Impact Of Implementation Of Special Education Need Curriculum In Public Lower Basic Education In Federal Capital Territory, Abuja

Special Education Project and Seminar Material

Impact Of Implementation Of Special Education Need Curriculum In Public Lower Basic Education In Federal Capital Territory, Abuja


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine impact of implementation of special education need curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. Specifically, the study find out whether there are adequate provision of instructional materials used for the implementation of curriculum in public lower education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, examine the teaching methods used in the implementation of special education curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, determine the qualification of teachers used in the implementation of special education curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, examine the roles of parents of children with disabilities in the implementation of special education in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, and find out the contributions of host community in the implementation of special education curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 259 responses were validated from the survey. From the responses obtained and analyzed, the findings revealed that the provision of instructional materials used in the implementation of special education curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja is adequate. The study further revealed that teachers, parents, and host communities have a significant role to play to ensure the implementation of special education curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The study thereby recommend that there should be adequate provision of instructional materials in all special schools and for all categories of disabilities. Also, both special teachers and regular teachers should be flexible and knowledgeable in using different and methods of teaching to various categories of both normal and special students.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Education is the key to independence and advancement in social standing, independent of one’s family or home environment. It improves a person’s economic standing, as well as their political standing and their social adjustment. Every nation’s education system should be prioritized as an instrument for national growth. Nevertheless, the predicament of the number of people living with disabilities is becoming worse, particularly in the nations that are still growing. This is due to the fact that developing nations continue to experience high levels of undernourishment, sickness, accident, crisis, and ignorance. Despite this, it is abundantly clear that people with disabilities may be found in any part of the globe, regardless of their country, ethnicity, race, socioeconomic standing, or the boundaries of their culture. (Lere, 2007). There are a significant number of children and adults living in Nigeria and other parts of the globe who, when compared to their typically developing peers, have mental, physical, emotional, sensory, or behavioral differences that are so profound that they require specialized assistance in order to reach their fullest possible potentials. This has taken the shape of a provision that allows people who are living with disabilities to be serviced in normal courses at the school or that provides instructions that are relevant to their abilities if that meets their needs more effectively.

The policies and programs in special education have a tight relationship with the existence of man from the beginning of time, as well as with cultural and religious views, which are the current trends in today’s society. From a historical perspective, the origins of the field of special education and the execution of special education programs might be traced all the way back to the beginning of the existence of humans. They might be traced back to the time when people first became aware of people whose look and behavior considerably deviated from what was characteristic of the bulk of the population. This awareness occurred during the prehistoric period. Those who were deemed to be of a different kind were persecuted, killed, tortured, exorcised, sterilised, ignored, banished, and even revered as heavenly. (Hewelt is quoted in Lere, 2007, which may be found here). In spite of the fact that, over the years, they have been pitied, cared for, and given the advantage of education, they have had to learn how to survive in a world where the harshness of both nature and the people around them endangered their very life. He claims that they have been given the benefit of education. According to estimates provided by individuals who really live with impairments, there are around 600 million people with disabilities throughout the globe, and approximately two thirds of them reside in developing nations like Nigeria. The global standard for the number of disabled people in a nation is 10 percent of the total population. In Nigeria, where the population is now estimated to be 140 million, there are 14 million persons living with a disability. (Quteng was quoted in Lere and 2007; the National Population Commission published its findings in 2006).

As a result of the United Nations General Assembly’s statement on the human rights of handicapped individuals, people who live with disabilities are now more functional, respectable, and accepted as members of society. The following are some of the items that were included in the United Nations’ declaration on the rights of people with disabilities in the year 1975:

  1. A person is considered to be living with a handicap if they are unable to provide for themselves entirely or partially the requirements of a normal individual and/or social life as a consequence of a deficit either congenital or not in their physical or mental capabilities. This deficiency may be caused by anything from birth defects to acquired injuries.
  2. People who are disabled in their daily lives are entitled to all of the rights that are outlined in this statement. This right should be extended to all people who are disabled without regard to factors such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinions, national or social origin, state of wealth, birth, or any other circumstance that may apply either to the disabled person him or herself or to the disabled person’s family.
  3. People who live with disabilities have the right to receive medical, psychological, and functional treatment, including prosthetic and orthotic appliances. They also have the right to receive medical and social rehabilitation, education and vocational education, training and rehabilitation, as well as counseling, placement services, and other services that allow them to develop their capabilities and skills to the fullest extent possible and speed up the process of their social integration or reintegration.
  4. People who live with disabilities have the right to economic and social security in accordance with their capacities to secure and maintain work or to participate in useful, constructive, and remunerative vocations and to join trade unions. This right also includes the right to economic and social security.
  5. People who live with disabilities should be safeguarded against any and all types of exploitation, as well as any and all restrictions and treatments that are in any way discriminatory, abusive, or demeaning in character.

