not paid during the strike period. On the part of the employers, cost may be indicated by lost output, lost customers and lost management confidence (Fashoyin, 1992 cited in Anonaba, 2015). This has several adverse effects on the Universities growth and achievements.
The local economy where the university is found and operates, benefits economically from the University. The housing business flourishes as university staff and students hire houses to live in. Markets in this local area benefit as they become the closest point of call for the exchange of goods and services. Small and medium scale enterprises that are established to supply the demands of the individuals that comes to the area because of the university. Strike actions however, bring immediate crippling of the patronage of business and if the duration of the strike extends for a long time, some businesses will fold up. The economic lives of those whose business activities depend on the tertiary institutions for survival are as well affected (Anonaba, 2015).
In case of the state economy, the loss of productivity affects the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This constitutes the most significant quantitative cost to society (Fashoyin, 1992 cited in Anonaba, 2015). Instability of the academic calendar has led so many youths to leave the country to study at other countries. Presently so many Nigerian students study abroad and spend so much in order to get a university degree. The researches of the academicians which have the capability to cause an increase in the state advancement and development are lost within the period of strike. So many scholars lose their jobs; strikes have led to the dismissal and retirement of members of trade unions. In 1985, the management of the University of Benin dismissed a former President of ASUU, over his role in the strike in the university and the country as a whole. Forty nine (49) academic staff of University of Ilorin, Nigeria were dismissed in 2001 for taking part in a nationwide strike, embarked upon by members of ASUU (Timilehin, Esohe, Osalusi and Babatope, 2010).
The societal impacts of strike are many as it affects the family, the nation’s image, the government and the quality of education. The national image is also smeared by these strikes as they display poverty of leadership responsibility. As the nation gets lock up in unending negotiations of strike with the body that trains and qualifies its literate work force, it casts a shadow of underdevelopment on this country. Over the years, there have been growing concerns about the fall in the quality of education in Nigeria (Okebukola, 2002). One factor that can be attributed to this is the incessant strikes and the associated closure of institutions (Saint, Hartnett and Strassner, 2003). All these phenomena affect our country in the scheme of things in the international arena. This strike becomes a reoccurring event with every administration of government; it shows inability of our leaders and our teachers. The government is also exposed. The major reason for strikes in higher education institutions have always been unfulfilled agreements, lack of adequate academic sponsorship, mismanagement of academic funds, non-payment of staff salaries and obnoxious government policies. These are all leadership challenge that affects us in Nigeria. The citizens both literate and illiterate would not appreciate much any government that allowed its relationship with stake holders in higher education to get into strike. Soon the strike becomes a factor that brings about other problems that become even greater challenge to the government. An academic institution disrupted with so many strikes cannot produce quality education. The time that is to be spent on learning and carrying out research is spent on crisis and conflict, yet strikes take place more than once in every four years (Ige cited Anonaba, 2015).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Over the last thirty years in Nigeria, the educational system has witnessed an unprecedented industrial unrest and so many official assaults than other social institutions. Nwankwo, (2000) opined that Nigeria educational institutions, characterized by military intervention in governance have witnessed untold negative political interference and a seeming calculated moves to submerge it in the river of irrelevance. He further argued that those in authorities see universities as a burden and as institutions to be exploited and left desolated. Consequents upon this Ures (a process of closure), non-payment development, our universities he posited, have become aberrations of themselves. The manifestation are in form of cultism, brain drain underfunding by government, erosion of academic freedom, general insecurity, dilapidated he structures, non-payment of university staff salaries Onuoha (2008), this is so, because of its strategic place both in the nation’s hierarchy of priorities and its considered role as a veritable machine for development. In his own contribution. These are indications that all is not well with the Nigeria university system.
ASUU went on strike on 27th June, 2009 in protest against non implementation of agreement against signed with the Federal Government of Nigeria. In a press briefing on 30th August in Calabar, ASUU president, Prof. Ukachukwu Awuzie accused the Minister of Education of not presenting the true facts concerning government’s handling of the issues that led to the strike. He expressed regret that the minister claimed in his reaction to the strike, that there was no agreement between the federal government the union (ASUU) and that the government need to review the agreement because of the global economic meltdown. He said the minister also claimed that government was not properly briefed during the negotiations and that the strike action by ASUU would further reduce the quality of education, which the union claimed that it was fighting to improve.
