Impact Of ICT Usage On The Student Academic Performance

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science and Computer Engineering

Impact Of ICT Usage On The Student Academic Performance


Abstract


This study was intended to evaluate the effect of ICT usage on academic performance of students. This study was guided by the following objectives; to examine the relationship between computer usage and academic achievement of HNAUB student, to examine the effectiveness of computer usage in teaching and learning process in university, to identify the disadvantages of computer usage in higher institution. The study employed the survey design; questionnaires in addition to library research were applied in order to collect data. Primary and secondary data sources were used and data was analyzed using the correlation statistical tool at 5% level of significance which was presented in frequency tables and percentage. The respondents under the study were 200 teaching and non-teaching staff and student of Houdegbe North American University, Benin. The study findings revealed that Houdegbe North American University, Benin is computer oriented. Computer usage is essential for educational development. There is a relationship between computer usage and academic achievement in secondary schools. Computer usage influences academic achievement in schools. Many University in Nigeria, Benin and Ghana are not computer oriented.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

During the last two decades education institutions have invested heavily in information and communication technologies (ICT) particularly computers. The use of computers has had a major impact in the secondary school and higher institution context, and in teaching and learning methods (Ema and Ajayi, 2006).

One puzzling question is the effective impact of these computers usage on student achievement and on the returns of education. Many academic researchers have tried to answer this question at the theoretical and empirical levels. According to Anyanwu (2003), they have faced two main difficulties. On one hand, student performance is hard to observe and there is still confusion about its definition. On the other hand, computer is evolving technologies and their effects are difficult to isolate from their environment.

There is no standard definition for student achievement. The standard approach focuses on achievement and curricula, how students understand the subjects and obtain their certificate or their marks. However, a more extensive definition deals with competencies, skills and attitudes learned through the education experience (Kamba, 2009). The narrow definition allows the observation of the outcomes of any change in secondary education, while the more extensive definition needs a more complex strategy of observation and a focus on the labour market. The outcomes of education are mainly validated in the higher institutions.

The effect of computer usage on learning is currently in relation to the internet to facilitate teaching and learning. Computers are the technologies used in conveying, manipulation and storage of data by electronic means, they provide an array of powerful tools that may help in transforming the present isolated teacher-centered and text-bound classrooms into rich, student-focused, interactive knowledge environments (Ogunsola, 2005).

To meet these challenges, secondary schools must embrace the new technologies and appropriate computer use for learning. The relationship between the use of computer and student performance in secondary schools is not clear, and there are contradictory results in the literature. Earlier economic research has failed to provide a clear consensus concerning the effect on students’ achievement (Kamba, 2009).

Since student performance is mainly explained by a student’s characteristics, educational environment and teachers’ characteristics, the use of computers may have an impact on these determinants and consequently the outcome of education. The differences observed in the performances of students are thus more related to the differentiated impact of computer usage on the standard determinants.

The direct link between computer use and students’ achievement has been the focus of extensive literature during the last two decades. Several studies have tried to explain the role and the added value of the computer technologies in classrooms and on student’s achievement. The first body of literature explored the impact of computer uses. Since the Internet revolution, there has been a shift in the literature that focuses more on the impact of online activities: use of Internet, use of educative online platforms, digital devices, use of blogs and wikis, etc.

Looking at the link between computer usage and student achievement seems nowadays a misunderstanding of the role and nature of these technologies. In fact, since computer is general purpose technology (GPT), it needs to be specified in order to meet the needs expressed by students and to be adapted to the local context and constraints (Antonelli, 2003; Youssef, 2008). A variety of models of usages can be identified leading to the same outcome. Computer usage brings widened possibilities for the learning processes that are independent from place and space. Computer usage also allows more flexible (asynchronous) and more personalized learning. It offers new methods of delivering subject at secondary education level. Taking advantage of these opportunities needs a profound change in the organization of the university education system.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

For many years, educational researchers have maintained an interest in the effective prediction of students’ academic achievement at school. The prediction and explanation of academic achievement and the examination of the factors relating to the academic achievement are topics of greatest importance in different educational levels. Studies have shown that prior academic achievement is an important predictor of performance at other levels of education. Similarly, cognitive ability was found as the strongest predictor of academic achievement. However, some studies confirm that the correlation between cognitive ability and academic achievement tends to decline as students progress in the educational system.

The direct link between computer usage and students’ academic achievement has been the focus of extensive literature during the last two decades. Some of them help students with their learning by improving the communication between them and the instructors (Valasidou and Bousiou, 2005). Leuven et al. (2004) stated that there is no evidence for a relationship between increased educational use of computer and students’ academic achievement. In fact, they find a consistently negative and marginally significant relationship between computer usage and some student achievement measures. In support to these, some students may use computer usage to increase their leisure time and have less time to study. Online gaming and increased communication channels do not necessarily mean increased achievement. Based on all these, the researcher is examining the effect of computer usage on academic achievement of secondary school students in Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The following are the objectives of this study:

  1. To examine the relationship between ICT usage and academic performance of HNAUB student.
  2. To examine the effectiveness of computer usage in teaching and learning process in HNAUB .
  3. To identify the disadvantages of computer usage in university.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The following are the objectives of this study:

  1. To examine the relationship between ICT usage and academic performance of HNAUB student.
  2. To examine the effectiveness of computer usage in teaching and learning process in HNAUB.
  3. To identify the disadvantages of computer usage in university.
  4. To examine whether ICT impact on students’ study habit in HNAUBUniversity.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the relationship between computer usage and academic performance of HNAUB student?
  2. What is the effectiveness of computer usage in teaching and learning process in HNAUB?
  3. What are the demerits of computer usage in university?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  1. HO: There is no significant relationship between ICT usage and academic performance of HNAUB student.
    H1: There is significant relationship between ICT usage and academic performance of HNAUB student.
  2. HO: ICT does not have an impact on students’ study habit in HNAUB University.
    H2: ICT have an impact on students’ study habit in HNAUB University.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The outcome of this study aims at determining whether or not the use of computers or ICT has any significant influence on the academic performance of students in Houdegbe North American University, Benin.