The World Conference on Special Needs Education and network for action in access and quality, which took place from June 7-10, 1994 in Salamanca, Spain, made the following declarations:

  1. Every child has the fundamental right to an education.
  2. Every kid is an individual with their own set of traits, interests, talents, and educational requirements.
  3. The provision of educational services has to take into consideration the variety of facets and requirements of students.
  4. The individual with exceptional needs must be able to attend normal schools.
  5. The most successful method to challenge discriminatory attitudes, establish welcoming and inclusive communities, and achieve Education for All (EFA) is to have regular schools with an inclusion mindset.
  6. The federal, state, and local governments are responsible for providing funding for these programs within their respective spheres of authority.
  7. Architectural designs of schools must take into consideration the particular requirements posed by students who are physically impaired.

The earliest evidence that was available on legislation in Nigeria to provide individuals with special needs with access to special education was accessible. According to Brooke, who was quoted in Lere and Yakwal’s (2005) “education ordinance,” which specifies that grants may be given to local authority or an authorized voluntary agency for among other things, the provision of special education purpose which may arise from time to time be considered as calling Financial Support, the “education ordinance” provides that grants may be paid to local authority or an approved voluntary agency for among other things, the provision of financial support.

In addition, the Special Education provisions of the Lagos Education Act of 1957 were included in its language. Article 61 of the Act makes it very apparent that provisions must be made for the education of children with special needs. In addition, the legislation that governs Northern Nigeria (Education legislation NN43) granted the Minister of Education the authority to establish special schools for children who have disabilities. These institutions are intended to guarantee an adequate supply of competent instructors by allocating appropriate funds toward their education. Once again, in 1962, legislation number cap 34 concerning education in western Nigeria was passed. The year 1977 saw the beginning of universal primary education, which, among other things, provided the education of Nigeria’s disabled population a recognized place in the law. It was the first time in Nigeria that those with disabilities were granted the right to desire education on par with those without disabilities. A policy statement on special education was drafted by the government in 1977 and subsequently included in that year’s iteration of the National Policy on Education (NPE). (NPE, 2004) The topic of special education was addressed in the tenth section of the updated fourth edition. According to Lere and Yakwal (2005), Unachukwu Ozoji and Kolo (2016), the policy recorded a lot of promises on the provision of suitable education and related services to individuals with special needs in the country.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In an effort to provide equal educational opportunities for people who are living with disabilities, the educational sector all over the world has proposed solutions for their educational attainment by enacting laws and policies that can enable disabled people to regain as much of their physical, mental, psychological, social, vocational, and economic usefulness as possible. This is being done in an effort to fulfill the goal of providing equal educational opportunities for people who are living with disabilities. According to the National Policy on Education (2014) and in accordance with the World Conference that took place in Salamanca, Spain, in June 1994, the goal is for all countries to have fully implemented special education at all levels of education by the year 2015; Nigeria is one of the countries that signed the agreement. (UNESCO, 2005). As a result, the purpose of the research was to determine whether or not students with special needs who attend Special Junior Secondary Schools had access to special education. The research investigated whether or not there was sufficient assistive technology and instructional materials, as well as the educational qualifications of instructors, as well as the role that parents and the host community had in the implementation of special education programs.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of the study is to examine the impact of implementation of special education need curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The study was guided by the following objectives; To

  1. Find out whether there are adequate provision of instructional materials used for the
    implementation of curriculum in public lower education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja.
  2. Examine the teaching methods used in the implementation of special education curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja;
  3. Determine the qualification of teachers used in the implementation of special education curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja;
  4. Examine the roles of parents of children with disabilities in the implementation of special education in public lower basic education in Lagos, Nigeria;
  5. Find out the contributions of host community in the implementation of special education curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja;

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were raised in the study;

  1. How adequate is the provision of instructional materials used in the implementation
    of special education curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja?
  2. What are the teaching methods used in the implementation of special education curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja?
  3. What are the qualifications of teachers used in the implementation of special education curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja?
  4. What are the roles of parents of children with disabilities in the implementation of special education curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja?
  5. What are the contributions of the host community in the implementation of special
    education curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no effective implementation of special education need curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja.
  • Ha: There is an effective implementation of special education need curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of this research work would be of immense benefit to students, teachers, ministry of education and SUBEB, institutions of higher learning, educational planners, parent/communities, legislative bodies and national associations: Students can directly benefit from this study because any designed curriculum is for the consumption of the learners first and at large to the society. Students as part of the curriculum implementation, must have their areas of needs and dislikes as factual information to curriculum planners. Students also from this study would know what the parents, community, teachers and government are supposed to do for them for their educational attainment as a right. Low self esteem among students with special needs will reduce drastically and the disabled students can also form students‟ Union Associations to pursue education with all vigor. Being it a law inclusiveness as a law and a right in special schools and regular schools will reduce discriminatory attitudes in schools and in the communities. It is the right of children with special needs to compete with the so-called normal students from all fields of endeavors.