Awuzie described the minister’s remarks as “particularly vexations and unfortunate” as the federal government was responsible for the strike action, which has thrown the university system into another turmoil. He said contrary to the minister’s assertion, there was an agreement reached between the federal government and the union (ASUU). On May 12, 2009 and government invitation, they assembled at the NUC to sign the agreement between the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) and ASUU. He said the union is on strike “to persuade government to be serious by signing the agreement already reached”. According to him, the touted N78billion is actually the shortfall in the amount needed to fund personnel emoluments arising from the various agreements which government has reached with all federal tertiary institution in the country.
He said it was therefore not true that N78billion was needed to fund the FGN/ASUU agreement as claimed by the minister. “It was an assertion meant to politicize the issues, deceive and hoodwink the Nigerian people. By the way, is it not a crying shame that our government finds the same N78billion too much to spend over a period of time to revamp the educational system? Yet, the same government wastes millions of naira on frivolities”, he said.
He added that even though the present government touts education as one of the issues in the seen-agenda, the allocation to education in the 2009 budget betrayed its lack commitment to the education of Nigerians. The ASUU president further argued, “ASUU believes that with an average of N120billion earned from oil each day, government should be able to fund education effectively. If it considers this impossible, the money should be enough to increase access to education by a greater majority of our people. We cannot aspire to being one of the developed economies by 2020, if the bulk of our citizenry remain uneducated as is the case today”. He however, assured that the union will call off the strike as soon as the federal government signs the agreement reached with the lecturers. ASUU strike ended on October 22nd, 2009 by 8:10pm.
- To find ways of improving such deteriorated relationship in order to move the education industry forward
- To find the causes of the deterioration in relationship between the labour and management.
The effects of strike action are far-reaching, for they disturb the economic, education social and political life of a country. The most visible effect of the strike on student is the elongation of academic session, low intelligent quotient, commonality etc. Of course, these are the effects that are sought for going on strike in the first place. It should be noted that whether the strike is successful or not, these damages have already been done.
The government as the co-ordinator of the several activities of the state has explicit objectives in industrial relations. For instance, the state’s objectives in industrial relations include the maximization of social benefits, and the minimization of social costs. The ultimate effect is the maximization of economic growth and development for the nation. The strike disrupts the achievement of some of these objectives.
The public society, too, is not spared, strike action creates law and order problems, necessitating increased vigilance on the part of the state. Further, even when disputes are settled, strike and bitterness continue to linger, endangering social relations. The employers suffer heavy losses, not only through stoppages of production, reduction in sales and loss of markets but also in the form of huge expenditure.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The general objective of this study is to examine the impact of incessant industrial strikes on teaching and learning of mathematics in Katsina state tertiary institutions while the specific objectives are as follows:
- To determine the major causal factors of strike in Nigerian universities.
- To examine the level of government intervention on strike related issues in Nigerian universities.
- To examine the latent effect of strike actions on teaching and learning of mathematics.
- To know the strategies used by the government in solving strike related issues in the Nigerian university system.
1.4 Research Questions
The researcher has mentioned the objective and formulated the following research questions:
- Why do the university lecturers embark on strike action?
- What are the likely causes of strike action in the Nigerian university system?
- What are the consequences or implications of strike action in teaching and learning of mathematics?
- What are the strategies used by government in solving strike issues in Nigerian universities?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following hypothesis is related to the study
- H0: There is no significant relationship between strike action and the teaching and learning of mathematics.
- H1: There is a significant relationship between strike action and the teaching and learning of mathematics.
1.6 Significance of the Study
A study on industrial relations would not only be beneficial to the state, employers of labour and employees but to the society as a whole. Labour issues have bearing with integrated national planning. It contributes to manpower development and harmonized industrial relations, which promotes rapid economic development. Besides, a peaceful industrial atmosphere is required to actualize the noble objectives for which universities were set or established to achieve.
The research work is significant in a number of ways, which includes:
- With the introduction of the concept of management in industrial disputes/strike action, the research has contributed to the pod of knowledge already available and therefore adding to the existing literature.
- Following the discovery of a fault in the process of collective bargaining, it will spur and support other researchers in the area of collective bargaining.
- The study is significant to university management who are now in vantage position to apply management by consultation in all issues involving labour.
- The study is significant to the state and federal government who will appreciate that the inability to implement the joint decisions reached has been a source of dispute in the university system.
- The study would also benefit labour union that in the course of this research would understand that even though their demands are imperative in line with the economic realities, must consider the lean resources of the state and the position of management before embarking on strike under a democratic setting, industrial relations is a different issue.