More over education is the bedrock of any society. Nigeria and Benin as a developing nation needs a standard University that has available learning resources, that teachers can improvise learning resources easily and more often also where teachers and students utilize learning resources on a regular basis. It could be a guide line for incoming students and be educative to them when writing and studying similar problems in school.

This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.


1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study will cover the level of ICT usage in University in benin, a study of Houdegbe North American University, Benin with a view of ascertaining its influence on student’s academic performance.

In the cause of the study, the researcher encounters some limitations which limited the scope of the study;

Time constraint:

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

Inadequate Materials:

Scarcity of material is also another hindrance. The researcher finds it difficult to long hands in several required material which could contribute immensely to the success of this research work.

Financial Constraint:

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).


1.7 Definition of Terms

ICT Literacy:

Literacy with Information and Communication Technology (LwICT) means thinking critically and creatively, about information and about communication, as citizens of the global community, while using ICT safely, responsibly and ethically.

Information Literacy:

The United States National Forum on Information Literacy defines information literacy as “the ability to know when there is a need for information, to be able to identify, locate, evaluate, and effectively use that information for the issue or problem at hand.”

Computer Literacy:

Computer literacy is the ability to use computers and related technology efficiently, with a range of skills covering levels from elementary use to programming and advanced problem solving.

Academic Achievement:

Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals.


1.8 Overview of the Study

This research work is presented in five (5) chapters in accordance with the standard presentation of research work.

  1. Chapter one contains the introduction which include; background of the study, statement of the problem, aim and objectives of study, research questions, significance of study, scope of study and overview of the study.
  2. Chapter two deals with review of related literature.
  3. Chapter three dwelt on research methodology which include; brief description of the study area, research design, sources of data, population of the study, sample size and sampling technique, instrument of data collection, validity of instrument, reliability of instrument and method of data presentation and analysis.
  4. Chapter four consists of data presentation and analysis while
  5. Chapter five is the summary of findings, recommendations and conclusion.

Chapter Five


Summary Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is pertinent to note that this research was aimed at cross examining the effects or contributions of ICT on academic achievement, thus the topic “impact of ICT usage on the student academic performance”.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges associated with ICT usage and student academic performance in Nigeria.


5.2 Summary

Based on the findings of this study, it is true that student’s computer literacy enhances their academic performance in higher institutions generally, that computer literate students perform better academically than the non-computer literate,that female computer literate students perform better academically than the male counter-part that the non-computer addicted students perform better academically than the addicted ones. ICT does affect academic performance by way of increasing test scores, motivation or facilitating collaborative learning. ICT tools, and more generally technology, do not guarantee success however. Learning environments must be rooted in constructivism and teacher support and scaffolding is necessary throughout the entire process. Activities must be rich in content and advance thinking by requiring students to work through complex problems rather than perform low level processing tasks. Wenglinsky (2006) states that teachers must not use technology as mere “drilling machines” but should incorporate tools that can serve as “catalysts of creativity” (p. 30). The results in table vii which it a hypothesis reveal that ICT does not have an impact on students’ study habit in HNAUB University. In a related research, Ekpo and lfreke (2001) assessed the performance of students in physics using Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) and reported that it influences the performance of the student positively.


5.3 Conclusion

The introduction of information communication Technology in the 21st century was a welcome development. Its application in education system has opened wide range frontier of knowledge for both young and old. Thus, it also poses a great challenge to the government and owners of private schools to put in place the necessary ICT infrastructures in schools and a greater challenge to the teachers and students to acquire the necessary ICT competence and skills. It is believed that this will bring about much improvement in the performance of the student in the higher institution.The ICT has opened the door to a new way of learning. The wealth of information available therein exceeds that of any physical library. Of the various uses the internet can be put to, academic purpose occupies the highest enviable position as far as students are concerned. However, in Nigeria students are faced with a lot of challenges using the internet for academic purpose. Such as incessant power outage and the disgusting network failure.

The researcher finally concludes that, ICT seems to have a deep impact on the process of learning in higher institutions by offering new possibilities for learners and teachers. These possibilities can have an impact on student performances and achievement. Empirical literature shows contradictory results in this field.


5.4 Recommendations

From the findings of this study the following recommendations were suggested;

  1. Students should be taught how to use the computer facilities to search for valid information that are related to their academic work.
  2. Universities should organize seminars and workshops on the usage of computer facilities for an enhanced academic performance.
  3. Governments at all levels should make computer sets with internet facilities available and accessible in higher institutions for students and teachers to use in the teaching and learning process to enhance students’ academic performance.
  4. Also, students should be discouraged from being addicted to internet usage so as to get time to face their studies squarely.
  5. Department of Computer Education in universities and colleges of education should be adequately equipped with human and material resources to train and equip students with needed competence and skills. When large numbers of computer educationists are produced, the government will then employ them to fill up gaps for competent computer teachers in schools.

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