Teachers would benefit greatly from this research findings as they are directly involved in implementing educational programmes in our school system. This could challenge them to work in line with the national/international goals/objectives of inclusion (special education) by making sure that they accommodate all children without segregation.

It would also awaken special teachers to hold on to their responsibilities in educating special students that cannot receive education in the normal class with regular students.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study will examine the impact of implementation of special education need curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The study find out whether there are adequate provision of instructional materials used for the implementation of curriculum in public lower education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The study will also examine the teaching methods used in the implementation of special education curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The study will further determine the qualification of teachers used in the implementation of special education curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. In addition, the study will. examine the roles of parents of children with disabilities in the implementation of special education in public lower basic education in Lagos , Nigeria. Lastly, the study will find out the contributions of host community in the implementation of special education curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. Hence, the study is delimited to Federal Capital Territory, Abuja.


1.8 Limitations of the study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

  • Financial constraint is inevitable considering the present economic situations. Due to lack of finance at the researchers disposal to get materials and in printing of questionnaires. it was not possible to visit some of the communities that have been plagued by bandit activities.
  • In developing countries like Nigeria, there is the problem of insufficient data.
  • Time Factor: Time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher .

1.9 Definition of Terms

Curriculum:

This is a content and those processes designed to bring about learning of educational value.

Curriculum Implementation:

This is the execution or the putting into effect of curriculum plans and programmes.

Special Education:

These are those additional services over, and above the regular school programmes that are provided for exceptional children to assist in the development of their potentialities and/or amelioration of their disabilities.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was on the impact of implementation of special education need curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The study specifically was aimed at highlighting whether there are adequate provision of instructional materials used for the implementation of curriculum in public lower education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, examine the teaching methods used in the implementation of special education curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, determine the qualification of teachers used in the implementation of special education curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, examine the roles of parents of children with disabilities in the implementation of special education in public lower basic education in Lagos , Nigeria and find out the contributions of host community in the implementation of special education curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. A total of 259 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from teachers and students.


5.2 Conclusion

  1. The provision of instructional materials used in the implementation of special education curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja is adequate.
  2. The teaching methods used in the implementation of special education curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja is teachers use resource room for effective lesson delivery, teachers are able to choose contents that suit the needs and interest of learners, teachers are able to select learning strategies to allow different categories of students living with disabilities to cope with learning in special education and teachers do choose right teaching methods that suit each topic during lesson delivering
  3. The qualifications of teachers used in the implementation of special education curriculum in public lower basic education in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja is most of the teachers have NCE in teaching studentswith special needs, most of the teachers have M.ED in teaching students with special needs, most of the teachers have B.Ed in teaching students with special needs and special education teachers and regular teachers are regularly sent for worship, seminar.
  4. The roles of parents of children with disabilities in the implementation of special education curriculum in public lower basic education in Lagos ,Nigeria is parents of the children with disabilities should provide aids for their children to enable them study very well, parents of children with disabilities should show adequate love for their children with special needs, parents of children with disabilities should pay more interest in the education of their special needs children and parents of children with disabilities should provide good environment for their special needs children to study
  5. The contributions of the host community in the implementation of special education curriculum in public lower basic education in Lagos , Nigeria is the host community helps in the provision of assistive devices in the implementation of special education, provides land and the community based resources in the provision of special education, maintains a good relation with the school management in the implementation of special education and possesses hope in the future of children with special needs.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. There should be adequate provision of instructional materials in all special schools and for all categories of disabilities.
  2. Both special teachers and regular teachers should be flexible and knowledgeable in using different methods of teaching to various categories of both normal and special students.
  3. The philosophy of inclusion most be realized through the training of qualified teachers for our schools.
  4. Parents of children with disabilities should be sensitized on the causes of disabilities, benefit of special education and the right of disabled children towards education.
  5. Communities should know that giving education to the disabled is a right and not a privilege. Rejection, stigmatization, stereotyping and labeling towards persons with disabilities should be checked.

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