Democracy promoter’s freedom guarantee conducive atmosphere for expression of feelings. But such rights should not be abused or suppressed into witch hunting for selfish interests. We must demand for what is right so long as it is within the labour laws and what is right must be done so long as
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is the research boundary. This research focuses on how strike actions and boycotts affects students academic activities in tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
Emphasis is laid on the management of industrial disputes with a view to identifying the causes, the dimensions and socio-economic implications of strike actions in our institutions. The scope of the study will be limited to Katsina State University.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
Hardly would a research study be concluded without constraints. In a country such as ours where bureaucracy in the flow of information and where there is inaccurate data and statistics, there really has to be a problem. Specific instances of constraints related to the data system would include; Low quality data and inadequate recording devices, lack of standardization in data recording and formats, inadequate data collection and handling procedure, lack of research skills, privacy of information considerations, budgetary limitations and lack of incentives and motivation.
1.9 Definition of Terms
This means refusal of wage earners to have dealings with or to patronize, a business organization when there is an organized labour grievance.
This is any person who is not a manager and who works for another in any organization for fixed wages.
A tripartite relationship involving three parties namely: – the owner of work, the employees or their representatives and government agency for the purpose of setting job rules and regulations.
This means the owner(s) of work. This can be business owners, organization, partnership, sole proprietorship, private or public limited company, government, etc.
This is what happens when a group of employees conduct a work stoppage which will affect the condition of the job generally.
This means the action of striking workers to prevent other persons from taking their places in the establishment and induce their colleagues who have not joined the strike action to do so.
This is the employer’s action of closing a business enterprise for the purpose of enforcing a demand on the employees by causing them to be thrown out of work.
1.10 Organizations of the Study
The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.
The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings into the impact of incessant industrial strikes on teaching and learning of mathematics in Katsina state tertiary institutions (a Case Study Of Katsina State University). The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the impact of incessant industrial strikes on teaching and learning of mathematics in Katsina state tertiary institutions (a Case Study Of Katsina State University). The study specifically was aimed at determining the major causal factors of strike in Nigerian universities, examining the level of government intervention on strike related issues in Nigerian universities, examining the latent effect of strike actions on teaching and learning of mathematics and know the strategies used by the government in solving strike related issues in the Nigerian university system.
The study adopted the survey research design and purposively enrolled participants in the study. A total of 200 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are active students of the Delta state university.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.
- The reasons why university products embark on strike include; Wrongful dismissal of workmen, withdrawal of facility or allowance, hours of work and interval timings, dissatisfaction with the policies of the government, holidays and leaves without pay and delay in payment of overdue remunerations.
- The notable causes of strike action in the Nigerian university system include; Dispute relating to minimum wages, salary and incentive issues, increment not up to the workers performance, dissatisfaction with the policies of the Government and bonus, Provident Fund, and gratuity.
- Disruption of academic calendar, closure of all forms of classes and lectures, delay in students academic progress and graduation, poor performance of students and Low productivity by workers among many others are the major implications of strike action in the Nigerian university system.
- The strategies used by government in solving strike issues in Nigerian universities include; increasing minimum wages, implementing Salary and incentive policies, satisfying the desire of those in strike and threat.
- There is a significant relationship between strike action and the academic calendar of Nigerian universities.
- Strike action in Nigerian universities is a product of financial crisis.
- Strike action help the demand of the university product.
- The government should respect every agreement entered in to and maintain consistently, their terms of agreement.
- More funds should be allocated and channeled into education sector from the national budget in every fiscal year.
- The government should provide all relevant materials, facilities, equipment and other school plant necessary for the smooth running and management of universities in Nigeria.
- All relevant trade unions related to education should ensure that proper communication between them and the Government are established, and make efforts to resolve issues using other techniques such as dialogue rather than embark on strike all time.
- During strike, the staff should ensure that all the purposes for which they struck are met before thinking of calling off the strike. This will help reduce the frequency of strike occurring and re-occurring.
- All educational managers especially those managing universities should ensure that proper remuneration, and motivation techniques are used to boost the morale of other staff.
- Educational Managers should make plans that are short term in nature. They should also ensure that proper supervisory techniques are used to check the effectiveness and efficiency of every academic and non-academic staff so that the effect of strike will not be so much on lectures as they will have delivered many lessons already before the strike.
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